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ZAKARIYOI ROZi

z-roziZAKARIYOI ROZi, Abubakr Muhammad ibni Zakariyoi Rozi (865, Ray – 925, hamon jo), olim va tabibi shahiri ahli somoni. Arabho uro «tabibu-l-muslimin» va ba munosibati ba zaboni arabi budani kitobhoyash (zaboni ilmii olami islom dar on ruz) uro «Jolinusu-l-arab» nomidaand. Az ogozi javoni va tahsiloti u ittiloe daqiq juz on chi tazkiranavison navishtaand, dar dast nest. Dar barkhe az sarchashmahoi asrimiyonagi omadaast, ki Z. R. guyo Mansur ibni Nuh ibni Nasrro (hukmroniash s-hoi 961 – 976) tabobat kardaast. Barkhe guftaand, ki u dar ayyomi javoni zargari mekardaast va baze navishtaand, ki u dar ogoz sarrof budaast. Peshai zargari va sarrofi tavajjuhi uro ba samti ilmi khimiya ravona kardaast, to ki bitavonad gavhari filizotro digargun sozad. Dar natijai shugli payvastaash bo in fan, nazdiki ba otash va buyhoi tund chashmhoi u duchori bemori gardidand va u avval ba muolija pardokhta, sipas ba tib ruy ovardaast.
Dar makhazho omadaast, ki u baroi darmoni dardi chashmi khud nazdi kahhole raft. Kahhol baroi darmon ponsad dinor talab kard va u nochor onro bipardokht. Sipas bo khud guft, ki «kimiyoi voqei ilmi tib ast, na on ki tu bad-on mashguli». Badan az ilmi kimiyo duri just va ba ilmi tib pardokht.
Ba ittifoqi tazkiranavison Z. R. tahsiloti khudro anjom dod va hatto barkhe tasreh kardaand, ki u pas az chilsolagi ba kutubi tibbi va falsafi ruy ovard. Z. R. baroi faro giriftani nozukihoi ulumi tibbi va falsafi ba Bagdod omad. Bagdod dar on ruzgor markazi mutarjimoni zabardasti osori ilmi yunoni ba suryoni va arabi bud. Vujudi bemoristonho dar zamoni Horunurrashid (khilofatash s-hoi 786 – 809) va Baromika boisi faroham omadani imkonoti khube baroi mutolioti Z. R. gardid. Barkhe az sarchashmaho navishtaand, ki Z. R. bemoristoni Azdiro dar Bagdod idora mekard. Ba zanni qavi, in hamon bemoristone budaast, ki Badr – gulomi Mutazid (khilofatash s-hoi 892 – 902) dar a. 9 bunyod karda budaast, ki badan bo nomi «Bemoristoni Mutazidi» ishtihor paydo kard, vale bo mururi ayyom ba «Azdi» maruf gashtaast.
Z. R. pas az farogirii ulumi mukhtalif muddate ba zodgohi khud – Ray raft va sarvarii bemoristoni on joro ba uhda girift. u dar bakhshhoi gunoguni kitobhoi khud ba bemoristoni Ray ishora kardaast. Muarrikhon isbot kardaand, ki Z. R. ba sababi az had ziyod mashgul shudan bo tajribahoi kimiyoi, doimo saru kor doshtan bo otash, az purkhoni va khususan az kitobkhonii shabona ba dardi chashm duchor meshavad. u dar justujui rohhoi muolijai chashm majbur shud, ki ba omuzishi ilmi tib pardozad.
Badi anjomi tahsili tib dar Bagdod tahti rohbarii Tabari Z. R. ba sayohati Misru Ispaniya va mamlakathoi digar mebaroyad; u dar Osiyoi Markaziyu Huroson, dar poytakhti davlati somoniyon Bukhoro chande iqomat kardaast. u dar mubohisahoi ilmi shirkat varzida, dar mamoliki safarkardaash komyobihoi ilmu madaniyatro omukht va ba inkishofi onho sahmi muayyan guzosht, dar bisyor mamlakatho shogirdonro ba kamol rasond. Vay tabibi khosai hokimoni mukhtalife bud; ahli bisyor mamlakatho uro ba sifati dukhturi behamto meshinokhtand va hokimonashon uro ba nazdi khud mekhondand.
Z. R. badi sayohathoi duru daroz s. 905 ba zodgohash shahri Ray bargashta, to okhiri umr dar hamon jo zindagi kard. Az rui malumoti tarikhshinoson u dar okhiri umrash tamoman nobino shud. Vaqte ba vay tavsiya kardand, ki chashmonashro jarrohi namoyand, u az in peshnihod dast kashid.
Z. R ilmi tibro ba darajae mukammal omukhta, chunon tabibi hoziq shud, ki muosiron uro Jolinusi arab nomidaand. Nafaqat sardukhturi shahri azizash Ray, balki sadri bemoristoni asosii khilofati Bagdod tain shudani Z. R. daleli obruyu etibori baland va tabibi hoziq budani vay meboshad. Z. R. merosi ilmii bisyor dukhturoni namoyon, az jumla merosi dastparvaroni Gundishopurro ba khubi medonist va mukammal az bar karda bud.
Az Z. R. kitobhovu maqolahoi bisyor ba yodgor mondaast. Z. R. dar bobi tib ziyoda az 60 asar talif kardaast. Muhimtarini onho «Kitobu-l-hovi» va «Kitobu-t-tibbi-l-mansuri» (yo «Alqunonu-l-mansuri», 10 jild) buda, tamomi ilmhoi tibbii asri Z. R.-ro faro giriftaand va ba inkishofi minbadai ilmi mamlakathoi SHarqi musulmoni tasiri kalon rasonidaand. In asarho dar a. 12 ba zaboni lotini tarjima shuda, dar arzi chandin asr baroi tabiboni Garb dasturi avvalindaraja budand. Z. R. dar asarhoyash «Attibbu-l-muluki» va «Tibbu-l-fuqaro» goyai tabobati fardiro targib kardaast. Vay dar «Tibbu-l-fuqaro», ki baroi omma navishta shudaast, bemorihoi roij, roh va vositahoi osoni dar sharoiti khona peshgiri va tabobat kardani onhoro tasvir kardaast. u dar «Kitobu-l-jadari va-l-hasba» nom asarash nakhustin bor nagzak, surkhak va rohhoi talqihi (gul buridan) onhoro ba tavri vozeh tasvir karda, nishon dodaast, ki in bemoriho takror nameshavand, yane yak kas du bor giriftori nagzak va surkhak nakhohad shud. In kitob ba zabonhoi lotini, yunoni, anglisi va nemisi tarjuma shuda, 40 bor nashr gardidaast. Olimi anglis Jekner faqat badi nashri anglisii in asar usulhoi talqihi obila va surkhakro peshnihod kard.
Z. R. az nakhustin tabibhoest, ki tibro ba tajriba va amaliya payvastaast. u in korro bo rohi jori kardani tarikhi bemori, ki dar tibbi imruza mamul ast, ba anjom rasonid. «Kitobu-l-hovi»-i u haqiqatan dar zaminai chunin tarikhhoi bemori talif shudaast. Z. R. dar sohai jarrohi niz chandin ikhtiro va kashfiyot dorad; u avvalin bor asbobi az halq berun ovardani jismhoi begonaro tasvir kard, punba (pakhta)-ro baroi bastan va zehro baroi dukhtani jarohat ba kor burd. Vay tavsiya kardaast, ki hangomi jarrohii saraton boftahoi atrofi onro harchi beshtar burida, joyashro dog kardan zarur ast. Z. R. bo vujudi donishi olidarajaash oid ba hama vositahoi muolija tarafdori on bud, ki bemoriho to ba haddi imkon bo doru va vasoiti odditarin iloj karda shavand. u meguft: «Har goh tabib muvaffaq shavad, ki bemorihoro bo gizo (parhez) darmon kunad, pas ba saodat rasidaast».
Hullasi kalom, yagon sohai tibbi nazariyavii hamon zamon nest, ki Z. R. ba inkishofi on tasir narasonda boshad. Z. R. az zumrai avvalin olimonest, ki nazariyaro ba amaliya payvast, ilmi tibro bo mushohidayu tajribai farovon gani gardond.
Ad.: Ob ospe i kori. Dar kit. O. V. Gubert, Ospa i ospaprivivanie, t. 1, SPB, 1898; Kniga tayni tayn, Tashkent, 1957; Donishnomai Somoniyon, j. 1, Hujand, 2008.

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