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ZAHROLUDi AZ ZANBuRUGHO

zahroludi-az-zanburughoZAHROLUDi AZ ZANBuRUGHO. Zahroludii shadid az zanburugho asosan tiramohu bahor ruy medihad. Vale ba yak hisob Z. tamomi sol mushohida meshavad. In daleli on ast, ki ragbati mardum ba jamovari, tayyor va zakhira kardani zanburugho afzuda boshad ham, onho dar borai zanburugho malumoti kofi nadorand. Gayr az in pastsifat tayyor kardani zanburugho metavonad ba oqibathoi vaznin ovarda rasonad.
Zanburugho gizoi purqimmat buda, ba se guruh judo karda meshavand: khurdanbob, shartan khurdanbob (yane zanburughoe, ki pesh az istemol korkardi makhsusi tabbokhiro metalaband) va zahrnok. Odatan, odamon az zanburughoi zahrnok va shartan khurdanbob zahrolud meshavand.
Az zanburughoi zahrnok telpaki qozi, margi magas, shaytonzanburug mamuland. Zahroludi az telpaki qozi khele vaznin meguzarad (to 90 foizi osebyoftagon halok meshavand). In zanburug dar tarkibash du guruhi moddahoi zahrnok dorad: falloidini zudtasir va amanitini dertasir, vale bagoyat zahrnok. Har du jigar va gurdaro az kor mebarorand.
Zahroludi az telpaki qozi chor davra dorad: davrai nihoni (az lahzai istemoli zanburug, ki 8 – 24 soat tul mekashad); oseb didani medayu ruda (az 1 to 6 shaboruz davom mekunad; dar in mavrid organizm az sababi ishol miqdori ziyodi ob va namakhoi baroi hayot zaruriro talaf medihad); ikhtiloli kori jigar va gurdaho (az shaboruzi 5 – 6-um ogoz meyobad); davrai shifo bo barqaror shudani kori uzvhoi zarardida (agar bemor zinda monad).
Nishonahoi Z., odatan, pas az davrai nihoni paydo meshavand. Onho nogahon padid omada, tez shiddat megirand (dilbehuzuri, qay, dardi shikam, isholi ziyod, bazan bo omekhtai luob va khun). Z. dar kudakon khele vaznin buda, illati faoliyati jigar aksar vaqt ba marg meanjomad.
Zahroludi az margi magas (mukhamor) kam vomekhurad, chunki onro az zanburughoi khurdanbob zud farq kardan mumkin ast. Zahri muskarin, ki dar takribi in zanburug vujud dorad, boisi hayajoni harakat, ikhtiloj, tangii mardumaki chashm, afzudani obi dahon, araq, dardi shikam, dilbehuzuri, qay megardad. Dertar hazayon va tavahhum (gallyutsinatsiya) padid meoyand. Nishonahoi avvalini Z. pas az 1,5 – 6 soati istemoli zanburug paydo meshavand.
Alomathoi zahroludi az zanburughoi shartan khurdanbob (dilbehuzuri, qay, ishol) pas az 1 – 3 soati istemoli onho ba mushohida merasand. Sababi zahroludi istemoli zanburughoi nodurust nigohdoshta yo durust pukhtanashuda ast. Mariz badi 1 – 2 ruz shifo meyobad. Zanburugi strochok dar tarkibash kislotai gelvellat dorad, ki eritrosithoro nobud (gemoliz) mekunad. Avvalin nishonahoi zahroludi bo dardi shikam, dilbehuzuri, qay, dardi sar (badi 6 – 10 soat) padid meoyand. Hangomi zahroludii vaznin (2 – 3 ruz bad az gemoliz) zardparvin inkishof meyobad. Kislotai gelvellat noustuvor buda, hangomi tabbokhi zud vayron meshavad.
Dar surati har guna Z., hatto agar on khele sabuk boshad ham, favran ba dukhtur murojiat kardan yo zarardidaro ba bemorkhona burdan zarur ast. Ba bemoroni mubtaloi zahroludii shadid yori rasonida, haminro boyad dar khotir dosht, ki samarai on beshtar ba tabobati barmahal vobasta ast. To omadani dukhtur meda va rudai bemorro shusta, uro ba bistar mekhobonand. Medaro bo obi shirgarm, namakob yo mahluli susti permanganati kaliy meshuyand. Baroi shustani rudaho mavodi isholovar (ravgani kanadona yo namaki ishol) va baroi purra toza shudani onho huqnaro istifoda mebarand. Barqaror namudani moee, ki organizm dar natijai qay va ishol gum mekunad, khele zarur ast. Baroi in ba bemor jura-jura obi shurtam menushonand (in shiddati qay va dilbejoiro past mekunad) yo choi talkh medihand. Hangomi Z. ba hej vajh nushidani mashruboti spirti mumkin nest, chunki onho mujibi jabbishi favrii zahri zanburug dar organizm megardand.
Hangomi zud ba bemoriston burdani zarardida tabobati kompleksi bo istifoda az apparati «gurdai suni» guzaronida meshavad. In hatto dar mavridi zahroludii vaznin az zanburugho imkon medihad, ki bemor najot yobad.
Ad.: Budagyan F.E., Pishevie toksikozi, toksikoinfeksii i ikh profilaktika, M., 1972.

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