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ZAHROLUDi AZ VASOITI HIMIYAVII RuZGOR

zahroludi-az-vasoiti-himiyavii-ruzgorZAHROLUDi AZ VASOITI HIMIYAVII RuZGOR. Har yak sohibkhona anvoi gunoguni mavodi khimiyaviro dorad. Istifodai nodurusti mavodi mazkur yo istemoli onho bo maqsadi masti metavonad sababi zahroludii vaznin gardad.
Vositahoi khimiyavii ruzgor muvofiqi tainotashon ba chand guruh taqsim meshavand: kosmetiki, dogbar, insektisidho, vasoiti shustushu, loku rang va g.
Guruhi asosiro vositahoi kosmetiki – losyonho, atriyot, mavodi mui sar va g. tashkil medihand. Dar tarkibi onho spirti etil, amil va butil mavjudand, ki ba sistemai asab tasiri noguvor merasonand. Dar surati ba organizm roh yoftani moddahoi mazkur mumkin ast holati vaznini zahroludi bo ikhtiloli nafaskashi va kori dil ba vuqu oyad. Hatto dar holathoi sabuki on niz dardi sar, sarcharkhzani, dilbehuzuri, ikhtiloli kori medayu ruda (ishol, dardi shikam) ba nazar merasand.
Insektisidhoro dar ruzgor baroi nest kardani hasharot (nig. Takhtakana, Nonkhurakho) istifoda mebarand. Hlorofos va karbofos beshtar mamuland. Onho ba payvasthoi organikii fosfor mansub buda, boisi zahroludii shadid va muzmin megardand.
Vositahoe, ki ba muqobili hasharoti zararrasoni parrandagon kor mefarmoyand («Tayga», «Angara» va g.), dar tarkib dimetilftalat dorand. Dimetilftalat dar organizm ba spirti metil tabdil meyobad. Spirti metil ba mahsuli bagoyat zahrnok – kislotai murcha va formaldegid tajziya meshavad, ki sababi khalal yoftani faoliyati asabhoi markazi megardand. Hangomi tasodufan nushidani in moddaho (ziyoda az 50 ml) madhushi va bugi shudan rukh medihad. Odatan, dar in surat asabi bosira zarar yofta, ba nobinoii purra ovarda merasonad.
Kislotahoe, ki dar ruzgor farovon istifoda meshavand, zahroludii vazninro ba vujud meorand. Mas., mahluli 80-foizai kislotai sirko va kislotai khlorid ba tarkibi moe baroi shustani vanna dokhil meshavand; kislotai karbolat va oksalat juzi tarkibii mavodi zangbar ast. Az ishqorho sodai kaustiki, spirti navshodir (mahluli obii ammiak), ishqori kaliy beshtar khavfnok meboshand. Gayr az in, mahluli ishqorho ba tarkibi vasoiti muhimi ruzgor – nitkhinol, persol va g. dokhil meshavand. Aksariyati onho berang buda, bazeashon buy ham nadorand. Az in sabab onhoro naboyad bo khurokvoriho yakjoya nigoh dosht. Hususan bisyor vaqt kudakon qurboni chunin beehtiyoti megardand.
Badi ba organizm aftodani kislota yo ishqori qavi dar dahonu gulu va rohi nafas dardi sakht paydo meshavad. Sukhtani pardai luobi boisi varam va ikhroji barziyodi obi dahon gashta, dardi sakht qobiliyati furu burdanro nest mekunad. Imkon dorad, ki obi dahon ba rohi nafas guzarad va odam bugi shavad.
Dar in holat favran yorii tajilii tibbiro davat kardan lozim ast. To omadani dukhtur ba qoshuqcha doka pechonida, dahoni shakhsi osebdidaro toza mekunand. Agar nishonahoi nafastangi padid oyand, nafasi suni (behtarash bo usuli dahon ba bini) medihad, chunki sukhtani luobpardai dahon istifodai digar usulhoro az imkon berun mesozad.
Dar odamone, ki az kislota va ishqorho zahrolud gashtaand, qay bo omekhtai khun, goh-goh khunravii ziyod mushohida meshavad. Dar in surat shustani meda qatiyan man ast, zero on metavonad boisi afzudani qay va ba rohi nafas aftodani kislotayu ishqorho gardad. Bo yorii naychai makhsus shustani medaro, ki dar in mavrid tavsiya shudaast, faqat metavonad kormandi tib ijro namoyad. Ba osebdida 2 – 3 istakon ob (behtarash bo yakh) menushonand. Bo in roh moddai ba organizm aftodaro raqiq va tasiri suzoni onro kam kardan mumkin ast. Ba hej vajh kushishi az bayn burdani tasiri moddai zahrnok, yane dodani soda va yo chizi digar joiz nest. Zero dar natijai tasiri mutaqobilai onho gazi karbonat bisyor judo shuda, medaro vase va dardu khunraviro meafzoyad.
Baze kislotaho, az jumla kislotai sirko, ba khun guzashta, hujayrahoi surkhi on – eritrosithoro vayron mekunand; organizm az noqili asosii oksigen – gemoglobin mahrum megardad; faoliyati uzvhoi hayotan muhim khalal meyobad (mas., nuqsi shadidi gurda sar mezanad). Dar ashkhosi giriftori sukhtagii vaznin mumkin ast holati shok ba miyon oyad; dar baze mavridho nafastangi ba vuqu mepayvandad. In guna bemoronro, bo kadom naqliyote naboshad, favran ba bemoriston firistodan zarur ast.
Kislota yo ishqorero, ki ba pust, luobpardai chashm yo labho rekhtaast bo obi bisyor (1 – 2 l) meshuyand. Kislotai oksalat (ba tarkibi baze vasoiti shuyanda dokhil ast) badi ba organizm roh yoftan, boisi illati shadidi gurda meshavad. Dar in surat dar juyakchahoi gurda namakho tahshin gashta, onhoro rust mekunand.
Tarkibi mavode, ki baroi toza kardani dogi ravgan istifoda meshavand, az karbogidridhoi khlornok (trikhloretilen, chorkhloridi karbon) iborat ast. Agar onho ba organizm roh yoband,ba jigaru gurdaho zarar merasonand. Hususan tasiri in zahrho ba odamoni mast ziyod ast.
Hangomi zahroludi az ranghoi anilini khun vayron shuda, az uhdai intiqoli oksigen namebaroyad. Dar natija pustu pardahoi luobi kabudi khokistari, khun boshad, qahvarang meshavad.
Dar surati zahroludi az vasoiti khimiyavii ruzgor davat namudani dukhturi yorii tajili hatmist. To omadani dukhtur, agar bemor bahush boshad, uro ba qay vodor boyad kard (ba istisnoi zahroludi az kislota va ishqorho). Bemoroni behushro paru khobonda (be bolisht), rui onhoro ba tarafe barmegardonand (mavodi qay ba rohi nafas nameaftad).
Hangomi furu raftani zabon agar joghoi boloyu poyon ba yakdigar jafs shuda, ba nafaskashi mone shavand, sari bemorro boehtiyot ba aqib burda, jogi poyonro ba pesh va bolo mekashand to ki osebdida bo bini nafas kashida tavonad.
Vositahoi khimiyavii ruzgor baroi zindagi nihoyat zarur meboshand, vale onhoro ehtiyotkorona istifoda boyad burd. Har moddai khimiyavie, ki baroi istemol tavsiya meshavad, doroi tamgakogaz va dastur buda, dar on tarzi istifoda va nigohdosht navishta shudaast. Dasturro boyad bodiqqat omukht va nishondodi onro qatiyan rioya namud. Vositai mazkurro dar zarfhoi digar, makhsusan dar zarfhoi az mashrubot, doru va ozuqavori kholishuda, inchunin dar joyhoi ba kudakon dastras nigoh doshtan man ast. Moddahoi zahrnokro dar zarfhoi khurok yo oshpazi hal kardan mumkin nest. Inchunin zakhirai ziyodi moddahoi khimiyavii ruzgorro dar khona naboyad nigoh dosht. Makhsusan in ba payvasthoi organikii fosfor va moddahoe mansuband, ki dar tarkib chorkhloridi karbon va trikhloretilen dorand (az in sabab zudbukhor meboshand). Dar khona zakhira kardani moddahoi khimiyavi boisi afzudani bugi zahrnok gardida, ehtimoli zahroludiro duchand menamoyad.
Zarfe, ki dar on vasoiti khimiyavii ruzgorro nigoh medorand, boyad havonoguzar boshad. Dar khona istifoda burdani mavode, ki muassisahoi hifzi tandurusti baroi ruzgor tavsiya nakardaand, joiz nest. Ba khavfi istifodai vositahoi hasharotkush, ki doroi ijozatnoma (patent) nestand, hamchunin ba halkunandahoi gunogune, ki dar tarkibashon dikhloretan dorand, diqqati makhsus boyad dod, zero hatto nafas kashidani onho boisi orizahoi noguvor megardad.
Ad.: Bobkov YU.G. (va dig.), Pervaya dovrachebnaya pomosh pri lekarstvennikh i bitovikh otravleniyakh, L., 1982; Petrov V.N., Pervaya medisinskaya pomosh pri porajenii silnodeystvuyushimi yadovitimi veshestvami, M., 1986.

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