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ZABONI  OSORI  RUDAKI

Osori boqimondai Ustod Rudaki bo zaboni nagzu saravu pukhtavu pursarvati khud sadsolaho boz diqqati ahli tahqiqro jonibi khud mekashad. Ustod Sadriddin Ayni hayajonbakhshu purtasir va, dar ayni zamon, sodagi, ravoni va pukhtagii onro ba nazar girifta, navishta bud: «Zaboni sheri Rudaki bisyor sodavu hamafahm ast. U kalimahoi arabiro bisyor kam kor mefarmoyad va az sukhanhoi forsii tojiki ham beshtar sodatarinu omafahmtarinashro chida girifta, ba kor mebarad… Guftan mumkin ast, ki beshtarini sherhoi Rudakiro tojikoni imruza ba osoni mefahmand».187

Ba gufti muhtaram Rasul Hodizoda, «Zaboni sheri Rudaki har qadar soda boshad, fikru hayajonhoi dar on bayonyofta hamon andoza amiq va purmazmunand. Bo chunin zaboni soda ifoda namudani fikrhoi oli mahoratest buzurg, ki onro S. Ayni sanati «sahli mumtane» (yane, dar nazar oson namoyad ham, ado namudani on dushvor ast) nomidaast.188

Hamai in guvohi on ast, ki Ustod Rudaki shoiri nihoyat darrok, rushanbin, hikmatpesha va dar hunari nigorandagi khele chiradast va az hamin ru baroi sukhanvaroni zamoni khud muqtado bud. Baroi hamin, joyi taajjub nest, ki tamomi adibonu tarikhnigoroni davr uro chun kase, ki dar ofarandagi ustodi ustodoni sheri dari va nekusukhanu matinguftor ast, mavridi taqlidi khud qaror dodaand va jamei qalamfarsoyoni quruni X — XX in sifati Ustod Rudakiro sitoish kardaand. Mo ham hunari voloi Ustod Rudakiro dar ofarinishi ashori falsafi, hikmatomez va javhari insonparvarii sheri uro ba nazar girifta, uro chun shoiri hakim paziruftaem, yane Ustod Rudaki shoiri hakim ast.

Mo Ustod Rudakiro shoiri hakim guftem. Turfa on ast, ki bo vujudi kami olami ashori Rudaki base rangorang buda, dar markazi on Insoni muharriki puyo, shakhsi kordoni kusho va odami az jihati aqlu tamiz komile, ki pindori neku guftori neku raftori nek az khislathoi pisandidatarini ust, qaror giriftaast. Insone, ki Ustod Rudaki ba tasviri husni zohir va olami botini u mepardozad, qabl az hama, _____________________________________

  1. Ustod Rudaki (ba khatti lotini), Stalinobod, 1940, sah. 25.
  2. Rudaki va zamoni u, sah. 127.

shakhsiyati ozod, bofarhang, sohibi donishi mukammal, bikhrad, dunyodida, tajribaandukhta az tarikhi bashar va voqeahoi guzashta ibratgirifta va namunai taqlid buda, paydost, ki ideali insonii shoirro inikos menamoyad. Az mutoliai merosi fikrii boqimondai Ustod Rudaki, biduni tardid, mohiyati jahonbini, aqidahoi ijtimoi, andeshahoi jamiyati, fikrhoi tarbiyavi, pindori akhloqi, masalahoi jahonfahmi, tavili nukoti zindagi va pandu andarzhoi u ba tavri makhsus jilva mekunad. In shevai kalom, dar ayni hol, ba navi chashmgire afkori peshqadam va andeshahoi taraqqikhohi adibro roje ba masalahoi margu zindagi, hayotu mamot, shodiyu dard, vaslu firoq va tazodhoi digari ruzgori mardumon ba khubi metavonad inikos namoyad.

Mutoliai osori Rudaki sobit menamoyad, ki u tarkibi tabaqavi va aqshori jomeai zamoni khudro bo tamomi huquqho, pindorho va maqomi jamiyatii onho amiq donista, dar sheri khud nazarras ba qalam medihad. Musallam ast, ki dar sari jomea amir meistad. Rudaki uro bo nomho va unvonhoi amir (Agar amiri jahondor dodi man nadihad, — CHahorsola navidi maro ki hast khirom?), shoh, Husrav (Husravi ba takhti peshgoh nishasta, — SHohi muluki jahon- amiri Huroson), podshoh, shohanshoh, shahriyor (Har ki sar az pandi shahriyor bipechid — Poyi tarabro ba domi gurm darafkand), khadesh, Malik (Maliko! Jashni Mehrgon omad,— Jashni shohonu khusravon omad), yovand (CHu yovandon ba majlis may giriftand, — Zi majlis mast gashtandu raftand) yod mekunad. YOvar, maslihatgar, chorasoz va dasturdihanda ba amir, kishvar va mardum vazir ast (Royi vaziron turo ba kor nayoyad, — Har jo savob ast, bakht farmoyad). Balami barin vaziron tamomi korhoi adabi, dini, farhangi, umuri dokhili va khorijii kishvarro anjom medodand. Lashkaru sipoh takyagohi mulku malik ast. In lashkaru sipohi musallah bo tiru kamon, sarposh, nayzavu shamsher, tegu paykon, khadangu sinon va gululahoi naftbor razmida, dushmanro sarkub namuda, ba mushohidai u khasm (Ba gazi nayza qadi khasmi tu mepaymoyand, — To biburrand ba shamsheru biduzand ba tir), adu (Hamekushti, to dar adu namond shujo, — Hamebidodi, to dar valo namond faqir) va badkhohonro dar dil bim meafkand (Hayli razmi tu gar dar dili adu guzarad, — Zi bimi tegi tu bandash judo shavad az band). Dar in korzor gurdoni jangju (nastuh) bo migfar, ki khud ast va khafton- sipar (Sipar ba pesh kashidam khandangi qahri turo, — CHu tir bar jigar oyad, sipar chi sud kunad?) va javshan khudrovu kishvarro himoyat mekunand.

Jang (On kas, ki turo didu turo binad dar jang, — Donad, ki tu bo sher ba shamsher daroyi), fitnavu gavgo (Hama niyushai khoja ba nekivu sulh ast, — Hama niyushai nodon ba jangu fitnavu gavgost) khosi ashkhosi nodon buda, agar ba qabzai kamon dasti amiri Huroson rasad, az tarsi  tiri u, ki Rudaki onro «nisol» guftaast, zaminu zamon meharosad (Ravon zi didai aflokiyon shavad Jaykhun, — Nisoli tirat agar qabzai kamol lesad) va dushman misli ajdaho boshad ham, dar shamsheri u chun mum ob megardad (Dushman ar ajdahost, peshi sinonash, — Gardad chu mum peshi otashi suzon). Kanizak, banda, rahi, chokar, gulom, ridak, peshkoru peshyor hama khizmatgori kishvar buda, dar obodi va nigohbonii on sahmguzor hastand. Ba in mumosibat, Ustod Rudaki aspsavari va navhoi aspro sitoish menamoyad. Aspi nuhoz (peshravi gala), aspi arabi, khing, navand, yakron, rakhsh dar nazari Rudaki zebi kishvar ast. CHun asli Rudaki az dehqonu dehnishinon bud, u ba khubi medonist, ki dar zindagii dehotiyon buz, mesh, guspand, barra, nakhchir, rama, shot, guj, gov, ushtur va shutur, ki nomi digarashro shoir «sor» meguyad, har yak ba chi arzishe sohib budand. Vale u nerumandii amiri mamlakatro ba fili mast (pili damanda) tashbeh medihad. Tabiri «ushturi mast» va tarkibi «kurrai navzin» simvolhoe hastand, ki sarkashu nerumand, zudharakatu sarnafuroranda va navnumu budani davlatro tavil mekunand. SHer, zaygam, palang, gurg, yuz (On maliki Nimruzu khusravi piruz — Davlati u yuzu dushman ohui nolon), ohubarra va rubah (Kard rubah yuzvori yak zagand,— Heshtanro z-on miyon berun fikand), gurba, khargush, mor (Mor ast in jahonu jahonjuy morgir, — Az morgir mor barorad hame dimor), gurza, afi, kappi, ki buzina ast, mush, kajdum, karbosha va karposha, ki kaltakalosi zahrnok ast (CHoh purkarboshavu purkajdumon, — Hurdi eshon pusti ruyi mardumon) bo nahangu mohi ba Ustod Rudaki imkon medihad, ki obrazhoi zaruri ofarad:

On sahni chaman, ki az dami day,

Gufti, dami gurg yo palang  ast,

Aknun zi bahori monivitab

Purnaqshu  nigor  hamchu «Jang»  ast!

Bar  kishtii umr takya  kam  kun,

K-in Nil nishemani nahang ast!

Husni bahor va zeboihoi tabiati  afsungarro bo gulu  lola,  savsanu  arguvon,   bunafsha,   pilgushu  sadbarg, yosaminu bargast, rayhonu nargis, nasrinu nastaran,  nilufaru suman,  sen  va  samu,  sunbul,  bogu  rog, bustonu chaman  va kuhu damanro khurram jilva medihad. Masalan, mardumi hunarmandi kishvar az gesha-giyohe buryovu juvol mebofand, ki in husni tabiat faqat baroi didan nest, on ehtiyoji mardumro mebarorad. Gesharo aknun dar kuhistoni Panjakent gush meguyand, ki bandi borik ba andozai sarangushti mardi huzarbtan doshta, dar soyai darakhtoni azimjussa to 3—3.5 metr meruyad.  Az pustlokhi on buryo, sabad va poyafzol mebofand. Navi digari hamin darakht, ki onro mushsha menomand, dar alohidagi meruyad va shokhu bargi ziyod dorad. Vale az pusti on nameshavad istifoda kard. Gulu sabza va rayohinu sebarga ba sheri Rudaki rangu buyi toza, tarivu narmi va husni guvoro ato farmuda, boridani shabnam, ki onro shoir jola meguyad, nakhatu tarovati dilraboe mebakhshad.

Ustod Rudaki qishrhoi aholii mamlakatro khub medonad. Dar bayni soyiri tabaqoti mardumi jomea dehqonro, ki ashrofzodai eroni va dehkhudost, kadevarro, ki ba bogboniyu kishovarzi mashgul ast, zebi mamlakat medonad. Ammo angashba, ki dehqoni moldori muftkhur ast, khudparastu khudkhoh ast, ba mamlakat ziyon meovarad. Kadevar boshad, bo belu kaland, ki dar sheri Rudaki shakli «kanand»-ro dorad, dosu doskola kishvarro obod, khirmanhoro pur, zaminro shudgor mekunad; mardi muzdur bo giriftani haqqi zahmati khud ba kori dehqonu kosib kumak merasonad. Inho hama tobei amiru vazir va hokimand. Sebu bihi, sunjidu chelon, pistavu bodom, bedu nashk, sarvu parvarda, bo dastras namudani udu bon va sandal sarvati vatanro meafzoyad. Anguru anjiru anor (nor) zebi dastarkhon (sufra) ast. Ammo non chizi asosist. Doranda noni gafsi kalon va gandumi safed mekhohad, ki onro «shamaz» meguyand (Nonaki kashkint ravo nest niz, — Noni shamaz khohi girdu kalon). Noni javin (kashkin)-ro bisyoriho orzumandand, harchand onhoe, ki noni gandumi jazzador, ki magzi bodom, chormagz va shirai qand omekhta mepazand, dar sufra dorand, kam nestand. In navi nonro dar zamoni Rudaki «farakhsha» meguftand. Mayli Ustod ba tarafi benavoyoni muhtoji noni jav ast:

Baso kaso, ki bara astu farakhsha bar khonash,

Baso kaso, ki javin non hame nayobad ser.

Mubodirat kunu khomush mabosh chandino,

Agar-t badra rasonad hame ba badri munir!

Ammo Ustod Rudaki bo tamomi hasti ba targibi ganimat shumurdan, khush guzaronidani vaqt va hedonizm mepardozad, ayshu nushro talqin mekunad. Bo in maqsad, u bo hayajoni shoirona malohi, yane asbobi ayshu ishratro mesitoyad (SHud ruzavu tasbehu taroveh ba yak joy, — Id omadu omad mayu mashuqu malohi) va mayu bodapoymoiro chun vositai shodmonibakhsh dar samo, bazmhoi ayshu tarab, jamomadhoi dustona, ziyofathoi shohona va amsoli inho tasvir namuda, navhoi gunoguni mayro chun seki, yane musallas, sof, yane sharobi nobi zulol, durd, yane tahnishini may yo sharobe, ki hanuz toza karda nashudaast, sharobi rakhshon, mayi rakhshon, bodai sayyol, nabiz, yane sharobe, ki az khurmo mesozand, bo khususiyathoi khosashon tavsif menamoyad. Ba fikri Rudaki, may meyorest, ki darajai odamgari, ozodu banda, gulomi zarkharid va insoni sharafmand budani kasi bodapaymoro ba hamagon namoish medihad.

Rudaki nadimi khosi shoh bud. Az in jihat qoidahoi maynushi, sharobkhori va bodapaymoiro nagz medonad. Dustgoni — piyolai puropuri sharobe, ki kase benavbat ba sharafi dusti sodiqash menushad, goriji — maynushii subhona baroi dafu rafi khumori shabona. Ayshu tarabro u «kuruz» menomad:

Bo kuruzu khurrami ohu ba dasht

Mekhiromad chun kase, k-u mast gasht.

SHarobro to navbahor (ruzhoi Navruz) va nimai nayson (jushi bahor) nigoh doshta (Ham ba khum-andar hamegudozand chunin — To ba gahi navbahoru nimai nayson), hangomi Navruzu Mehrgonu Sada dar bazmkhona bodadihanda (Bodadihanda bute bade zi khubon — Bachchai khotuni turku bachai khokon) az mayi lalfom ba kadunima, ki yak nav zarfi makhsusi sharobbarist (Lali mayro zi durji khum barkash, — Dar kadunima kun, peshi man or) onro andokhta, peshi ahli majlis meburdand, ki onho ba ayshu tarab bipardozand. Ahli ziyofat jomhoi labolab, sogarhoi bulurin va paymonahoi sarshor, yane ratlro pur karda (Budani bud, may biyor aknun, — Ratl pur kun, besh maguy sakhun), dar takuki shohvor, ki jomi tilloyi, nuqragin va gilinest, ki dar shakli sari gov, sher va tula sokhta shuda boshad (Hur ba shodi ruzgori navbahor — May gusor andar takuki shohvor), may nushida, bo farogati khotir dar zeri nagmai rud va hidoyati soqi (Soqi, tu bideh bodavu mutrib, tu bizan rud, — To may khurem imruz, ki vaqti tarabi most) tarabu shodmoni mevarzand. Qasidai «Modari may» guyotarin namunai targibu talqini hedonizm ast. Abyoti zayl niz az namunahoi olii tasviri may dar osori boqimondai Rudakist:

Biyor on may, ki, pindori, ravon yoquti nob asti,

Va yo chun barkashida teg peshi oftob asti!

Ba poki, guyi, andar jom monandi gulob asti,

Ba khashshi, guyi, andar didai bekhob khob asti!

Sahob asti, qadah, guyivu may qatri sahob asti,

Tarab, guyi, ki andar dil duoi mustajob asti!

Agar may nesti, yaksar hama dilho kharob asti,

Agar dar kolbad jonro nadidasti, sharob asti!

Agar in may ba abr—andar ba changoli uqob asti,

Az on to nokason hargiz   nakhurdandi, savob asti!

Ba qavli Ustod Rudaki, vijagii may on ast, ki badi nushidan ki budani odamro, ki ashrofzodaest yo gulomi zarkharid ast, nishon medihad. Makhsusan, dar bahoron maygusori khushu tarabfazost. Hatto, agar shakhsi mumsik sharob nushad, dar asari on sakhovatmand megardad:

May orad  sharafi mardumi padid,

Ozodanajod az diramkharid!

May ozoda padid orad az badasl,

Farovon hunar ast andar in nabid!

Har on gah, ki khuri may, khush on gah ast,

Hosa chu gulu yosaman damid.

Baso hisni  balando, ki may kushod,

Baso kurrai navzin, ki  bishkanid.

Baso duni bakhilo, ki may bikhurd,

Karimi ba jahon – dar parokanid.

In navi sharobro Ustod Rudaki bo muboliga oftobe menomad, ki binushi, aksi on az rukhon namoyon meshavad:

Biyoru hon bidih on oftob, k-ash bikhuri,

Zi lab furu shavadu az rukhon baroyad zud!

CHunin may ohuro ba sher mubaddal megardonad va, hatto, nahangro mast mekunad:

Z-on may, ki gar sirishke az on barchakad ba Nil,

Sad sol mast boshad az buyi u nahang.

Ohu ba dasht gar bikhurad qatrae az u,

Gurranda sher gardadu n-andeshad az palang.

Zegol — piyolai kaloni sharobkhuri va bodapaymoro dar fasli gul az mayi sup-surkhi chun lali gudokhta labrez kardan lazzati makhsus dorad. Rudaki pand medihad:

SHukuft lola, tu zegol bishkufon, ki hame

Ba davri lola ba kaf barnihoda bih zegol!

Ba ruyi kaf nihodani jomi may odobi khosi ashrofzodagon va bolonishinon dar anjumanu majlishoi ziyofati shohona bud. Dar hamin nav girdihamoihoi onho ashkhosi nomatlub masmum karda meshudand. Rudaki ba khonanda va shunavandahoi khud hushdor medihad, ki ehtiyot boyad ba kor burd, ki mumkin ast dar jomi bulurin «talq», yane sharobi zahrolud boshad:

Lab tar makun ba ob, ki talq ast dar qadah,

Dast az kabob dor, ki zahr ast tavamon!

Rudaki dar bayte az doruero baroi iloji shoh farmudani pizishke sukhan meronad, ki ba yake az masnavihoi bahri ramali u («Kalilavu Dimna», «Sinbodnoma» va «Davroni Oftob») marbut boyad boshad:

Nazdi on shohi zamin kardash payom,

Dorue farmud zomahron ba nom.

«Zomahron» in taryok yo pozahr ast, ki bar ziddi zahr ba kor meburdand.

Bisyor ashori boqimondai Ustod Rudaki daleli on ast, ki u sharoiti zindagii aqshori gunoguni jomeai davrash, khususan ruzgoru  maishati rustoiyonro khele  amiq  medonistaast. Istemoli   vojahoi   «pajovand»   (galaqa yo tanba), «falj» (zanjir), «ofrusha» (halvoi ordu asalu ravgan), «kasima» (khori ushtur, yantoq),   «govshang»  (khalachub), «kunom» (charogoh),   «kanna»   (fatila  yo  piltai charog), «kanur» (sanduqi  gallagiri),   «sipor»   (yug),  «dasht», «rog», «magok», «khanba» (chordevori takhtagin va yo gilini rukushoda, ki dar  anborho baroi nigoh doshtani galla mesozand), «gesha», ki holo «gush» meguyand, «tarfanj» (rohi kuhi, ovring), «gunda» (hasharoti mashhuri zahrnoki odamkush), «ovang» (resmon baroi ovekhtani angur va mevahoi digari dumchador) va amsoli inho isboti in davost. YO in ki Ustod Rudaki chandin namunai poyafzolro ba kor mebarad: «Poydon», ki dar joyi digare onro nadidaam (CHun bigardad poyi u az poydon — Hud shukukhidan namoyad hamchunon), «polik», ki hanuz dar bachagihoi mo odamoni kambizoat mepushidand va az pusti khomi gov nodukhta bo rishtaho ba po mepechonidadu «khomaki» meguftand, «muza» va «muzai chini», «kafsh», «kashkala» (nave poyafzol, ki shotiron mepushand), «sur», ki muvofiqi sharhi Amon Nurov, «kafshest, ki dar dehahoi Huroson ruyi onro az resmoni siyoh meboftand» (Mutribonro rikob zarrogin, — Poyi ozodagon nayobad sur) az in qabiland.

Ustod Rudaki anvoi mukhtalifi libosho, pustinho, changafzorho, sharobho, qadahho, porchaho va amsoli inhoro chunon bo vijagihoi khosashon ba qalam medihad, ki az ruyi navishtahoi u roje ba zistu zindagi, maishat, tabaqot va odobi on guruhho metavon asari mukammale ofarid.

Boz onro khotirnishon kardaniyam, ki dar fasli korhoi sahro mardumon boshishgohhoi muvaqqati mesozand, ki har zamon ba manzil barnagardand. Odatan aglabi sukhanvaron navi chunin sarpanohhoro tashkhis namedihand va chodaru khayma meguyandu memonand. Binobar gufti Ustod Rudaki, «khayma» boshishgohi muvaqqatii lashkaru sipoh ast (Rasidand zi shahri CHindon baroz, — Sipah khayma zad dar nishebu faroz). Baraks, «chodar» khirgohi girdi turki va sahronishinon meboshad, ki khele zebu oro doda meshavad. «Koza» boshad, kappaest, ki bo chigu pagoz ustuvor gardida, bo namadi koza pushonda meshavad (Joy kard u bahri budan kozae, — Z-on ki karda budashon andozae). Boz istilohi «bachkam»-ro ba kor mebarad, ki ba manoi borgoh meoyad (Az tu holi nigorkhonai cham — Farshi zebo fikanda bar bachkam). SHakli digari in istiloh «bashkam» ham manoro vozeh ifoda megardonad (Az shabiston ba bashkam omad shoh — Gasht bashkam zi dilbaron chun moh). «Kuyon» dar tasviri Ustod Rudaki khaymai arabhoi bodiyanishin ast (In rakhti kuyoni khud man raftamu pardakhtam, — CHun kurd bimondastam: tanho manu in bohu). Ammo «nasar» soyabone meboshad, ki onro az shokhu alaf dar ayloqho (charogohhoi tobistona) mesozand (Dur mond az saroyi kheshu tabor,— Nasare sokht bar sari kuhsor).

Dar ashori Rudaki kalima, istiloh va tabirhoe duchor meoyand, ki aknun az istemol baromadaand, vale zebovu khushoyand buda, qobili istifoda meboshand. Tavajjuh farmoed ba in vojaho: dafnuk — julli asp, ki hangomi dam dodan uro ba on mepushonand; bakhnav—rad; bashtar— abr; khabok—qutan; nagil ham qutan va gayra.

Vojahoe chun olugda, ki holo alagda meguyand, ustura, khik, bazmkhona, bazeb, bediston, chagbut, chelon, khusur, dosh (khudmon), zavlona, fartut, dos, kafk, ki eroniho kaf meguyand, gurunj, zagora, kharkhasha, iyol va amsoli on alfoze meboshad, ki imruz ham dar zaboni guftuguyi sokinoni boloobi Zarafshon khele seristemoland.

 Rudaki bayte dorad:

Peshi tegi tu ruzi saf dushman

Hast chun peshi dosi nav kurpo!

Said Nafisi kalimai okhirro «Kurpo — halanduz, ki nave az revos boshad» (s. 563) tafsir mekunad. Az tafsiri Amon Nurov chi budani on giyohe, ki u dar nazar dorad, malum nest. Malum ast, ki har duyi in sharhu tafsir nodurustand, zero revosro bo dos namedaravandu on kurpo nameshavad. Dar asl, in «kurpo»-ro, ki Ustod Rudaki kor farmudaast, ba tojiki «yunuchqa» va ba forsi «shabdar» va bo zaboni rusi «klever» meguyand, ki hamin alafro hangomi qad afrokhta hanuz napukhtanash «kurpo» meguyand, ki bo dosi nav daravidani on aynan tasviri Ustod Rudakiro dar zehn ehyo megardonad.

SHigiftash on ast, ki tarjumoni rusii hamin sheri Rudaki Semyon Lipkin onro «klever» tarjuma kardaast, ammo «dosi navro» faqat dos guftaast, ki ayni muddaost:

Vrag pered tvoim mechom na pole boevom

Podoben kleveru na pole pered serpom.

Hamin tariq,  dar   ashori  ustodi  panjrudi  olami  hasti, dunyoi mavjudot va jahoni pindor hama bo ham payvast, yakjoya va ba tarzi vohid shinokhta shuda, shoir hamai ashyoi mahsusro dar yagonagi tasavvur mekunad.

Rudaki olami parandagonro ham neku medonad va bo tarzi zindagi, raftoru khonish, khislathoi nagzu zisht, jihathoi nafovari va odathoi zararnoki onho oshnost. Inikosi olami rangini parandaho sheri Rudakiro base guvoro gardonidaast. Az tavsifi khurdtarin parandai khushovoz, ki shakhish nom dorad (Gurgro kay rasad salobati shot — Bozro kay rasad nihebi shakhish), to tasviri uqob (Agar in may ba abr-andar ba changoli uqobasti, — Az on to nokason hargiz nakhurdandi, savob asti) ba sheri Rudaki husni toza bakhshidaast. Ifodai tarzi khiromu raftor, sakhtchangolu zaifi beozor va tazodi bisyor murgon janbai pandomuzi va ibratbakhshii guftori Rudakiro purquvvattar megardonad.

Dar ashori Rudaki zikri sava, zagan (Jumla saydi in jahonem, ay pisar, — Mo chu sava, marg bar soni zagan), soru :bulbul (Bulbul hame bikhandad dar shokhsori bed, — Sor az darakhti sarv mar uro shuda mujib), hazor, hazordastonu zandvof, ki niz majozan nomhoi bulbul meboshand, andaleb, pupak, chakovak, taz, kabk (CHun latif oyad ba gohi navbahor — Bongi rudu bongi kabku bongi taz), sulsul, charz, fokhta, parastu, shohin, kargas (CHarost umri kargas dusad sol, vayhak — Namonad fuzuntar zi sole parastu?), zog, mog, bum, jugz, boz, kulang (Jugz, ki bo bozu bo kulangon parrad, — Bishkanadash parru bolu gardad lat-lat), titu yo titav, gurob, usfur, tovus, simurg, samandar va gayraho niz janbahoi manavi, ayoni, pandomuzi, falsafi va marifatbakhshii onhoro meafzod. Korbasti vojahoi «murg» (Murg didi, ki bachcha z-u bibarand. — CHov-chovon—dar astu juyon ast), «murgak» (Bad-on murgak monam, ki hame dush, — Ba zor az bari shokhak hamefunud) va «murgobi» (Buvad zudo, ki bo on nek khomush — CHu murgobi zani dar ob pogush) tobishhoi gunoguni sherro huvaydo megardonad. Kabutar, kabudar (Mohi, didi kujo kabudar girad? — Tegat mohistu dushmanon  kabudar), kalog, ki zogi alost, har kadome bori maniero kashida, hodisavu matlabro khele nazarras ifoda megardonad.

Rudaki dar hajvi aspi logare, ki bar on nishastaast, savorro ba kalog tashbeh medihad:

Buvad avaru kusaju langu pas man

Nishasta bar u chun kaloge bar avar.

Binobar etiqodoti mardumoni forsu tojik va kulli eroninajodon, samandar murgest, ki az otash paydo shuda, az otash berun baroyad, khokistar megardad. Ustod Rudaki mustagraqi ob bar misoli nahang va monandi samandar dar otash gudokhta shudani kahramoni lirikii khudro bo in tashbeh mujassam menamoyad:

Ba otash darun— bar misoli samandar,

Ba ob andarun— bar misoli nahangon.

Olamn hasharot bo dunyoi parandagonu murgon payvasta, ba pahnoi on gustarish mebakhshad va doirai javloni fikri shoirro baso tavsia medihad, ki parvona (CHu oraz barfuruzi, mebisuzad — CHu man parvona bar girdat hazoro), jillai imruza, ki Rudaki onro chun zilla ba kor mebarad (Bongi zilla kar khohad kard gush, —Hech n-osoyad ba garmo az khurush), gunda va kabt, ki zanburi asal ast (Hamchu on kabte, ki dorad angabin, — CHun bimonad dostoni man bar in), magas (YOri tu zeri khok muru magas — CHashm biksho, bibin, kunun paydost) va gayra az on qabiland.

Ammo Rudaki, besh az hama, obrazhoi khalqi va oshkororo korbast menamoyad, misli:

Manam khu karda bar busash, chunon chun boz bar mista,

CHunon bong oram az busash, chunon chun bishkani pista!

YO:

Ba jumla khoham yakmoha busa az tu, buto,

Ba kech-kech nakhoham, ki foli man tuzi!

Va:

Kori busa chu ob khurdan shur,

Bikhuri besh, tashnatar gardi!

Hamin nav abyotu ashori Ustod Rudaki bud, ki dilhoi sanginro ob mekard:

Baso dilo, ki ba soni harir karda ba sher,

Az on sipas, ki ba kirdori sangu sandon bud.

Barobari  shoiri  buzurg budan, Ustod Rudaki romishgare suturg niz bud. Dar in shugl u chunon nom barovarda bud, ki muosironash uro barobari Borbadi Marvazi medonistand. Rudaki chun sukhanvar dar aglabi abyoti khud keshi khushboshi, ganimat shumurdani vaqt, az javoni, bahor, az gulu rayohin bahra burdan va, umuman, hedonizmro talqin mekunad. Samou sharob, surudu musiqi va muvosilat bo dilbaroni mohjabin vasilai chunin ayshand:

Samou bodai gulgunu lubatoni chu moh

Agar farishta bubinad, daruftad az joh.

CHangnavozi mohir budan va dar majlishoi amir romishgari, surudkhoni va bodapaymoyi kardani Rudakiro khudi shoir va hamasronash takror ba takror khabar medihand:

Rudaki chang bargiriftu navokht,

Boda  andoz, k-u surud andokht!

V-on aqiqin mae, ki har ki bidid,

Az aqiqi gudokhta nashinokht,

Har du yak gavharand, lek ba tab

In biyafsurdu on digar bigdokht.

Nobisuda du dast rangin  kard,

Nochashida ba torak — andar tokht!

Az asbobhoi musiqi dar ashori Rudaki chang (Mayi lal oru peshi man oy, — Ba yak dast jomu ba yak dast chang), barbat (Dusto, on khurushi barbati tu — Hushtar oyad ba gusham az takbir), rud (CHun latif oyad ba gohi navbahor -— Bongi rudu bongi kabku bongi sor), shohrudu tanbur (Fokhta ba sarv shohrud barovard, — Zakhma furu hisht zandvof ba tanbur), daf (On kharpadarat ba dasht khoshok zadi, — Momot dafu duruya cholok zadi), nay (Boz tu beranj boshu joni tu khurram — Bo nayu bo rudu bo nabizi Fanoruz), duruya, ki ham yak nav tabl ast, kus (Alam abru tundar buvad kusi u, — Kamon odiyanda shavad, jola tir) tabir va tabira (Pas tabira did nazdiki darakht, — Har gahe bonge bijasti tundu sakht), taburrok zikr megardad. Az guftahoyash paydost, ki Ustod Rudaki dar bazmkhonaho (Bahori CHin kun az on ruy bazmkhonai khesh, — Agarchi khonai tu navbahori barhaman ast) bo mayu musiqi bazmhoi ayshu tarab  orosta, bo romishgaron ba majlishoi   khurrami pardokhta     (YAke bazmi    khurram biyorostand,    — Mayu rudu romishgaron khostand), az    savtu navo    (Ba savtu navoyu ba siti maoni — Tarabbakhshi ruham, farahzoyi jonam) va ohangi mahbubai navozanda, ki shoir uro «buti navoyi» nom mebarad  (Farkhor buzurgu   nek joest, — Gar madani on buti navoyist), payvasta hazzi  vofir  mebarad,  nagmai  bulbulu  ohangi  sulsul (fokhta)  bar nishoti ahli tarab meafzoyad  (Sulsul ba sarbun-bar bo nagmai kuhan, — Bulbul ba shokhi gul bo lahnaki garib), gulomoni mutrib, yane ridakoni romishgar   (Didi tu riju kom bad-u andarun baso — Bo ridakoni mutrib budi ba farru zeb)  bazmro zeb medihad. Pas Rudaki ba soqi va mutrib khitob mekunad:

Soqi, tu bidih bodavu mutrib, tu bizan rud,

To may khurem imruz, ki vaqti tarabi most!

Lafzi khunyogarro Ustod Rudaki ba manoyi mutribu navozanda va sozandavu saroyanda ba kor mebarad va ba u khele ehtirom mevarzad:

Ba khunyogare nagz ovard ruy,

Ki chize, ki dil khush kunad, on biguy!

Vale Rudaki martabai sukhanvarro az martabai changnavoz bolo meguzorad:

Agarchi changnavozon latifdast buvand,

Fidoi dasti qalam bod dasti changnavoz!

Mutribone niz meshavand, ki zakhma (mizrob)-i onho ba juz dardi sar asari digare namebakhshad. Rudaki inro niz mebinad:

Hech rohat menabinam dar surudu rudi tu,

Juz, ki az faryodu zakhmat halqro kotura khost!

Bong, nola, zer (bongi zer), lahn, lahnak, surud, nagma, surudguyon, savt, navo, tablzan, figon va digar istilohoti musiqi dar porasherhoi boqimondai Rudaki burhoni onand, ki ustod az nozukihoi ilmi musiqi amiq ogoh buda, dar ilmu hunari musiqi niz ustodi ustodon budaast. Az romishgaroni zamoni khud u barbati Isovu khondahoi Murodi va changi Mudakniru noyi CHobuki Jononro mepisandidaast:

Barbati Isovu qavlhoi Murodi,

CHangi Mudakniru noyi CHobuki Jonon.

Dar ashori Ustod Rudaki «bacha» chun «bachcha» va «tursh» ba tarzi «turush»   istemol   megardand.  «Hurd»-ro   eroniyon  «kuchak»   meguyand.

Aholii zodgohi Rudaki in vojaro «khuchek» meguyand.

Zaboni ashori Ustod Rudaki az lihozi zakhirai lugavi va kalimasozi niz jolibi diqqat ast. Avvalan, shoir vojahoi nobi forsiro ba kor mebarad, ki kutoh, khushohang va baroi bisyori mardum fahmo meboshand. Baythoi ziyodi Ustod Rudaki be istifodan yagon vojai arabi sokhta shudaand. Misli:

Har ki    n-omukht az guzashti ruzgor,

Hech  n-omuzad zi  hech  omuzgor!

YO:

YAke oludae boshad, ki shahrero bioloyad,

CHu az govon yake boshad, ki govonro kunad rikhin.

Abo, abr, boz, bom, bat, vom, nek, bad, dom, angubin, angisht, anbon, angez, zebo, boda, bih, arzan, angur, arguvon, varg, ashk, baroz, buruz, girev, guch, hama, homun, jav, choh, juy, jushish va monandi in dar ashori Ustod Rudaki seristemoland.

Gayr az in, vojahoe, ki bo pasoyandhoi «nok» (bimnok), «iston» (shabiston, bediston, buston, guliston), «gar» (kafshgar, romishgar, khunyogar, tavongar) va monandi inho sokhta shudaand, ohangi margubi sherro ba vujud meorand.

Kalimahoi murakkabi korburdai Ustod Rudaki ham sangin nestand, chun obgir, obdon, obdor, gulrukh, gulrang, gulob, gulbun, gulshakar, kishvargir, badomuz, baddil, badasl, badandesh, khubdidor, otashkada, bazmkhona, garmoba, tablzan, changnavoz, diramkharid, farokhmaydon va gayra. Beshtarini in vojahoi murakkab baroi nishon dodani zeboi va husni dilbar ba kor raftaand: noriston, zulfchavgon, mushkinmuy, savsanbanogush, borikmiyon va monandi inho. Goho chunin kalimahoi murakkab sifathoi khubi mamduh (olihimmat, nabisirat, davlatshior), jilvahoi tabiati zeboi diyor (monavitab, bihishtoyin, zarrinvaraq, qatraboron, bustonsaroy, girdmoh), ashyoi digari gunogun (jandapil, pushtchavgon, guspandkushon, butparasti, pushtkuz, jahonsuz, ozarfazo, gandapir, poknajod) va monandi  inhoro ifoda  mekunand.  Baroi  namuna  vojai «palolakteg» dar bayti zayl:

CHi chiz ast on ravanda tiraki khurd?!

CHi chiz ast on palolaktegi burron?!

Vojahoi «bebud» ba manii «notavon» va «logar» (CHunon ki ushturi bebud suvi kunom shuda — Zi margi rubahu zogu zi gurg bekhabaro)   va «bekhanda», ki maniash «oshkor» ast (Az mehri u nadoram bekhanda komu lab, — To sarvi sabz boshadu barn-ovarad pada) imruz qobili zinda budan meboshand. Kalimahoi «poydon», ki ba manii «poyafzol» va  «kafsh» ast  (CHun bigardad poyi u az poydon — Hud shukukhidan namoyad hamchunon)   va   «tanshuy»,   ki   «takhtai   murdashuy»-ro dar zamoni Rudaki meguftaand (YOd kun zerat- andarun tanshuy —   Tu bar  u khor khobanidasti)   aknun    ham loiqi istifodaand.

Dar zaboni tojiki va forsi vojai «goh» va shakli kutohshudai on «gah» du mafhumro ifoda mekunad: avval, zamon va vaqt, bad, joyu makon. Dar ashori Ustod Rudaki bayte ba nazar merasad,  ki dar on jo vojai «gohi»  ba  manii «takhtnishin», ki maqsad «podshoh»    ast, omadaast:

Mihtar  nashavad, garchi qavi gardad, kihtar,

 Gohi nashavad, garchi hunar dorad, mohi!

Dar mavridi joyu makonro ifoda namudani vojai «goh» Ustod Rudaki chunin kalimahoi murakkabro ba kor andokhtaast: dastgoh, dargoh, guzargoh, joygoh, peshgoh. Baroi ifodai vaqtu zamon chunin vojahoi murakkabro ba kor burdaast: bahorgoh, sahargoh, subhgoh va goh-goh. Vale tarkibi «goh-goh» manii «bazan» va «goho»-ro ham ba khubi ifoda menamoyad:

Hurshedro zi abr damad ruy goh-goh,

CHunon  hisorie, ki guzar dorad az raqib!

Hamin guna vojahoe, ki az takrori yakkhelai tarkibho paydo meshavand, khosi guftuguyi mardum buda, guftori Ustod Rudakiro ba lahni sukhanronii mardumi mahalli boz ham nazdiktar megardonand: pech-pech, chok-chok, chov-chov, jof-jof, khayr-khayr, kov-kov, goh-goh, yak-yak va gayra.

Harchand az osori adabii Ustod Rudaki khele kam boqi mondaast, az hamin chand baytu sherhoi tasodufan komilu purra mahfuzmondai u zaboni baso gani va az jihati vojasozi rangini on mushohida megardad. Az in ru, mavzui ganovatu khususiyoti zaboni osori Ustod Rudaki tahlil va pajuhishi domanadorro mekhohad. Vale in jo boz ba du pahluyi on ijmolan ishora menamoem: avval, on ki Ustod Rudaki ba kor burdani shakli pasvandi — «ak»-ro dust medorad. Dar bisyor vojahoi forsi va hatto kalimahoi arabi in pasvandro farovon istifoda mebarad. Dar osori dastrasi u chunin shaklho dida meshavand: murgak, shokhak, dilbarak, kanizak, zulfak, siyahchashmak, chodarak, taomak, miyonak, lolak, torak, pololak, ki hama ashyoi mujassam hastand. Ammo dar hamin shakl baze ismhoi mani va mavhumhoi bejon niz dida meshavand, ki khususiyati uslubi dorand, az qabili: bongak, kamtarak, ranjak (Dil gusasta dori az bongi baland — Ranjake boshad – tu ozoru gazand), andak, nozukak (Az gesuyi u nasimaki mushk oyad — V-az zulfaki u nasimaki nastarvan), dastak va amsoli inho. Ba in bayt tavajjuh farmoed:

Jad hamchun navardi ob ba bod,

Guyiyo,  onchunon  shikastasti.

M-yonakash nozukak, chu shonai mu,

Guyi, az yakdigar gusastasti!

Ohangi  navozish dar porasheri    poyon    margubtar sado medihad:

Zulfi turo «jim» ki kard?! On ki u

Holi turo nuqtai on «jim» kard!

V-on dahani tangi tu, guyi, kase

Donakake nor ba du nim kard!

Masalai digare, ki in jo zikrash zarur ast, on ast, ki ustodi buzurgi sukhan kalimahoi arabiro chi nav istifoda mebarad. Dar osori boqimondai adabii Ustod Rudaki az zakhirai lugavii zaboni arabi farovon va bamavrid istifoda shudaast. Vale on kalimaho kayho az zaboni arabi ba zaboni forsii tojiki guzashta, dar in zabon hazm shuda, chun juzi judonashavandai zakhirai lugavii zaboni adabii forsii dari, ki dar on davron chun zaboni tojiki roij bud, mahsub megardand. Inho kalimahoe meboshand monandi: odam, oyat, asar, adab, lahn, avliyo, bob, bahr, tavba, sano, samar, amir, jafo, jamol, jahd, hol, husn, khotir, haz, dakhl, davlat, din, zavq, zil(l), rad, sajda, sihr, mazhab, malik, malak, samo, savol, shubob, sher,  sadr, toat, tole, tab, tifl, olam, oshik, adl, ato, aql, umr, id, afv, ilm, fakhr, faraq, furqon, falak, niqob, vojib, yumn va monandi inho, ki dar zaboni tojiki begonagii onho asosan va abadan his karda nameshavad, monandi ruboii zerin, ki dar on nuh (9) vojai arabi hast:

Az Kaba kalisiyonishinam kardi,

Okhir dar kufr beqarinam kardi!

Bad az du hazor sajda bar dargahi dust,

Ay ishq, chi begona zi dinam kardi!

CHunin ast barkhe az mulohizahoi mo dar borai zaboni osori boqimondai Ustod Rudaki, ki tahqiqu tadqiqi amiqu daqiqi on kori oyandagon ast.

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