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Vositahoi tekhnikii nigahdorii informatsiya

Boyad qayd namud, ki informatsiyai dar yagon baranda mahfuzbuda, hatman dar on osori (pay, asar, naqsh) khudro meguzorad. Namudi baranda ahamiyat nadorad. Vay metavonad sang, darakht, kogaz, lenta yo diski magniti, yo optiki va yo fotoplyonka boshad. Agar osori informatsiya dar shakli yagon alomat dar rui sang, tanai darakht yo kogaz guzoshta shuda boshad, on goh guftan metavon, ki vay bo yorii dasti inson va yagon asbob – iskana, qalam yo muqalam ijro karda shudaast. CHunin osorro bo chashmi oddi niz didan mumkin ast. Vale agar ba sifati barandai informatsiya fotoplyonka, lentai magniti yo diski lazeri istifoda shavad, on goh baroi dar onho nigahdorii informatsiya tajhizoti makhsus –tabdildihandagoni informatsiya lozimand.

slide-0Masalan, baroi sabti informatsiya dar fotoplyonka fotoapparat va dar lentai magniti – magnitofon zarurand. Hususiyati farqkunandai in namud barandagon on ast, ki ham baroi sabti informatsiya dar onho va ham az onho khondani informatsiya vositahoi makhsusi tekhniki zarurand. In dar navbati khud, novobasta az ishtiroki inson, imkoniyati mekhanizatsiya va avtomatizatsiyakunonii ravandi khondanu navishtani informatsiyaro faroham meovarad.

Imruz mukammalgardonii kompyuter, hamchun vositai universalii (hamakorai) korkardi informatsiya, ba ikhtiroi yak qator tajhizote sabab gashtaast, ki onho baroi dar shakli makhsusi elektroni nigah doshtani informatsiya khizmat merasonand.

Garchande fotoplyonka va lentai magniti bisyor ehtiyojoti insonro qone gardonand ham, onho az kambudiho ori nestand. Masalan, bo guzashti vaqt fotorasmho tira meshavand va hangomi takror ba takror gush kardani gramplastinkaho sabthoi magniti sifati khudro gum menamoyand. Dar davroni mo sabti magniti tarzi az hama pahngardida ba shumor meravad.

Vale in guna sabtho dar zeri tasiri ohanrabo va harorat zud vayron meshavand. Baroi nigahdorii miqdori nachandon kaloni informatsiya az diskhoi magnitii qaish (floppy disks) istifoda mebarand. In diskhoro ba nazdiki Zip-diskho ivaz menamoyand. Baroi nigahdorii miqdori ziyodi informatsiya boshad, az diskhoi «sakht» (hard disks) istifoda mebarand, ki onhoro vinchesterho niz meguyand.

Vaqthoi okhir bo afzudani hajmi informatsiyai qabul va intiqolshavanda shakli navi barandagoni on –diskhoi lazeri paydo shudaand. Diski lazeri – diski seqabataest, ki az shisha yo plastmassai mustahkam sokhta shudaast. Dar bayni du qabati tunuki plastmassi yo shishagini hifzkunanda qabati benihoyat tunuki folgai metallii az nuqra yo tillo sokhtashuda joygir ast. Dar chunin disk informatsiya bo yorii nuri lazerisabt karda meshavad. Vale dar diski lazeri informatsiyaro hamagi yak marotiba sabt namudan mumkin ast. Kambudii diskhoi lazeri dar shakli digari diskho – diskhoi magnitooptiki bartaraf karda shudaand, ki onho dar khud ham arzishhoi barandagoni magniti va ham optikiro dorand. Diskhoi magnitooptiki diskhoi kalonhajm ba shumor rafta, khosiyathoi kompakti (zichi, jafsi), mobayli (zudharakati, mutaharriki) va aznavsabtkunii informatsiyaro doroyand.

Kompyuter – vositai puriqtidori daryoft, tabdil va irsoli informatsiya. Ikhtirooti inqilobii asri XX kompyuter ast. Kompyuter ham barandai informatsiya va ham vositai dastraskunandai on ba istifodabarandagon meboshad. Kompyuter be ishtiroki bevositai inson metavonad az khathoi aloqa – telefon, radio, koinot, optika va gayra istifoda burda, bo yorii uqyonusi bepoyoni informatsioni va idorakunii programmavi ba kori tajhizoti dilkhohi istehsoli tasir rasonad.

Dar haqiqat, kompyuter, ki onro muvofiqi funksiyai asosii ibtidoiash moshini elektronii hisobbaror (MEH) niz nom mebarand, yake az dastovardhoi buzurgtarini ilmu tekhnikai hozirazamon ba hisob meravad. Hudi manoi kalimai kompyuter (computer) niz dar zaboni tojiki hisobbaror ast.

Kompyuter tajhizotest, ki tavassuti ijroi paydarpayii dasturhoi baroi on fahmo informatsiyaro ba tavri avtomati tabdil medihad.

Qarib har sol skhema va sokhti in moshinho takmil yofta, sohahoi tadbiqi onho vase megardand. Ba hisobi miyona qarib har du sol dar tekhnologiyai istehsol, konstruksiya va metodhoi istifodabarii kompyuterhoi fardi tagyirothoe ba vujud meoyand, ki beshubha dar borai paydoshavii nasli navi onho sukhan rondan lozim meoyad.

Imruz kompyuter, ki aslan baroi halli masalahoi hisobkuni sokhta shuda bud, tadbiqi khudro dar idorakunii ravandhoi istehsoli, hisobbarorii masalahoi iqtisodi, nigohdori va korkardi malumothoi omori, hamchun manbai puriqtidori malumotdihanda, dar tarhrezii ravandhoi fiziki, dar rushdi faoliyati fikrii odamon va gayra yoftaast.

Guftan mumkin ast, ki ofarinishi kompyuter bo behtarin komyobihoi inson, az qabili kashf kardani otash, azkhudkunii quvvai barq, ikhtiroi charkh, bunyodi mekhanizmhoi bugi, istifodabarii energiyai atomi va digar kashfiyot dar yak poya qaror giriftaast. Ikhtirooti nomburda dar rushdi istehsoloti jamiyati va boloravii tafakkuri inson naqshi bagoyat kalone bozidaand. Ba tufayli onho sharoit va sathi zindagii odamon baland gardida, quvvahoi istehsolii jamiyati ba kulli tagyir yoftaast. Agar moshinhoi muqarrari imkoniyathoi jismonii odamro vase gardonida boshand, pas kompyuter nerui aqloniyu zehnii onro baland bardoshtaast. Taraqqii minbadai tekhnikai elektroni ba on ovarda merasonad, ki dar bisyor sohahoi faoliyati fikriyu jismonii inson kompyuter ba yordamchii tavono va begarazi on tabdil meyobad.

Hudro sanjed:

  1. Kadom amaliyotho ravandhoi informatsioniro tashkil medihand?
  2. Kadom barandagoni informatsiyaro medoned?
  3. Baroi daryofti informatsiya az kadom baranda istifoda burdan qulay ast? Baroi zakhira, irsol chi?
  4. Kalimai «kompyuter» chiro mefahmonad? Sahmi vay dar ravandhoi daryoft, zakhira, tabdil va irsoli informatsiya az chi iborat ast?
  5. Ikhtiroi kompyuterro bo kadom dastovardhoi behtarini insoniyat muqoisa namudan mumkin ast?

Ijro kuned:

  1. Mavzuro bodiqqat khoned va doir ba faoliyati informatsionii inson naql yo hikoya navised.
  2. Doir ba vositahoi tekhnikii nigahdorii informatsiya malumot dihed.
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