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Vitaminhoi dar ob halshavanda

vitaminiKislotai askorbinat (vitamini S) dar jarayoni mubodilai moddaho, khususan baroi hazmi safeda, mutadilii boftahoi payvastkunanda va barqaror kardani boftaho mavqei muhim dorad. Hangomi narasidani vitamini S nifozi (qobiliyati az pardai hujayra guzaronishi in yo on modda) devorai raghoi khungard meafzoyad, tarkibi boftahoi tagoyak va ustukhon vayron meshavad, bemorii zangila inkishof meyobad (nig. Vitaminkohish). Dar organizmi odam vitamini S hosil va jam nameshavad. Miqdori zarurii vitamini S (baroi kalonsolon az 60 to 108 mg, baroi bachagon az 30 to 70 mg dar yak shaboruz) boyad tavassuti khurok ba organizm dokhil shavad. Sabzavotu meva manbai asosii vitamini S meboshand. Talaboti harruzai organizm ba vitamini S az istemoli karam, kartoshka, piyoz, pomidor, kabudi va g. qone gardonida meshavad.
Miqdori ziyodi kislotai askorbinat dar qalamfuri kabudi shirin (bulgori), qalamfuri surkh, qoti siyoh, kahzak, tuti zamini, shilkha (turshak), limu, aflesun va g. mavjud ast. Huch (nastaran, khorgul) konsentrati tabiii kislotai askorbinat (100 g mevai khushki on to 1500 mg vitamini S dorad) meboshad. Hususan zimistonu bahor mevai khushkonidai khuch manbai behamtoi vitamini S ast. Dar yak piyola jushobi khuch (yak qoshuq mevai khushkro dar 200 ml obi jushon 10 – 12 soat dam karda memonand) voyai shaboruzii vitamini S vujud dorad. Kislotai askorbinatro ba tariqi sintezi niz ba dast meorand va onro dar shakli khoka, draje, qurs (qursi vitamini S hamrohi glyukoza) va mahlul istehsol mekunand. Kislotai askorbinat ba tarkibi polivitaminhoi gunogun dokhil meshavad.
Tarzi nigoh doshtani ozuqavori va pukhtupazi on ba miqdori vitamini S tasiri kalon merasonad. Mas., badi yak shaboruzi nigoh doshtani kabudi az 40 to 60%-i miqdori peshinai kislotai askorbinat memonadu bas. Dar sabzavoti tozakarda va hatto zeri ob buda, vitamini S zud tajziya meshavad. Seb badi 3 mohi nigoh doshtan 16%, badi 6 moh 35 % va badi 1 sol to 50 %- i miqdori avvalai kislotai askorbinatro talaf medihad. Vitamini S- i limu va aflesun badi 10 moh to 30% kam meshavad. Namakkhoboniyu ochoroni niz miqdori vitamini S-ro kam mekunand. Pukhtupazi ozuqavori, chun qoda, boisi kam shudani miqdori kislotai askorbinat megardad. Hangomi az pust toza kardani kartoshka az 16 to 22% vitamini S nobud meshavad. Agar kartoshkaro dar obi garm pazand, vitamini S qarib purra boqi memonad; dar surati ba obi sard andokhta pukhtan boshad 25 – 35% vitamini S talaf meyobad. Hangomi az kartoshka tayyor kardani pyure, zapekanka (dar tafdon pukhtan) va kotlet 80 – 90% vitamin tajziya megardad. Mavridi pukhtani karam az 20 to 50% kislotai askorbinat nobud khohad shud. Vitamini S dar muhiti tursh behtar barjo memonad, vale agar ba taom sodai khurdani hamroh kunand, miqdori kislotai askorbinat khele kam meshavad. Alalkhusus, takroran garm kardani shurboi sabzavoti ba tajziyai vitamini S tasir merasonad: har bori garm kardani shurbo to 30% vitamin kam meshavad. Agar hangomi pukhtani shurbo yo karamshurbo qarib nisfi vitamini S barbod ravad, badi 6 soati dar boloi plita (daruni deg)-i garm budani shurbo dar on vitamin namemonad. Hatto miqdori nochizi filiz (mis, surb, ruh va g.)-e, ki az zarfi metalli ba khurok guzashtast, kislotai askorbinatro vayron mekunad. Az in sabab baroi tahiyai gizo istifoda burdani zarfi filizie, ki minokori (bo sir rupush) nashudaast, joiz nest. Dar zarfi alyumini yo az pulodi zangnogir pukhtani sabzavot ba kislotai askorbinat qarib tasir namerasonad.
Naqei vitamini S-ro az shokhchahoi suzanbarg, bargi tok, tus, yunuchqa tayyor kardan mumkin. Miqdori darkorii sabzaro toza shusta va reza karda, ba zarfi shishagi yo sirdor meandozand va az boloyash 1,5 – 2 l ob rekhta, turshi (az hisobi 2 g sirkoi 33% ba 1 l ob) hamroh mekunand va yak shaboruz dam karda memonand; sipas az doka meguzaronand. Dar 100 ml naqei tayyorshuda voyai shaboruzi vitamini S hast. Naqei vitamini S-ro dar obi jush ham tayyor mekunand. Baroi in barghoi sanavbar, koj, tus, sebarga, yunuchqaro bo obi khunuk shusta, ba zarfi sirdor yo alyumini meandozand. Sipas nazar ba hajmi sabza 3 – 4 marotiba ziyodtar obi jushi kame turshonida merezand va rui zarfro bo sarpush pushonida, 10 – 15 daq. (barg, alaf) yo 30 daq. (suzanbarg) mejushonand. Bad onro boz 1 soat dam karda memonand va soni bo doka polonda nim yo yak istakoni istemol mekunand.
Vitaminhoi guruhi V. Baroi inson chunin vitaminho beshtar ahamiyati amali dorand: V1 (tiamin), V2 (riboflavin), V3 yo RR (kislotai pantonenat), V6 (piridoksin) V9 (kislotai foliat) va V12 (sianokobalamin).
Tiamin (vitamini V1) dar mubodilai karbogidratho ahamiyati khele kalon dorad; chi qadare, ki istemoli karbogidratho ziyod boshad, hamon qadar talabot ba tiamin meafzoyad. Dar asnoi nabudani tiamin polinevrit inkishof meyobad. Tiamin ba organizm tavassuti khurok dokhil megardad. Dar organizm tiamin qisman dar natijai faoliyati mikroorganizmhoi ruda ba vujud meoyad, ki on talaboti fiziologiro qone karda nametavonad. Talaboti shaboruzii vitamini V1 baroi kalonsolon 1,3 – 2,5 mg, baroi bachagon 0,3 – 1,7 mg meboshad. Norasoii vitamini V1 peristaltika (harakat)-i ruda va kashish khurdani mushakhoro sust karda, boisi qabziyat megardad; qobiliyati korii jismoni va fikriro sust mekunad. Nabudan yo nihoyat kam budani tiamin boisi kasalii vaznin (beri-beri) khohad shud. Hangomi mayzadagii muzmin, diabeti qand va bemorii uzvhoi hozima tiamin hatto ba miqdori kofi istemol karda shavad ham, norasoii on ba amal meoyad. Baze doruho (mas., antibiotikho) tiaminro tajziya namuda, tasiri onro ba organizm sust megardonand.
Dar tarkibi bisyor navhoi mahsuloti khurokvori vitamini V1 mavjud ast. Hamirturush, khususan khamirmoyai pivo (5 mg dar 100 g mahsulot) va kvasi non miqdori ziyodi tiamin dorand. In vitamin dar tarkibi galladona, lubiyo va baze mahsuloti hayvonot (jigar, gurda, mushaki dil) niz bisyor ast. Janini galladona (mas., gandum) va pusti on (sabus) manbai asosii tiamin meboshand. Baroi tayyor namudani ordi balandsifat sabusro purra dur mekunand. In boisi khele kam gashtani tiamin dar soya, yarmai marjumak, jav va juvorimakka meshavad. Dar gushti gov niz tiamin mavjud ast. Hangomi jushonidani gusht miqdori kami tiamin ba piyoba meguzarad. Az biryon kardan va yo khushk nigoh doshtani khurokvori miqdori tiamin kam nameshavad.
Riboflavin (vitamini V2) dar jarayoni numu ishtirok mekunad va yake az omilhoi sabzish meboshad. In vitamin dar mubodilai safedaho, ravgan va karbogidratho ishtirok karda, kori silsilai asabhoi markaziro tanzim mesozad; ba jarayoni mubodila dar qarniya, zujojiya va turpardai chashm musoidat karda, binishi ravshaniyu rangro tamin menamoyad. Riboflavin ba organizm tavassuti khurok dokhil meshavad. Talaboti shaboruzii kalonsolon ba in vitamin az 1,5 to 3 mg, baroi kudakon az 0,4 to 2 mg meboshad.
Az narasidani riboflavin dar organizm lab khushkida mekafad, kunjhoi dahon kafida karakhsh mebandand (bemorii lajomak); khadshai pust, muyrezi ba vujud meoyad, mumkin ast konyunktivit va blefarit inkishof yoband.
Mahsuloti hayvonot (tukhm, panir, shir, gusht), inchunin galladona va rastanihoi lubiyoi, chormagzi zamini (arakhis), soya, nask va nakhudi sabz manbai asosii vitamini V2 meboshand. Dar khamirturush va shir riboflavin bisyor ast. Az turshondani shir (hangomi tayyor kardani jurgot, ryajenka, dug va g.) miqdori riboflavin meafzoyad (bakteriyahoi turshonanda onro sintez mekunand). Nok, shaftolu, pomidor, sabzi, lablabu, gulkaram va ispanokh niz manbai riboflavin mahub meyoband.
Riboflvin az tasiri shuoi ultrabunafsh zud tajziya meshavad, az in ru doruhoi vitamindor (hab, dorui khoka) va ozuqavoriro dar joi soya nigoh medorand. Talafi vitamini V2 hangomi pukhtupaz chandon ziyod nest; asnoi khushk kardan va tamyizi khurokvori, pukhtani gusht, sabzavot, kartoshka va g. vitamin az 20% ziyod talaf nameyobad.
Kislotai nikotinat (vitamini RR, niatsin, vitamini V3) dar jarayoni nafasgirii hujayra va mubodilai safedaho ishtirok mekunad, istifodai safedahoi nabotiro dar organizm afzuda, tarashshuh va tarkibi shirai gadudi zeri medaro behtar mesozad, kori jigarro mutadil megardonad. Talaboti shaboruzii odami solim ba in vitamin baroi kalonsolon 14 – 28 mg, baroi bachagon 4 – 19 mg ast. Norasoii kislotai nikotinat va safeda dar organizm boisi inkishofi bemorii pellagra megardad. Kislotai nikotinatro dar tib nafaqat baroi muolija va peshgirii pellagra, balki baroi tabobati bisyor amrozi dig. niz istifoda mebarand. Ammo onro muvofiqi maslihati dukhtur istemol kardan zarur ast. Barziyod qabul kardani kislotai nikotinat boisi ehsosoti noguvor megardad, vale ba organizm khavf nadorad. Bad az chand daqiqai qabuli vitamin pusti ruy sup-surkh shuda,metafsad (tasf digar qismhoi badanro niz faro megirad). Manbai asosii kislotai nikotinat gushti parrandahoi khonagi, gushti gov, jigar, gurda meboshad; dar khamirturush, sabusi birinj va maysai gandum vitamini V3 khele bisyor ast.
Kislotai nikotinat dar mavridi nigoh doshtan va pukhtupaz, inchunin ba tasiri rushnoi, oksigeni havo va ishqorho ustuvor ast. Hangomi jushonidan va biryon kardan, miqdori vitamini tarkibi khurokvori qarib kam nameshavad. Behtarin vositai peshgirii norasoii kislotai nikotinat dar organizm istemoli gizohoi gunogun ast.
Piridoksin (vitamini V6) ba hazmi mutadili safedahoyu ravgan musoidat va dar mubodilai nitrogen ishtirok mekunad. Talaboti shaboruzii odami solim ba on baroi kalonsolon 1,5 – 3 mg va baroi bachagon 0,4 – 2 mg ast. Norasoii piridoksin dar bachagoni khurdsol boisi az sabzish mondani onho, ikhtiloli kori medayu ruda, kamkhuni va tahayyuj megardad. Dar zanhoi homila vitaminkohii V6 sababi stomatit, iltihobi pusti ruy, gardan, sar, asaboniyat va bedorkhobi khohad shud.
Dar tarkibi khuroki (khamirturush, sabusi gandum, jav, arzan, juvorimakka, nakhud, kartoshka, sabzi, lablabu, gushti gov, gushti murg va gusfand, tukhm, shir va g.) piridoksin ba miqdori nihoyat kam vujud dorad. Bo vujudi in dar sharoiti muqarrari organizmi inson az vitamini V6 tanqisi namekashad, zero on ba miqdori kofi dar natijai faoliyati bakteriyahoi ruda hosil meshavad. Hangomi istemoli antibiotikho va doruhoi sulfanilamidi faoliyati mikroorganizmhoi ruda sust va piridoksin khele kam hosil meshavad. Az in ru be nazorati dukhtur istemol kardani doruhoi nombarshuda joiz nest.
Piridoksin ba tasiri kislotaho, ishqorho, harorati baland ustuvor ast, vale az tasiri nuri oftob vayron meshavad. Pukhtupaz baroi piridoksin hatto mufid ast, chunki dar in asno az tarkibi on juzhoi faol judo meshavand. Dar natijai bisyor nigoh doshtani ozuqavori piridoksin tajziya megardad; dar garmi in jarayon boz ham teztar meguzarad.
Binobar sababhoi zikryofta andeshidani tadbirhoi makhsusi peshgirii norasoii piridoksin lozim nest. Vale hangomi tartib dodani voyai khuroki sokinoni shimol, inchunin baroi tagziyai peshgirikunandayu tabobatii zanoni homila va shirkhorador istemoli shaboruzii az meyor ziyodi piridoksin boyad peshbini karda shavad.
Kislotai pantotenat (vitamini V5) dar mubodilai moddaho ahamiyati kalon dorad. In vitamin ba kori mutadili sistemai asab, gadudhoi boloi gurda va siparshakl musoidat mekunad. Talaboti shaboruzii odami solim taqr. 10 mg ast. Alomathoi klinikii norasoii in vitamin muayyan nashudaand. Talaboti organzimro ba on khuroki muqarrari qone megardonad.
Kislotai foliat (folatsin, vitamini V9) dar mubodila va sintezi baze aminokislotaho, inchunin sintezi kislotahoi nukleat ishtirok mekunad, faoliyati khunofarii magzi ustukhonro behtar megardonad, ba hazmi vitamini V12 musoidat menamoyad. Talaboti shaboruzii kalonsolon ba in vitamin 0,2 mg, kudakon az 0,04 to 0,2 mg va zanoni homila 0,6 mg meboshad. Az narasidani kislotai foliat dar organzim kamkhunii vaznin, ikhtiloli kori medayu rudaho (beishtihoi, qabziyat, ishol, kharobii hissiyot va g.) inkishof meyoband.
Kislotai foliat dar olami hayvonotu nabotot khele pahn gardidaast. Jigar, gurda va bargi sabzi rastaniho manbai asosii vitamini V9 meboshad. Onro rastaniho, bakteriyaho va zanburugho sintez mekunand. Mikroorganizmhoi rudai inson kislotai foliatro ba miqdori ziyod hosil menamoyand, binobar in agar dar tarkibi khurok kislotai foliat kamtar boshad, in miqdor az hisobi sintezi on purra meshavad. Manbai behtarini vitamini V9 salat az kabudi meboshad.
Hangomi pukhtupaz kislotai foliat dar khurok zud tajziya meshavad. Dar asnoi pukhtani shurbo sabzavot va gusht taqriban 70 – 90%-i vitamini V9-ro gum mekunand. Talafi kislotai foliat hangomi konservonii khurokvori niz kalon ast.
Sianokobalamin (vitamini V12) ba moddai az jihati biologi khele faol mansub ast. Ba in vitamin hamai organizmhoi zinda muhtojand. Vitamini V12 dar sintezi metionin, kislotahoi nukleat, jarayoni khunofari va g. ishtirok mekunad. Norasoii vitamin, odatan, hangomi ikhtiloli jabbishi on inkishof yofta, chun navi vaznini kamkhuni zohir megardad. Talaboti shaboruzii odami solim ba vitamini V12 baroi kalonsolon 3,0 va baroi kudakon 0,3 – 3,0 mkg ast. Ba organizm tavassuti khurok dokhil meshavad. Mikroorganizmhoi ruda niz onro sintez mekunand.
Mahsuloti hayvonot (gusht, shir va khususan jigari gov) manbai asosii sianokobalamin ast. Onro dar tib, chorvodori va murgparvari istifoda mebarand. Dar sanoat dar asosi sintezi mikrobiologi istehsol karda meshavad.
Tagziyai murattab (ba voyai khurok dokhil kardani miqdori kofii mahsuloti hayvonot), inchunin peshgiri va muolijai gelmintozho (kijjaho dar organizmi odam zindagi karda, miqdori ziyodi sianokobalaminro istifoda mebarand) narasoii in vitaminro dar organizm bartaraf mesozand.

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