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Vazifai pul az kadomho iborat meboshand?

 Vazifahoi asosii pul va tavsifi onho

Pul – in moli makhsuse meboshad, ki roli ekvivalenti hamai molhoro bozida mehnati jamiyati molistehsolkunandagonro dar mahsuloti konkreti ifoda mekunad. (Nigared ba naqshai 1). Pul in chun khun dar iktisodiyot meboshad.

Naqshai 1

Namudhoi pul

Filizi (metalli)

Qogazi (qarzi)

Gardishi gayrinaqdi

Vazifahoi pul

CHenaki arzish

Gardishi puli

Naqdi

Gayrinaqdi

Vositai muomilot

Vositai pardokht

Vositai gunkuni

Pulhoi jahoni

Mohiyati pul dar vazifahoi on zohir megardad. Vazifahoi pul naqshi onro dar hayoti khojagidorii jamiyat muayyan mekunand. In naqshi pul dar inho zohir megardad:

  • pul – in mol, ekvivalent buda, hangomi mubodilai molhoi (korho, khizmatho) gunogun ba sifati miyonarav baromad karda, ba sarfai vaqt va mehnat musoidat menamoyad;
  • pul – in fishangi tajribai khojagidorist. On hangomi hisobhoi muhosiboti, idoravi va omori, hangomi tahiyai tavozuni muhosiboti va naqshai moliyavi va gayraho vase istifoda meshavad. Pul – in zaboni bozor ast.
  • pul hangomi omuzish va halli chunin hodisahoi hayoti khojagidori ba monandi tavarrum, deflyatsiya, bekori va gayraho istifoda meshavad.

Dar istehsoli moli pul chunin vazifahoro ijro mekunad:
1. chenaki arzish;
2. vositai muomilot;
3. vositai pardokht;
4. vositai gunkuni;
5. pulhoi jahoni;

puli-nukra
1. CHenaki arzish – in pul hamchun ekvivalenti umumii arzishi hamai molho ifoda yoftan meboshad. Ifodai puli arzishi mol narkh nomida meshavad, yane bo vositai pul narkhi molhoi harkhela bo masshtabi yakkhela ovarda meshavad. Ba sifati vohidi puli har yak davlat yo guruhi davlatho nomgui puli khudro istifoda mebarand.Tojikiston-somon, Rossiya-rubl, Qazoqiston-tanga, Ittihodiyai Avrupo-Evro, IMA-dollar va gayra.

  • Vositai muomilot – puli rasmiro hamchun vositai muomilot dar formulai zerin ifoda namudan mumkin ast: M-P-M´-P´.
  • Vositai pardokht – baroi mubodilai molho pul hamchun vositai pardokht ba shakli naqdi va gayrinaqdi ishtirok mekunad.
  • Vositai gunkuni – dar vaqti kharidani vositahoi asosi magozayu dukonu korkhonaho, kharidani vositahoi naqliyot…asbobhoi qimmati oroishi, jam kardani mablag baroi kharidani khonaho va guzaronidani marosimho, hamchun vositai gunkuni ishtirok menamoyad.
  • Vohidi pulii davlathoe, ki bevosita va bemamoniyat dar bayni davlatho dar jarayoni mubodila ishtirok mekunand, pulhoi jahoni nomida meshavad. In dollari IMA, Evro va rubli Rossiya….

Namudhoi pul.

Pul namudhoi zerin dorand:

    • puli tilloi – metalli;
    • pulhoi qarzi – pulhoi qogazin;
    • pulhoi gardishi gayrinaqdi;

Dar asrhoi XIX va XX dar tamomi mamlakathoi taraqqikardai jahon puli tilloiro istifoda meburdand.
Hususiyati khosi pulhoi tilloi, az on iborat ast, ki onho arzishi khudro dorand. Inchunin dar davomi muddati ziyod qurbi khudro gum namekunand. In manoi onro dorad, ki chi qadare, ki tanga az talabot ziyod istehsol karda shavad, onho az gardish ba khazina meravand. Az sababi on, ki zakhirai tilloi to raft kam shuda, baroi gardish miqdori ziyodi tillo lozim shud, aksariyati davlatho ba shakli navi pul guzashtand. In shakli pul – pulhoi qogazi yo qarzi meboshand. Masalan: somon dar Tojikiston, dollar dar IMA. Bori avval in pulhoi qogazi muvofiqi hisoboti bonkhoi har mamlakat ba yak miqdori muayyani tillo ivaz karda meshavad.

Masalan: dar IJSHS (SSSR) 1 rubl ba 0,987412 gr tillo barobar bud, 1 dollari IMA boshad ba 0,888 gr  tillo barobar ast.

Lekin dar sharoiti iqtisodii bozorgonii hozira pulhoi millii har yak mamlakatho az rui qurbi pulhoi jahoni(evro, dollar, rubl) muqarrar karda meshavad, na az rui miqdori pul.

Pulhoi qogazi – nishonai puli buda, namoyandai asosii pulhoi haqiqi meboshand. Tarikhan pulhoi qogazi az muomiloti pulhoi metalli paydo shuda, dar gardish hamchun ivazkunandagoni tangahoi tilloi va yo nuqragii dar muomilot buda, baromad mekunand.

Pulhoi qarzi dar holat paydo meshavand, ki agar kapital khudi istehsolotro zabt namuda, ba on shakli nav nisbat ba peshtararo medihad. Onho az muomilot hamchun «mol – pul» bar namomada, balki az istehsolot, az girdgardishi kapital ba miyon meoyand.
Pulhoi qarzi chunin tahavvulro az sar guzaronidaast: korthoi qarzi, vekseli oddi, veseli guzaranda, banknota, depoziti bonki, chek, sertifikati depoziti, pulhoi elektroni.

Veksel – uhdadorii khattii qarzgiranda (vekseli oddi) va yo farmoni qarzdihandaro ba qarzgiranda (vekseli guzaranda – tratta) oid ba pardokht namudani mablagi dar on qayd shuda bad az muhlati muayyan ba shakhsi seyum (ba remitent) dar nazar dorad.

Banknota – uhdadorii qarzii (va yo vekseli) bonki. Dar davrai muosir banknota az tarafi bonkhoi markazi barovarda shuda, on az veksel va pulhoi qogazi farq mekunad.

CHek hamchun oloti gardishkunandai qarzi nisbat ba veksel va banknota bo barobari tasisyobii bonkhoi tijorati va jamovarii vositahoi puli dar hisobhoi jori, dertar paydo shudaand. In namudi vekseli guzaranda meboshad, ki sohibi pasandoz ba bonki tijorati va yo bonki markazi menavisad.
CHunin namudhoi chekho mavjudand: nomi, orderi, peshnihodshavanda, hisobi, akseptshuda.
Tabiati iqtisodii chek dar on ast, on dar avval hamchun vositai ba dast ovardani pulhoi naqd dar bonkho khizmat karda, duyum hamchun vositai muomilot va pardokht baromad mekunand, va seyum, oloti hisobbarobarkunii gayrinaqdi meboshand.

Zaruriyati  paydoishi pul. Dar davrahoi taraqqiyoti jamiyati mubodilai molho kharakteri tasodufi doshtand. On bayni qabilaho surat megirift. In mubodiloti tasodufi shakli arzishi mol, ki dar on yak namudi mol tajassum karda, in molho ba hamdigar ivaz karda meshudand. Dar natijai taqsimoti jamiyatii mehnat ohista-ohista sohahoi alohidai chorvodori va rastaniparvari judo shudand va mol ivazkuni shakli muntazamro girift. Dar har qabila yagon namudi mol chorvoi kaloni shokhdor, gusfand, gandum yo jav roli ekvivalenti hamai molhoi digarro mebozidagi shud. In molho ba joi pul baromad mekardand. Dar natijai taqsimoti duyumi kaloni jamiyatii mehnat, yane judoshudani sohahoi hunarmandi, az ziroatkori ba on ovarda rasonid, ki vazifai pulro ohista-ohista metallho mebozidagi shudand. Hunarmandon avvalo az metallhoi birinji olothoi zaruriro mesokhtagi shudand. Masalan: tabar, kord, nayza va in asbobho ba digar mavodhoi zaruri ivaz karda meshud.

Ohista-ohista dar natijai taraqqiyoti jamiyat nuqra va tillo roli pulro mebozidagi shud, baroi on, ki metallho ba khosiyathoi zerin doro meboshand:

    • tarkibi onho yakkhelaand;
    • taqismoti onho oson meboshad;
    • onho arzishi baland dorand;
    • onhoro be nobudshavi duru daroz nigoh doshta meshavad.

Inchunin in metallho naqshi ekvivalenti umumiro bo sababhoi zerin ijro mekunand:

  • Onho arzishi istemoli dorand;
  • Dar in metallho mehnati konkreti hamchun tajassumi mehnati abstrakti ifoda yofta ast;
  • Dar in metallho mehnati shakhsi kharojot shuda, onho tajassumi mehnati jamiyati meboshad.

Pul – in yake az ikhtiroothoi buzurgi afkori insonist. Dar tabiati zinda ba pul monandro daryoft kardan nomumkin ast. Tamomi sokhtori iqtisodiyoti muosir bo mavjudiyati pul muayyan karda shudaast. Oid ba paydoishi pul tarikhshinosi barjasta Fernan Brodel chunin qayd mekunad «Hangomi ba amal omadani mubodilai moli, ovozi pulho mebaroyand».
Pul – in hama vositahoi pardokhti etirof shuda meboshad, ki ba mol va khizmatho ivaz karda shuda, baroi pardokhti qarzho istifoda meshavand. Pul yake az kategoriyahoi asositarin va markazii khojagidorii moli meboshad. Pul – in ekvivalenti umumi, shakli arzishi hama molho meboshad.

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