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Vazi mustamlikavii Hinduston dar avvali asri XX

Soli 1899 noibi shoh Kyorzon (1899 – 1905 ) tayin karda meshavad. U dar Hinduston siyosati ruirosti najodparastiro pesh meburd. Mamuriyati Kyorzon korchallonhoi anglisro pushtiboni karda, ba sanoatchiyoni hindustoni moneaho ejod mekard. Soli 1903 Kyorzon ba zeri qonuni makhsuse imzo guzosht, ki on dar justuju va azkhudkunii boigarihoi mineralii Hinduston ba inhisori anglisi imkoniyathoi kalon faroham ovard. Kyorzon ziyoiyoni hinduro bad medid. Dar zamoni hukmronii u hadi aqali andozsitoni az daromadi solona az 500 rupiya ba 100 rupiya farovarda shud, ki on pesh az hama, ba bujai ziyoiyon zarba zad. Solhoi 1898 va 1905 du marotiba amali qonuni sirri davlat vase karda shud, ki on bar ziddi ziyoiyon istifoda shud. Nisbati KMH Kyorzon guftaast: “Dar nazdi man vazifa istodaast, ki ba margi osoishtai on musoidat kunam”. Bo vujudi hamai in zulmi Kyorzon ruhiyai ziddimustamlikavii mardumi Hindustonro ziyodtar kard. Badi az habs ozod shudan Tilak muborizaro bar ziddi mustamlikadoroni anglis davom dod. Bo sharofati u dar Makharashtra faoliyati qanoti chapi harakati millatduston jonnok meshavad. Dar muzofotu shahrhoi digari Hinduston ham harakati milliyu ozodikhohi az nav avj megirad.

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Mamuriyati anglisi khost, ki ba harakati inqilobii Hinduston zarba zanad. Baroi hamin noibi shoh Kyorzon soli 1905 Bangolaro du taqsim kard – Bangolai Garbi (ba on Bikhor va Orsu ham dokhil budand) va Bangolai SHarqi (bo hamrohii Assam). Bangolagiho millati nisbatan tashakkulyoftai Hinduston ba shumor meraftand. Qismi ziyodi aholii on musulmonho bud. Muvofiqi naqshai mustamlikadoron taqsimoti Bangola boyad ba pastshavii harakati milliyu ozodikhohii Hinduston ovarda merasond. Lekin in kor natijai baraks dod. Bar ziddi taqsimkunii muzofot hamai tabaqhoi jomeai Bangola barkhostand. Mohi iyuli soli 1905-dar Kalkutta girdihamoihoi buzurg ba amal omadand. 15 oktyabri soli 1905 qonun dar borai taqsimoti Bangola elon karda shud. Mardumi muzofot on ruzro ruzi motami milli elon kard. Dar Kalkutta ishtirokchiyoni namoishi buzurgi khalqi surudi millii “Bande mataram” (“Salom, Modar – Vatan!”)-ro khonda istoda, ba sui daryoi Gaiti baroi hinduho muqaddas meraftand, to ki dar sohili on baroi az nav muttahid kardani kishvar savgand khurand.

Geografiyai harakati “svadeshi” (istehsoli khudi) dar Hinduston ruz to ruz vase meshud. Onro KMH harjoniba dastgiri mekard. In bud, ki jalasai navbatii dar okhiri soli 1905 barguzorgardidai KMH boykoti molhoi anglisiro elon namud.

Soli 1906 jalasai navbatii KMH peshnihod namud, ki “svaraji”, yane khudidorakunii Hinduston dar hayati Britaniyai Kabir elon karda shavad. In vaqt dar Kongress dar masalai istiqloliyati Hinduston yagonagii goyavi vujud nadosht. Bo hamin sabab tobistoni soli 1907 dar KMH judoi ba amal omad. Sarfi nazar az in dar Hinduston harakati ziddianglisi ruz to ruz beshtar ba nazar merasid. Mamuriyati mustamlikavi qonuni matbuotro istifoda burda, Tilakro az nav habs kard. Murofiai sokhtakoronai dodgohi mustamlikavi 13-22 iyuli soli 1908 barguzor gardida, namoish va girdihamoihoi ommaviro ba vujud ovard. 23 iyul dar bombai korpartoii ommavi ogoz yoft. Dar hama jo shiorhoi siyosii ziddianglisi va surathoi Tilak dida meshudand. Mustamlikaloron in dafa qudrati pakhsh kardani namoishu girdahamoi va korpartoihoro nadoshtand.

Mamuriyati mustamlikavii Britaniya dar Hinduston majbur shud, ki aqibnishini kunad. On tiramohi soli 1909 dar borai “SHurohoi qonunguzor” qonun qabul kard. Dar yak vaqt nazardoshti meyori qavmiyu mazhabi dar Hinduston sistema intikhobotii nav jori karda shud. In sistema hinduho musulmonhoro dar muqobili hamdigar nigoh medosht. On talaboti Ligai islomii soli 1907 tashkilyofta muvofiq bud.

Soli 1911 noibi navtayinshudai shoh Harding taqsimoti Bangolaro bekor kard va poytakhti Hindustonro az Kalkuttta inqilobi ba Dehlii nisbatai orom kuchonid.

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