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Vazi dokhilii Koreya (asri XIX)

Ba davlathoi sarmoyadori khoriji bastani shartnomahoi nobarobar norozigii vatandustoni Koreyaro ba vujud ovard. In norozigi ba harakati milliyu ozodikhohii khalq bar ziddi istilogaroni khoriji tabdil yoft. YAke az hamin shurishho soli 1882 dar Seul ba amal omad. Dar in shahr avvalin shuda askaron ba shurish ogoz kardand. Ba askaroni shurishbardoshta dehotiyoni girdu atrofi shahr ham hamroh shudand. SHurishi askaron dar Seul ba shurishi ziddi hukumat va istilogaroni khoriji tabdil yoft. Onho ba qatiyati tom amal karda, mushoviri harbii joponiro kushta, binoi namoyandagii in davlatro suzonidand. Hayati on az Seul firor kard. SHurishgaron khonahoi amaldoroni davlatiro ba khok yakson va molu mulki onhoro namoishkorona otash zadand.

korea

Az muzaffariyathoi shurish Tevonguni Koreya istifoda burda, bo yorii askaroni shurishbardoshta ba qasr bargashta, ba hukumat rohbari kard. Lekin in kor der davom nakard. Hukumati CHin ba Koreya lashkar firistoda, in shurishro pakhsh kard va Minho az nav ba sari hokimiyat omadand. Tevongun ba CHin badarga karda shud. Jopon ba hukumati navi Koreya fishor meovard. Muvofiqi shartnomai nav Koreya uhdador shud, ki ba Jopon tovoni jang bidihad. Dar poytakht sarbozoni Joponro az mavodi zaruri tamin namoyad va ba rohbaroni shurish jazo medihad.

Dakholati CHin va Jopon vazi be in ham murakkabi dokhilii Koreyaro murakkabtar kard. Dar dokhili mamlakat guruhbandihoi tamoyuli chini va joponi bar ziddi hamdigar muboriza meburdand. Ba guruhi jonibdoroni CHin muyassar shud, ki soli 1882 “Qarordod dar borai tijorati bayni CHin va Koreya”-ro ba imzo rasonad. In qarordod ba CHin chunin imtiyozhoero medod, ki yak qator davlathoi imperialisti dar in mamlakat onhoro allakay ba dast darovarda budand.

Dar hamin davra dar Seul Hizbi Istikdoliyatkhohii Koreya tashkil meyobad. On taklif peshnihod menamoyad, ki dar Koreya islohoti sokhtori davlati ba amal barovarda shavad. In hizb jonibdori dar mamlakat tatbiq kardani komyobihoi tekhnikiyu farhangii evropavi va az hokimiyat dur sokhtani Minhoi bo rohi chini meraftagi bud.

Bo islohotkhohoni Koreya hukumati Jopon yori merasond. Baroi ba maqsadi khud rasidan hukumati Jopon az yagon vosita ruy namegardond. Namoyandagoni rasmii on okhiri soli 1884 dar Seul tabadduloti davlati tayyor kardand. Tabaddulotchiyoni joponi dar zeri rohbarii Kim Okkyun va bo yorii dastai askaroni Jopon qasri shohro ishgol karda, khudi shohro asir girifta, az hisobi jonibdoroni Kim Okkyun hukumati nav tashkil kardand. In hukumat loihai islohoti davlatiro peshnihod namud. Muvofiqi in islohot korhoi davlati az korhoi darbor judo karda shuda, ba zimmai kabineti vaziron guzoshta shudand. Dar nazar doshta shuda bud, ki muassisahoi davlati, artish va politsiyaro ba tarzi evropavi az nav sokhta, imtihonhoi davlati va az rui ashrofzoda budan tayin kardani amaldoron bekor karda shavad. Dar barnomai hukumat barobarhuquqii tabaqaho elon karda meshud. Dar islohoti davlatii hukumat baze chorahoi digari peshqadam niz peshbini shuda budand. Lekin in hukumat hamagi 48 soat umr did. Az in ru, islohoti khudro ba amal barovarda natavonist. Dar barobari torumor karda shudani dastahoi askaroni joponi, ki hukumati islohotkhohon ba onho takya mekard, khalqi shurishbardoshta in hukumatro niz torumor va chand vaziri onro qatl kard. Qisme az hayati hukumat bo hamrohii joponiho ba Inchkhon va az on jo ba Jopon firor kard.

Barbod raftani suiqasd bar ziddi hukumati Koreya Joponro majbur sokht, ki usuli digarro pesh girad. Soli 1885 dar Tyantzin dar bayni Jopon va CHin shartnoma basta shud, ki muvofiqi on az khoki Koreya boyad ham lashkari CHin va ham sarbozoni Jopon barovarda meshudand. Inchunin har du davlat boyad ba Koreya mushovironi harbiro ravon nakunand. Vale dar barobari in dar surati ba amal omadani “betartibihoi jiddi” CHin va Jopon metavonistand sarbozoni khudro az nav ba Koreya bifiristonand.

Jopon Koreyaro hamono ba dast darovardani bud. Bo hamin maqsad badi qarib dah sol – solhoi 1894 – 1895 bar ziddi CHin jang kard. Amaliyothoi harbii bayni onho asosan dar khoki Koreya surat giriftand. Dar in jang Jopon dastbolo shud. 17 apreli soli 1895 dar bayni CHin va Jopon Sozishnomai sulhi Simonoseki basta meshavad. Muvofiqi on CHin istiqloliyati Koreyaro etirof kard. Aknun Jopon metavonist dar in mamlakat ozodona amal kunad.

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