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Vaziyati ilmu farhang pas az omadani Russho

Hamroh kardani Osiyoi Miyona ba Rossiya na tanho dar jodai siyosatu iqtisodiyot tagyirot vorid sokht, inchunin dar sohahoi ilm, talim, farhang va jomeshinosi niz junbishho ba vujud omad.

Rossiya az nigohi tekhnika, sanoat va ikhtirokori nisbatan peshrafta bud, zero dar on jo kapitalizm marhalahoi balandi inkishofro az sar meguzarond. Dar chunin sharoit va bo chunin davlati nisbatan peshrafta hamroh kardani osiyoi Miyona, ba hayoti ilmi, farhangi va adabii tarafayn albatta, tasiri mutaqobila ba nazar merasad. Zero be ashyoi khom rushdi sanoat niz az imkon khorij meboshad.

Albatta, pas az hamrohkuni dar hayoti ilmi, farhangi va adabi tagyirotho rukh dodaand. Vale in holat ba tahsiloti madrasavi tasir narasonida boshad ham, umuman dar sistemai maorifi mardumi asar kard. Dar baze shahrhoi kaloni sernufus maktabhoi rusii mahalli tashkil karda shuda bud. To andozae zabonu adabiyoti rus va avrupoi ba qalamravi Osiyoi Miyona (qismati shimoli mintaqa) roh meyoft. Zuhuri jarayoni maorifparvari va tajdidi nazar ba farhangu manaviyot, usuli talim, maktabu maorif, sohahoi mukhtalifi afkori ijtimoi, hayoti adabi khele khub ba mushohida merasid.

rusho-osiyoi-miyona

Mihim on ast, ki dar qalamravi Osiyoi Miyona matbuoti davri zuhur karda va har khel ruznomahovu majallaho nashr meshudand. Besh az in, dastgohhoi kitobchopkuni, nashriyothoi khususi faol meshudand, ki baroi rushdi hayoti farhangi-adabii kishvar khele purfoida budand. Beshtar dar in jarayon naqshi maktabhoi ilmi-farhangii Qazon khele kalon ast. Bo tashabbusi hamin markaz maktabhoi navi tarjumoni ba miyon meomadand. Ba in vosita adabiyot va farhangi millii bostonii khalqi tojik ehyo megardid, yane az nav chop meshud. Az tarafi digar, kutubi chophoi Rossiya, Qafqoz, Eron va gayra dar Osiyoi Miyona tarjuma va nashr meshudand.

Ba Rossiya hamroh kardani Osiyoi Miyona yak jihati digari nisbatan purarzishi burunmarzi niz dosht, ki in kishvar bo yak qator kishvarhoi garbi ravobit paydo menamoyad.

Vaziyati adabiyot dar nimai duyumi asri XIX

Adabiyoti nimai duyumi asri XIX, hamchunon ki az unvoni mavzu niz paydost, davomi mantiqi va bevsitai tarikhi kuhanbunyodi adabiyoti tojik ast. In adabiyot tuli chandin hazorsolaho, ki marhalahoi kamolot mepaymoyad, az bisyor barkhurdho, moneaho, mushkilihovu nobasomoniho guzashtaast. Ejodkoroni in adabiyot dar har davru zamon hamchun mafkurabardoronu munavvarfikroni khalqu millati khesh jilva namudaand. Onho gohe duchori bisyor shikasturekhtho va gohe noili jumla peshraviho gardidaand. Dar majmu dar hama guna davru zamon, novobasta ba fishoru taqibho holat va ruhiyai khalqi khudro ifoda kardaand.

Baroi rushdi in adabiyot dar asrhoi miyona, makhsusan du omili markazi: yake ideologiyai hukmroni davr – ideologiyai islomi va digare sokhtori siyosi-sokhti feodali bud. Albatta, in du omil-yake omili ideologi va digare iqtisodi dar rushdu tahavvuli tarikhi adabiyot naqshi muayyan guzoshtaand.

Nufuzi ideologiyai islomi goliban dar sohai farhangu maorif baso buzurg meboshad. Qonunhoi huquqii inson va jomea dar asosi shariati islomi amal menamud. Rusumu akhloq va nizomi davlatdori niz dar hamin zamina sozmon doda meshud. Boyad guft, ki adabiyot oyinai tarikhi hamon khalqest, ki ejodkor ba on khalq taalluq dorad. In na inikosgari davroni muayyanest, ki ruzgori adib dar on meguzarad. Az in nuqtai nazar, adabiyot voqeiyat, haqiqatro inikos menamoyad. Binobar in vobasta ba siyosati davr va siyosatmadoron, yane amiron, usuli mamlakatdorii onho, darbor va mardum, munosibati sohibmansabon bo khalq, himoyai adolati ijtimoi va gayra dar hama davru zamon munosibati adibon gunogun ast. Adibone ham hastand, ki didavu donista amiri noloiqu nouhdabaroro sitoish kardaand va zulmu bedodhoi uro dar libosi adolatkhohivu mardumnnavozi ba qalam medodand. Baraks, adiboni digar niz budand, ki ba siyosat va jomea nazari tanqidi doshtand. Onho dar osri khud nuqsonu norasoihoro gohe pardapushona va gohe oshkoro bayon mekardand.

Dar in davra yagona doirai adabii ovozadoru shukuhmand doirai adabii Bukhoro bud, ki bisyor qonunmandii rushdu tahavvuli adabiyotro muayyan menamud. Albatta, doirahoi adabii durdast misli Badakhshon, Hisor, Hatlon ham budand, vale ba juz Bukhoro inho chandon mashhur nestand. Albatta, Bukhoro hamchun qadimtarin markazi farhangi to ba okhir nufuzi khudro nigoh doshta tavonist. Dar nimai duyumi asri XIX niz Bukhoro yake az mashhurtarin markazhoi adabi khidmati tarikhii khudro ba jo ovard.

Maorifparvaron saravval ba hamkasboni khud-adiboni muosirashon tasir rasonidand. In bud, ki ohanghoi haqiqatjui, adolatkhohi, bashardusti, ilmdusti, tanqidi zulmu zolimi, mazammati istismorgaron, himoyai faqiron va gayra dar in ahd khele baland-baland sado dodaand. CHunonchi, SHohin dar tanqidi toifai mardumozor meguyad:

Az in qavm umedi yori khatost,

Ki az dushman ummedvori khatost.

Az in firqa donishkashon darguzar,

CHu binshasti, az khirqa afti badar.

Maro binu barzan ba ibrat duhul,

Pasoyandagonrost peshina pul,

Az on ru zi geti shikoyat zadam.

Zi geti shikoyat bagoyat zadam.

Ki dastur bofad ba oyandagon,

Ba abnoi getist oyandagon.

Ba hamin tariq, SHohin dar gazalu masnavihoyash ahvoli vaznini sakht, amir va sitamgaroni atrofi uro tanqid menamoyad:

Zi moli yatimon sitonand boj,

Ba quttoi tamgo bubakhshand toj.

Ba zolim baroti amorat dihand,

Ki nomusi mardum ba gorat dihand.

SHohin dar «Tuhfai duston» takid menamoyad, ki davlat boyad bunyodi khudro bar adlu adolat, aqlu khiradi solim, ba ilmu marifat va rostkorivu sadoqat, khalqdusti guzorad. Agar chunin omilho ba nazar girifta nashavand, on goh chunin davlat umri daroz namebinad:

Hamin ast rasmi jahonkhusravon,

Ki donositoyandu dushmansiton.

Hilofi amironi in marzu bum,

Humoro nadonand farqe zi bum.

Darego, ki in ablahon behisand,

Tavongar ba zar, dar hunar muflisand.

Vozeh, ki shohidi siyosati du amir-Muzaffar va Abdulahad bud, meguyad:

Raft to haddu kamoli nuqsu nuqsoni kamol,

Sohibi jahli murakkab boshad on, k-u alam ast.

Dil ba noni khonu oshi kosai dunon maband,

Filmasal gar qursi khurshed ast v-ar Jomi Jam ast.

va gayra.

Pas az on ki Osiyoi Miyona bo Rossiya hamroh karda meshavad, chunon ki malum ast, dar in qalamrav digargunihoi siyosi, iqtisodi, farhangi andozae rukh dodand. Hatto boisi tavlidi jarayoni navi mafkuravi – ijtimoi gardid, ki in jarayon dar tarikhi khalqi tojik naqshi baso sozandae bozidaast. In raviyai maorifparvari bud, ki dar afkori siyosiyu ijtimoi va farhangiyu adabii Osiyoi Miyona tasiri bunyodi guzosht. Bunyodguzor va targibotchii barjastai on navisanda, shoir, mutafakkir va olimi zabardasti tojik Ahmadi Donish bud. Nufuzi in jarayoni mafkuravi khususan ba adabiyot khele ziyod bud. Az in ru, Ahmadi Donish az shumori ahli qalam hamaqidaho-shogirdoni tavono paydo namud, ki har kadom dar tarikhi barkhurhoi mafkuravi va solimgardonii jamiyat sahmi arzanda guzoshtaand. Az qabili adiboni maorifparvari tojik, ejodkoron: Qori Rahmatullohi Vozeh, Abdulqodirkhoja Savdo, Muhammad SHamsuddin SHohin, Muhammadsiddiqi Hayrat va digaron budand, ki in raviyai tozazuhurro jonibdori va targib mekardand.

Dar ejodiyoti shoironi raviyai peshqadam fosh namudani nuqsonu norasoihoi siyosatmadoron, amiron, hokimoni mahalli, mansabdoronu amaldoron, himoyai adolati ijtimoi, mahkum namudani istismoru zulm, beqadrii inson va g. bud. Inchunin, onho dar ejodiyoti khud ilmu farhang, maktabu maorif, talimu tadris to andozae ozodii inson va monandi inhoro targib menamudand.

Aslan maorifparvari jarayoni ideologi-mafkuravi va junbishi fikrie bud, ki dar Avrupoi Garbi tayi asrhoi H^P-HUSH saravval dar Angliya va badho dar Fransiya zuhur karda bud. Dar Avrupo maorifparvari bo zuhuri sinfi navi burjuaziya hamchun tabaqai ijtimoi marbut bud. Agar in padida bo chunin shakl dar Angliya zuhur karda boshad, dar Fransiya ideologiyai maorifparvari hamchun tahkimbakhshi inqilobi burjuazi ba miyon omad.

Dar mamlakathoi SHarq boshad in junbishi mafkuravi va bedorii fikri aloragmi bunyodi pusidai jomeai feodali va inchunin difoi adolati ijtimoi rui kor omadaast.

Maorifparvaron muqobili zulmu noadolatihoi ijtimoi, iqtisodi, huquqi va gayra nafrati suzon doshtand. In yake az khususiyathoi kharakternoki jarayoni maorifparvari va sifati faoliyati maorifparvaron meboshad.

Hususiyati digari in padidai zehni, ki qisman ba maorifparvaroni tojik rost meoyad, on ast, ki maorifparvaroni rus dar osorashon tarzi zindagii mardumoni Avrupoi Garbiro targib kardaand. In janba tibqi ideologiyai islomi dar osori adiboni mo khele juzi, duchor meoyadu khalos. Zero Ahmadi Donish niz shahrsozi, usuli mamlakatdorii Rossiyaro dar qiyos bo amorati Bukhoro behtar mehisobad. Vale dar masoili digar: targibi maorifu ilm, ozodii inson, munosibathoi tabaqavi, himoyai adolat va g. maorifparvaroni mo niz hamfikri dorand.

Hususiyati seyumi jolibi jarayoni mazkur on ast, ki onho tabaqahoi mehnatii aholi, ommai khalq goliban dehqononro himoya va jonibdori namudaand. Inchunin, bahri behbudii ahvoli mamlakat va ommai mardum va rohhoi khalosi az inqirozro muvofiqi johonbinii khesh peshnihod namudaand.

Masalan, Ahmadi Donish dar osori adabi, falsafi, siyosii khud qafomondagiyu besavodi, irtijoparasti, noodili, zolimpeshagi va noloiqii amironi mangitro khele khub fosh mekunad. Dar asarhoi u fikrhoi tagyir dodani tartiboti davlatii amorati Bukhoro, islohi kullii tartibi maktabu maorif, talimi asrimiyonagiro ba miyon guzoshta bud. Albatta, qazovathoi in mutafakkir va jasurii u ba hayoti manavii jamiyati onruzai Bukhoro va ejodiyoti shoironi peshqadami muosiri Ahmadi Donish betasir namond. Az in ru, ejodkoroni muosiri u aqidahoi in mutafakirro vobasta ba jahonbinii khud targib namuda, jonibdori kardaand. YAne mavzuhoi tanqidi nuqsonhoi jomea, kutahnazarivu nodonii zimomdoron, beadolatihovu noodilii amiron, past budani sathi ruzgori mardum va nigoh doshtani khalq dar benavoiyu qashshoqi va gayraro dar osori khud joy dodaand.

Pesh az hama khudi Ahmadi Donish dar asari benaziri khud «Navodir-ul-vaqoe», ba khusus dar bobhoi «Faromushkhona», «Dar vasoyoi farzandon va bayoni haqiqati kasbhovu peshaho» va gayra, ki hangomi safarhoyash ba tavri muqoisavi ba mushohida girifta bud, khele barjasta tasvir kardaast. Hamfikroni Ahmadi Donish, shoironi tavono, navisandagon Vozeh (dar asari khud «Savoneh-ul-masoilik va farosikh-ul- mamolik»), SHamsuddin SHohin (dar osori liriki: qasida, gazalho, qitaho, masnavii «Tuhfai duston» va asari mansurash – «Badoe-us- sanoe» va digaron talimoti Donishro taqviyat dodaand.

Ahmadi Donish andeshahoi khudro na tanho dar asarhoi adabi – badei, balki dar asarhoi digari khud, ba khusus dar asari siyosiash – «Risola dar nazmi tamaddun va taovun» az nizomu qonuni davlathoi farangu (Avrupovu) Rusiya va qiyosi afzaliyati onho az usuli kishvardorii Bukhoro ba miyon guzoshtaast.

Albatta, maorifparvarii Avrupoi Garbi va Rossiyaro bo maorifparvarii Osiyoi Miyona yak shumoridan zohirparastii mahz khohad bud. Maorifparvarii Osiyoi Miyona dar qiyos bo Rossiya va Avrupo to andozae digarkheltar bud. YAne in jarayon dar qalamravi Osiyoi Miyona beshtar aloragmi siyosati amorat bud, ki ommaro dar khorivu zori, besavodivu jaholat nigoh medosht.

Digar in ki maorifparvaroni Osiyoi Miyona gunoguntabaqa nabudand. Zero tabaqahoi digari jamiyati onruzai Bukhororo mohiyatu muhtavoi in jarayon hanuz faro nagirifta bud. Az tarafi digar, hanuz dar nimai duyumi asri XIX miqdori maorifparvaron niz chandon ziyod nabudand. Barjastatarin namoyandagoni jarayoni mazkur: Ahmadi Donish, Vozeh, SHohin va chand tan az nazdikonu hamfikroni onho meboshand.

Ahmadi Donish ba muqobili sokhtori mavjuda va zimomdoron beibo etiroz menamud. Mo nametavonem hukmu muhokimahoi uro ormonu orzu nom bidihem. Zero u bo qatiyati tom ba natijahoi mushakhkhas rasida bud, ki meguyad: «Va in farmonfarmoyon, ki holo mo «hazrati amir» va «janobi vazirash» mekhonem, onho monandi chorpoyand, balki az onho ham gumrohtarand. Ba daleli ahkomi shariya har soate chand martaba ba azli eshon zohir megardad va kasero inqiyodi hukmi eshon niz nakhohad gardid». CHunin tarzi muhokimaroni khosi Ahmadi Donish buda, payravoni u to ba in poya narasida budand. Vale dar har surat, bartarii onho dar hamin bud, ki onho Ahmadi Donishro fahmida budand.

Afkoru andesha va aqidahoi Ahmadi Donish ba jarayoni rushdu inkishofi peshqadamoni adabiyoti on ruzgor tasiri farovoni musbat guzosht. Zumrae az adiboni peshqadami on zamon dar tahti nufuzi hamon goyaho budand va az in nigoh dar irtibot bo afkoru aqoidi Ahmadi Donish yak nav konsepsiyai alohidaro himoya va targib menamudand. In havza va in doirai munavvarfikronro metavon maktab yo raviyai jorii maorifparvari qalamdod kard.

Dar afkor peshqadami siyosivu ijtimoii nimai duyumi asri XIX jarayoni maorifparvari baroi bedorii fikri milli, bahri khudshinosii khalqu millat va istiqlolkhohi zamina gardid.

Afkor va aqoidi maorifparvari dar in asr dar adabiyoti badei ba vositai janrhoi adabi bayon megardid. Muhim on ast, ki yak zumra adiboni taraqqikhohu peshqadam ba mohiyati osori maorifparvarii Ahmadi Donish purra sarfahm naraftaand. Az in jost, ki in adibon dar osori khud aqoidi Ahmadi Donishro inkishof nadodaand. In adibon ba monandi Muztarib, Iso-makhdum, Oshiq, SHari, Mirzo Abdulazimi Somi va digaron meboshand, ki onho dar rushdu inkishof va targibi afkori maorifparvari chandon sahm nadorand. Aniqtarash, onho maorifparvarii tanho asri khudro yak andoza his kardaandu khalos.

Hol on ki tasiri osori Ahmadi Donish dar qalamravi Osiyoi Miyona khele khub pahn gardida bud. Nufuzi aqoidi Ahmadi Donish na tanho ba hammillatoni u, balki ba khalqhoi digari Osiyoi Miyona niz betasir namondaast. Az jumla osori mutafakkiri tojik Ahmadi Donish ba ejodiyoti muosironi digari u Muhammadkhoja Muqimi (1850- 1903), Zokirjon Furqat (1858-1909), Hamza Hakimzoda Niyozi (1889-1929) va digaron tasiri farovon guzoshtaast.

In adibon niz az osori Ahmadi Donish bahra bardoshta, dar ejodiyoti onho himoyai faqiron, tanqidi zulmu zolimi, noadolati, mazammati khudohivu khudparasti, berahmi, avomfirebi, targibi ilmu maorif, marifatu farhang va gayra khele amiqu saheh ba mushohida merasad.

Umuman, osori Ahmadi Donishro ejodkoron Vozeh, SHohin, Asiri, Savdo, Hayrat, Mirzo Siroj va digaron khele khub pazirufta budand. Zero onho niz andeshahoi tanqidii khudro foshofosh bayon kardaand. Masalan, Mirzo Siroji Hakim dar asari khud «Tuhafi ahli Bukhoro» menavisad: «Bubined, ki ilmu sarvat kori millati Uruporo ba kujo rasonida, beamalivu tanbali kori mo, aholii Osiyoi Miyonaro ba chi poyai pasti kashonida. Zindagii onon ba chi vusat guzaron, mo mardum ba chi mashaqqatu khori? Qahvakhonahoi saribozorii onon az imorati ayoni mo hazor daraja behtaru poktar. Ay voy bar mo, voy bar mo!» va gayra.

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