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Vaziyati Turkiston dar arafai revolyutsiya

Taraqqiyoti sanoatii kishvari Turkiston. Sarmoyai bankho

Dar okhiri asri KhIKh va avvali asri KhKh kapitalizm dar Rossiyai podshohi ba marhalai oli, marhalai imperialistii taraqqiyoti khud qadam nihod.

Kapitalizmi navbaromadi Rossiya ba iqtisodiyoti kishvari Turkiston niz asar kard. Garchande hukumati podshohi Osiyoi Miyonaro misli peshtara hamchun manbai ashyoi khomi imperiyai Rossiya va joi furushi masnuoti fabriku zavodhoi Rossiya monondani bud, ba har hol ravnaqu rivoji sanoat, alalkhusus ravnaqi sanoati istikhroji madan va korkardi ashyoi khom vozeh ba nazar merasad. Istifodai konho khele jon girift. Az peshtara dida khele beshtar angisht, neft, metallhoi ranga va mumi tabii (ozokerit) istikhroj meshud. Ba kor daromadani korkhonahoi korkardi nakhusti ashyoi khom, hamchunin istifodai rohhoi ohan talab mekard, ki samarai konhoi angisht beshtar shavad. Makhsusan, konhoi angishti viloyathoi Samarqandu Fargona – Sulukta, Qizilkiik, Shurob, Andijon va g. ahamiyati kalon paydo kardand. Dar uezdi Khujand panj koni angisht amal dosht – konhoi N.A.Ovsyannikov va sharikonash, E.M.Krauze, Petrova, vorisoni savdogar Ivanov va kuhkor Novikov[1]. Ba andozai takmili usulhoi angishtkani va ba konho kashidani rohhoi ohan miqdori istehsoli angisht ham meafzud. Masalan, az koni angisht soli 1905 700 pud, soli 1907 boshad, 1 mln.-u 220 pud angisht istikhroj shud[2].

Dar ibtidoi asri KhIKh istikhroji sanoatii neft rivoj yoft. Boytarin konhoi neft – konhoi SANTO va Chimiyoni vodii Fargona va koni jazirai Chalakoni bahri Kaspi bud. Dar dahsolai avvali asri KhKh az hama beshtar az koni nefti Chalakon neft kashida shud. Agar soli 1901 dar in jo 600 haz. pud neft istikhroj shuda boshad, pas az dah sol miqdori on ba 15 mln. pud rasid[3]. Digar sohahoi sanoati istikhroji madan az konhoi namaku ozokerit, baze konhoi khurdi istikhrojash dastii tillo va baze metallhoi ranga iborat bud.

Iqtisodiyoti kishvari Turkiston misli peshtara sirf ziroatparvari va sohai muhimi on pakhtakori va pakhtatozakuni bud. Dar bayni zavodho beshak zavodhoi pakhta az hama beshtar buda, dar joi yakum meistodand. Dar khoki general-gubernatori dar ibtidoi asri KhKh 230 korkhonai pakhta kor mekardand, ki ziyoda az nisfi onho dar vodii Fargona voqe budand. Joi duvumro sanoati ravgan megirift, ki darajai jihozoti on nihoyat past bud. Mahalli asosii in korkhonaho ham dar Fargona joy dosht.

Az 34 zavodi sharobkashi 28-toash dar viloyati Samarqand bud. Du foizi in navi mahsulotro korkhonahoi uezdi Khujand medodand. Dar iqtisodiyoti Osiyoi Miyona zavodhoi charmgari va rudatozakuni ham maqomi namoyon doshtand (hamai onho asosan az oni shirkati nemisii «Dyurshmidt» budand).

Dar marhalai monopolistii inkishofi kapitalizmi Rossiya dar bobi istifodai zakhirahoi mulkhoi mustamlikavii on sarmoyai bankho maqomi makhsus paydo kard. Davrae, ki mavridi nazar ast, davrae meboshad, ki chashmi kalontarin bankhoi Rossiya ba Turkiston dukhta shud. Chunon ki pas az boroni bahoron zanburugho yakbora ba ruy mezanand, ana hamin khel dar shahrhoi Toshkand, Samarqand, Andijon, Khuqand, Bukhoroi Nav (Kogon) va digar shahrho Banki davlati on taraf istad, shubayu shubachahoi mukhtalifi korkhonahoi gunoguni moliya paydo shudan giriftand.

Sarmoyai bankho asosan khudro ba sanoati pakhta mezad, vale az digar sohahoi iqtisodiyoti Osiyoi Miyona ham ru namegardond. Masalan, «Russkiy dlya vneshney torgovli bank» («Banki rusii tijorati khoriji») asosan ba savdoi pusti qarokuli chaspida girift, «Russko-Azovskiy bank» («Banki Rusu Azov») sokhtmoni rohi ohani Bukhororo bo pul tamin mekard va dar amorati Bukhoro kalontarin ijoragiri zamin bud; «Azovsko-Donskoy bank» («Banki Azovu Don»), ki ba on arkoni sanoati gazvori pakhtagini Peterburg sohibikhtiyori mekardand, tamomi kharidi pakhta va korkardi nakhusti onro ba dast girift; dar in kor sharik va dar ayni hol, raqibi on «Sibirskiy-torgoviy bank» («Banki tijoratii Sibir») bud; dar in gushai duri imperiyai Rossiya «Moskovskiy uchetno-ssudniy bank» («Banki hisobiyu bunakdihandai Moskva») ham takopui ziyode dosht.

Dar yak khudi shahri Bukhoro dar solhoi jangi yakumi jahoni 8 shubai bankho (1 shubai banki davlati va 7 shubai bankhoi khususi) kor mekardand; muomiloti shashtoi onho ba hisobi miyona soli 1915 20,3 mln. sum bud[4]. Dar in jo baroi amaliyoti shirkathoi korchalloni haris sharoiti baso musoid muhayyo gardid. Ana, baze az on shirkathoi pulchallon: shirkati tijoratu sanoatii manufakturai kaloni Yaroslav, shirkathoi Andreev, Potelyakhovskiy, Moskva, shirkati tijoratii barodaron Kraft, shirkati tijoratii barodaron Vadyaevho, shirkati tijoratii barodaron Shlossberg, shirkati sahmdorii gazvorhoi pakhtagini Poznanskiy, shirkati tijorat bo Eron va Osiyoi Miyona va gayravu hokazo.

hamai in darrandagoni kapitalisti, ki ba «shirkat»-u «shirkatchaho»-i az khud khurdtar takya doshtand, dehqonon, proletarho, nimproletarho, kosibonro berahmona talavu toroj mekardand. Khalqhoi mazlumi Osiyoi Miyona misli digar khalqhoi bisyor nohiyahoi imperiyai Rossiya ham az ravnaqu rivoji munosibathoi kapitalisti azob mekashidandu ham in munosibatho ba darajai kofi ravnaqu rivoj nadoshtand[5].

Dar kishvari Turkiston istehsoloti moli rivoj meyoft. Ammo in protsessi progressivi dar sharoite jarayon dosht, ki dar khojagii qishloq munosibathoi tokapitalistii istehsolot purra hukmfarmoi mekardand va in boisi hamin meshud, ki mehnatkashon besh az pesh tolonu toroj meshudand, taqsimoti aholi ba sinfho va ba darajoti molumulkdori surat megirift.

Yake az ofathoi mudhishi iqtisodiyoti Turkiston sudkhuri bud, ki ba rivoji on bankho khele musoidat mekardand. Bankho ba shirkathoi kaloni pakhta va digar khojagiho pul qarz medodand. Dar boloi in pul jangu janjolu mojarovu kharkhashai ziyode meshud. In pul az dasti yak olam gumoshtavu vakilu miyonravu jallobu dallol guzashta, foizi khudro ziyod mekard. Kor ba darajae merasid, ki agar bank ba sharti 6-6,5 foiz foida qarz doda boshad, pul to ba dasti istehsolkunandai bevosita, to ba dasti dehqoni pakhtakor rasidan foizi khudro dah marotiba ziyod mekard va to ba 50-70 foizi foida merasid.

Tarozudoru pakhtakashho dar kharidu furushi pakhta yak nav gumoshtahoi bankho budand. Tarozudor az savdogari serpul yo bank bunaki kalon girifta ba tarzi kutara pakhtai ziyodero mekharid. Odatan tarozudor in bunakro bayni pakhtajallobhoi khurdtar – bayni pakhtakashho taqsim mekard va onho foidai qarzro boz ziyodtar karda, sad firebu nayrang sokhta, ham az pudu ham az tor zada, ba sari dehqoni bechora baloe meshudand.

Ahvoli mehnatkashon

hojati gap nest, ki hamai in dasisaho ba dushi mehnatkashon bori garon megardid va onhoro ba gulomoni yakumrai yak olam sudkhuron tabdil medod. Miqdori qarze, ki pakhtakoron az muassisahoi qarzdihandavu moliyavi giriftaand, ravshan dalolat menamoyad, ki onho chi qadar ba qarz gutidaand – dar okhirhoi soli 1912 in qarz ba haddi behad buzurg–qarib ba 160 mln. sum rasida bud[6]. Dehqonone, ki zamini khudro ba garav monda, az sudkhuron qarz megiriftand, aksar vaqt qarzi khudro dar muhlatash doda nametavonistandu az zamini khud mahrum meshudand. Dehqononi khonabardush yo batrak yo choryakkor yo khud korgari oddi meshudand. Dar barobari in shumorai zamindoroni kalon va boyho meafzud.

hukumati podshohi harjoniba madad merasond, ki khojagii boyho dar ravnaq boshad. Masalan, khojagie, ki to 0,5 desyatina zamin dosht, baroi har yak desyatina 8 sumu 64 tin andoz medod. Dar ayni hol, khojagihoe, ki ziyoda az 6 desyatina zamin doshtand, baroi har yak desyatina 6 sumu 96 tin andoz medodand.

Boyho zamini dehqononi noilojmondaro kharida megiriftand. Ba hamin tariq, gayr az zamindorii kaloni feodali zamindorii nimfeodaliyu boi ham mamul shud. Masalan, soli 1908 dar uezdi Khujand yakchand boy sadho desyatina zamin doshtandu 1369 khojagii dehqonon umuman zamin nadoshtand, 1000 khojagi boshad, az 1 to 0,25 tanob zamin dosht. Dar qishloqi Qistakuz (hozira viloyati Leninobod) 70 khojagii boyu mulloho 3 haz. ga zamin, 18 haz. dehqonon boshand, az 500 ga. andak ziyod zamin doshtand. Dar Khujand, Uroteppa, Nov va Konibodom narkhi yak desyatina zamin 4-8 hazor sum bud. Dehqononi khonavayrongardida mardikori mekardand yo khizmatgori dari boyhovu savdogaronu sudkhuron meshudand.

Pakhtajallobhovu sudkhuron az besavodiyu nodonii dehqonon istifoda burda, onhoro fireb medodandu talavu toroj mekardand. Masalan, ba dehqon 100 sum qarz medodandu ba qimati 500 sum vekselro imzo kunonda megiriftand. Hamai in tajziyai sinfii dehqononro surat medod. Mustamlika budani kishvar, sokhti ijtimoiyu iqtisodii amorat, darajai nihoyat pasti sanoat boisi on megardid, ki dehqonon proletar ne, balki pauper meshudand. Pauperizm benihoyat vusat meyoft. Dehqonon az yak porcha zamini khud mahrum shuda, baroi az gushnagi namurdan ba korkhonahoi sanoati rafta kor mekardand va hamin tavr avvalin kadrhoi proletariati mahalli ba vujud meomad. In korgaron dar konhoi mutlaqo bejihozi angishtu madanu namak va gayra mehnat mekardandu sharoiti kori onho, bemuboliga, az sharoiti jahannam badtar bud.

Dar arafai soli 1905 dar Osiyoi Miyona to 32 hazor nafar korgaron budand, ki 77 foizi onhoro korgaroni millathoi mahalli tashkil medodand. Dar viloyati Fargona, ki sanoatash beshtar taraqqi yofta bud, to 40 foizi korkhonahoi tamomi kishvar voqe gashta, dar onho ziyoda az 8 hazor nafar korgaron kor mekardand, dar viloyati Samarqand 2800 nafar korgaron budand.

Avvalin kadrhoi proletariati mahalli az jumlai dehqononi benavogashta tashkil meyoftand, ki onho dar justujui kor ba shahr ravona meshudand. Qismi asosii proletarhoi avvalini tojik mardikoron, korgaroni mavsimi ba hisob meraftand va onho dar konho, korkhonahoi viloyati Samarqand, zavodhoi pakhtai Fargona, dar sokhtmoni rohi ohan korhoi vaznini zurtalabro ba jo meovardand. Dar ruboi va taronahoi garibi, ki to ba zamoni mo omada rasidaand, az ruzi siyohi mardikoroni tojik va garibmazor shudani onho sukhan meravad:

Dar garibi gashta-gashta, rangi zard ovardaam,

Rangi zardamro ba peshi ahli dard ovardaam.

Rangi zardamro bubinu az khazonam yod kun!

Dar sari qabram nishinu yak dame faryod kun!

Dar ayni zamon az dehot baroi mardikori ba shahrho baromada raftani aholi «hodisai progressivi meboshad. Vay aholiro az joyhoi duraftoda, pasmonda, tarikh faromushkarda berun meorad va ba girdobi hayoti hozirai jamiyati mekashad»[7]. In khulosai V.I.Lenin, ki nisbat ba dehqononi rus barovardaast, nisbat ba dehqononi tojik ham komilan tatbiqpazir ast.

Mardikoroni tojik az diyori khud baromada, ba korgaroni rus vomekhurdand va bo hamrohii onon tamomi azobu aziyati istismori kapitalis­tiro az sar meguzarondand. Robita bo proletariati rus dar jarayoni tashakkuli proletariati tojik roli kaloni revolyutsioni bozida bud.

Dar bayni avvalin proletarhoi tojik bazan ba muqobili zolimon isyonhoi nomutashakkil sar mezadand. Isyone, ki soli 1885 dar konhoi angishti Zavronkishtut ba amal omada bud, ba in misol shuda metavonad. Korgaron nazoratchiyonro doshta zada, tajhizotro vayron kardand va ustoi konu nazoratchiyonro girifta, ba Panjakent ravona shudand, ki baroi muomilai berahmona ba hukumatdoron shikoyat kunand. Dar isyon 80 kas ishtirok karda bud. Dar Panjakent se nafar az isyongaronro habs mekunand, shikoyat beoqibat memonad, oshubi korgaron furu nishonda meshavad.

Dar borai digar oshubhoi korgaroni kiroya, ki alalkhusus dar ibtidoi asri KhKh tez-tez ba vuqu meomadand, malumoti noqis boqi mondaast. In oshubu shurishhoi mehnatkashon alalkhusus dar ibtidoi asri KhKh nihoyat vusat yoftand, vale dar on davra onho rohbariyati proletari nadoshtand va doshta ham nametavonistand. Binobar in, gazabi khalq tanho dar shakli shuru oshubhoi judogonavu stikhiyavi zohir megardid. Hamai in shuru oshubhoro hukumati podshohi va hukumatdoroni mahallii Turkiston berahmona pakhsh mekardand.

[1] SGA Tadj. SSR, f. 1, op. 1., d. 1926, l. 9.

[2] Mufassaltar nig.; Bobokhonov M., 1975, s. 94–95.

[3] Gulishambarov S.I., 1913, s. 73.

[4] Ryabinskiy A., 1941, s. 4.

[5] Dar in bora mufassaltar nig.: Aminov A.M., 1959.

[6] Demidov A. P., 1926, s. 125.

[7] Lenin V. I., Asarho, j. 3, s. 596.

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