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VULQONHO. CHASHMAHOI GARM VA GEYZERHO

Paydoish va shakli vulqonqo. Jinshoi kuhie, ki qishri Zaminro tarkib dodaand, dar tarkibi khud moddahoi radioaktivi dorand. Onho dar zeri Zamin hangomi ba qismhoi tarkibi judo shudan (tajziya shudan) harorati ziyod khorij mekunand. Dar zeri tasiri harorati baland dar qishri Zamin jinshoi sakht metafsand, vale tahti fishori qabathoi boloii kari Zamin onho ba moddai khamirmonand tabdil nayofta, dar holati sakhti memonand. Bad dar natijai harakati qishri Zamin dar on joyhoe, ki tarkish ba amal meoyad, fishori qabathoi boloii Zamin past meshavad.

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Dar in vaqt jinshoi tafson ba moddai khamirmonand tabdil yofta, bo gaze, ki az onho judo meshavad, bo tarqishi qishri Zamin ba bolo harakat mekunand, ki onro magma menomand. Sipas tahti fishori gaz va kharorati baland magma jinshoi kuhii atrofro gudokhta ba bolo baromada merezad. Dar baze joyho magma ba rui Zamin nabaromada, dar qabati chinshoi kuhi dokhil shuda memonad. Hamin tavr, hodisai ki dar nachijai on magma ba qabati jinshoi kuhii qishri Zamin dokhil meshavad yo ba rui on mebaroyad. vulqon menomand.

Vulqon az yakchand qism iborat ast. Novaero, ki az on magma ba bolo kharakat mekunad, pshnurai vulqon menomaid. On joe, ki az tanura gaz, bug, chang, khokistar, magma ba sathi Zamin baromada pahn meshavad va sangporaho meparand, dahana nom dorad. Magmaero, ki az dahana jory shuda dar sathi Zamin merezad, gudoza va bad az khunuk shudan onro lava menomand. Gaz va bug dar havo parokanda meshavand. Gaze, ki bo fishori baland mebaroyad, az magma porchahoro kanda ba havo havola medihad. Onho  ba shakli tobkhurda yo lunda az havo ba Zamin meaftand, ki onro boyabai vulqony memomand (rasmi 35). CHang va khokistar qisman ba sathi Zamin nishasta, mavzehoi atrofi vulqonro mepushonand. Dar natija dehaho, rokhkho, kishtzorho zeri khokistar memonand. Qismi digari khokistarro bod ba miitaqahoi dur mebarad. Badi guzashtani solhoi ziyoddar rui khokistari sakht khoki hosilkhez tashakkul meyobad. Odamon on zaminhoro ba kor andokhta,  dehotu rohho bunyod mesozand.

Harakati vulqon bo tarqishkhoi zerizamini va zaminjunbi payvasta ba amal meoyad. Otashfishonii on az yakchand ruz to yak mohdavom karda, bad orom meshavad. Vobasta ba holati voqei vudqonhoro ba du guruh judo mekunand: otashfishon va khomush.

Vulqonhon otashfishon. Vulqonhoe, ki har qadri chand vaqt takroran otashfishoni mekunand, vulkonhoi otashfishon nom dorand. Holo dar rui Zamii beshtar az 800 adad vulqonhoi Orom voqe gardidaand, Onho  Dar jazirahoi Aleut, Kuril, nimjazirai Kamchatka,  otashfishon mavjudand. Qismi ziyodn onho dar sohilhoi Uqyonusi  jazirahoi YAponiya, Filippin, Molukki yak mintaqai vulqoniro tashkil karda, ba vositai Zelandiyai Nav ba materiki Amerika meguzarand. Vulqonhoi otashfishon dar havzai Bahri Miyonazamin niz ba mushohida merasand. Vulqonhoi kalontarini otashfishon Pushtai Klyuchevskaya dar nimjazirai Kamchatka, Fudziyama dar Jazirai Honsyui YAponiya, Etna dar Jazirai Sitsiliya, Krakatau dar Gulugohi Zond bayni jazirahoi YAva va Sumatra meboshand. Balandin makhruti (konusi) vulqonho  gunogun meshavad. On az dahho metr to hazorho metrro tashkil medihad.

Balandii makhruti Pushtai Klyuchevskaya 4700 metr, az Vezuviy 1300-1400 metr ast. Vulqonhoi otashfishon dar zamoni mo ham nogahon paydo meshavand. Masalan, soli 1943 dar Meksika dar mahali hamvori nazdi dekhai Parnkutin vulqoni nav paydo shud, ki nomi hamin deharo giriftaast.

Vulkonho na tankho dar khushky, balki dar qari uqyonus niz otashfishoni mekunand. Dar natijai otashfishonii zsriobi jaziraho ba vujud meoyand, ki qismi ziyodi onho bo mavji ob shusta shuda. az nazar nopadid megardand.

Vulqonhoi khomush. Ba in guruh vulqonkhoe dokhil meshavand, ki tanho yak marotiba otashfishony kardaandu bas. CHunin vulqonho dar Kamchatka (Puiggai Koryak) va Kozelsk, qatorkuhhoi Kafkaz (Elbrus. Kazbek), sohili Uqyonusi Oromi Amerikai SHimoli va digar mintaqahoi rui Zamin dida meshavand. Otashfishonii onho dar zamonhoi khele qadim rukh dodaast.

Omuzishi vulkonho va ahamiyati onho. Omukhtani vulkonho  ahamiyati ilmi va amali dorad. Dar natijai otashfishonii vulqonho az chuqurihoi dahho kilomegr moddahoi gunogun ba rui Zamin mebaroyand. Olimon onhoro omukhta, dar khususi tarkib va khosiyatn moddahoi qishri Zamin khulosa mebarorand. Dar borai sarvathoi zerizamiii, khususiyathoi paydoishi onho  malumot ba dast msorand, ki in koftukovi sarvathoi zerizaminiro oson msnamoyad.

Hangomi otashfishonii vulqonho  az onho  sulfur (kibrit), namak va gaz khorij meshavad. Onhoro inson ba maqsadhoi gunogun istifoda mebarad. Dar asosan obkhoi garm va madani paydoishashon vulqoni muolijagohhr kor mekunand. “Raftori’ vulkonhoro mushohida namuda, taqriban kay otashfishong kardani onhoro peshguy menamoyand.

geyzerGeyzerkho va chashmahoi garm. Geyzerho (geyzer kalimai ispany buda, manoyash favvora zadan ast) yake az hodisahoi ajoibi tabiat meboshand. Onho dar mintaqahoi vulqony az zeri Zamin favvora zada mebaroyand. favvorazanii geyzerho dar bayni fosilai muayyani vaqt rukh medihad. Balandii favvoraho bazan to 80 metr merasad. Bad az favvora zadan boz khomush meshavand, ob nopadid megardad. Vaqti muayyan meguzarad, az nav favvora mezanad. Dar sathi Zamin obi garm va bugi ob paydo meshavad. Hamin tavr. chashmahoero, ki tahti tasiri jinshoi kuhii tafsoni qishri Zamin dar vaqthoi muayyan obi garm va bug khorij mekunand, geyzer menomand.

Geyzerho beshtar dar Kamchatka , jazirahoi Kuril (Federatsiyai Rusiya). Islandiya, Amerikai SHimoly va Zelandiyai Nav vomskhurand. CHashmahoi garm az tarkishhoi qishri Zamin baromada, jory meshavand. Onho  ba monandi geyzerho favvora namezanand, balki oromona jory meshavand. Dar tarkibi obi onho  moddakhoi gunoguni madany mavjudand. Binobar in onhoro chashmahoi garmi madani meguyand. CHunin chashmaho na faqat dar mintakahoi vulqoni, balki dar mintakahoi kuhhoi javon niz dida meshavand. Onho  dar Tojikiston ham mavjudand. Masalan, chashmahoi obi garmi Hojaobsharm, Obi Garm va Garmchashma. Obi chashmahoi garmro baroi garm kardani khonaho, binohoi istehsoly (korkhonaho), garmkhonayu parvardakhonaho va gayra ba kor mebarand. CHashmahoi garmi madaniro az qadim to imruz khamchun obi shifobakhsh istifoda mekunand.

Savol va supornsh

  1. Sababi paydoishn vulqonho dar chist?
  2. Vulkonho  ba kadom guruhho judo meshavand?
  3. Omuzishi vulqonho  chi ahamiyat loraa?
  4. Geyzerkho az chashmahoi garm chi tavofut dorand?
  5. CHashmakhoi garm va madani chi ahamiyat dorand?
  6. Dar mahali shumo oyo chashmahoi garmi madany mavjudaad?

 

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