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VIRUSHO

virusiVIRUSHO (az lot. Virus – zahr), angezandahoi khurdtarini bemorihoi sershumori siroyatii odam, hayvonot, rastani va bakteriyaho. V. faqat dar dokhili hujayrahoi zinda sukunat doshta, dar hujayrahoi favtida qobiliyati zindagi nadorand. Bemorihoi siroyatii virusi bisyorand. Az zamonhoi qadim hori, nagzak, poliomielit, gripp malum budand. Bo vujudi on, faqat s. 1892 olimi rus D.I. Ivanovskiy omili bemorizoero kashf kard, ki on az filtr (qabathoi poloishi) bemalol meguzarad (digar mikroorganizmho guzashta nametavonand). In kashfiyot asosi ilmi navi biologiya – virusologiya gasht. Afzoishi V. ba tavri makhsus surat girifta, ba afzoishi digar mavjudoti zinda kam shabohat dorad. Ravandi mubodilai moddaho dar V. ba mubodilai moddaho dar hujayrai siroyatyofta vobasta ast. Ba V. qonuni irsiyat niz khos ast. Sababi on hamon sokhtori biologiyu khimiyavii organizmhoi zinda – kislotahoi nukleat meboshand. Va nihoyat, V. niz chun tamomi mavjudoti zinda zeri tasiri sharoiti muhit tagyir yofta, ba on mutobiqat paydo mekunand.
Du tarzi mavjudiyati V. malum ast: berun az hujayra va andaruni hujayra. Berun az hujayra dar vibrionho (zarrachahoi virus) alomati hayot mushohida nameshavad. Vibrionho ba organizm vorid gashta, ba hujayrahoi nisbati V. hassos meguzarand. Onho dar hujayra az holati oromi baromada afzoish mekunand. Hamin tavr, tasiri mutaqobilai murakkabu gunoguni V. va hujayra ogoz meyobad (on pas az hosil va ba muhiti berun khorij shudani vibrionhoi nav anjom mepazirad).
Bemorihoi virusi guzaranda buda, zud pahn meshavand. Solhoi ziyod chunin aqida vujud dosht, ki V. angezandai bemorihoi shadid meboshand. Dar ayni hol dalelhoi ziyod jam ovarda shudaand, ki onho sababhoi sar zadani bemorihoi gunoguni muzmin budani V.-ro niz isbot mekunand.
Tadqiqu omuzishi V., oshkor namudani V.-i nav (holo 1,5 haz. kheli onho malum ast), muayyan sokhtani darajai bemoriovari va muboriza bo V. az jumlai vazifahoi asosii virusologiya meboshand. Mahz khususiyathoi manfii V., aniqtarash, qobiliyati bemoriofarii onho sababi omuzish qaror girift. Dar rafti tadqiqot bisyor jihathoi musbati V. niz oshkor shudand. Bo yorii onho kashfiyoti buzurg (mas., kushodani kodi genetiki, sokhtori kislotahoi nukleat, qonuniyati hosil shudani safedaho va g.) ba dast ovarda shudand. V. yordamchii asosii injeneriyai genetiki meboshad.
V. az rui sokhtu khususiyat dar bayni moddahoi murakkabi khimiyavi (polimerho, makromolekulaho) va organizmhoi soddatarin (bakteriyaho, rikketsiyaho, khlamidiyaho) mavqei mobayniro ishgol menamoyand.
Usulhoi tadqiqi virusho. Tarikhi asosii virusologiya az mikrobiologiya mansha megirad. Harchand hangomi kor bo V. istifodai tekhnikai mikrobiologi imkonnopazir boshad ham, chunin qoidahoi umumi, az qabili aseptika, titroni, vaksinatsiya va g. asosi ilmi navro tashkil dodand. Omuzishi badinai khususiyathoi muhimtarini V. daryofti yak qator usulhi makhsusro talab mekard. CHunonchi, qobiliyati az filtr (poloish)-i bakteriyavi guzashtani V. baroi muqarrar namudani andozai onho va poloish imkon dod; khurd budani andozai V. ba daryofti usulhoi mukammali mikroskopiyai elektroni musoidat namud. Tekhnikai virusologi tadrijan bo usulhoi fiziki, khimiyavi, genetiki, sitologi, biologiyai molekulavi va immunologi tamin megardad.
Andozai V., tarkibi khimiyavi, qonuniyati afzoish, mavqei onho dar tabiat va paydoishi bemoriho, inchunin usulhoi bosamari muboriza bar ziddi siroyati V. muayyan karda shudand. V.-ro bo rohi siroyatnok kardani hayvonoti laboratori, janini murg va boftahoi makhsus afzun megardonand. Dar ibtidoi paydoishi ilmi virusologiya tadqiqot bo hayvonoti laboratori (mushi safed, khukchai obi, khargush) guzaronda meshudand. Ba organizmi onho «moddai shubhanok»-ro firistoda, az rui jarayoni bemori kadom virus budani angezandai onro malum mekardand.
Az ibt. s.-hoi 50 a. 20 usuli payvandi boftaho ba roh monda shud. Hujayrai boftai zindaro bo yorii fermentho judo karda, ba zarfi makhsusi bezarar memonand. Sipas ba on moddai gizoii tarkibash murakkabro ilova karda, baroi sabzish ba termostat meguzorand. Dar natija hujayraho taqsim shuda, tadrijan rui shisharo faro megirand. Agar chunin hujayraho bo V. siroyatnok karda shavand, tasiri kharobovari onhoro bevosita mushohida kardan mumkin ast. Usuli payvandi boftaho imkon dod, ki V.-i nav kashf va tasiri mutaqobilai onho bo hujayraho oshkor gardand.
Judo kardan, afzoish va muqarrar sokhtani navhoi V. vazifai virusologiyai amali meboshad. Ravandi mazkur, odatan, az du qism iborat ast: omukhtani hujayrahoi bo V. siroyatyofta va tadqiqi V.-i judoshuda.
Baroi muayyan kardani hujayrahoi siroyatyofta az tashkhisi virusologi istifoda mekunand. Mas., usuli podtanhoi flyuorestsensiyavi (ravshanidihanda) imkon medihad, ki dar hujayraho mavjud budani V. aniq muayyan karda shavad. Dar tashkhisi siroyati V. bo yorii reaksiyahoi gunoguni immunologi (neytraloni, payvast shudani kompliment, takhiri gemagglyutinatsiya va g.) dar zardobi bemoron muayyan kardani titri podtanhoi makhsus mavqei muhim dorad.
Sokht va tarkibi khimiyavii virionho. Oid ba mavjudiyati V. solhoi ziyod az rui tasiri bemoriovarii onho hukm mekardand. Bevosita didani V. faqat pas az ikhtiroi mikroskopi elektroni, ki mikrobhoro dahho va sadho hazor marotiba kalon nishon medihad, muyassar gasht. CHunin imkoniyat taqriban pas az 50 soli oshkor shudani V. ba vuqu payvast.
V.-i az hama kalontarin (mas., V.-i nagzak) hajman ba bakteriyahoi mayda, khurdtarini onho (angezandai ensefalit, poliomelit, oqsil) ba molekulahoi kaloni safedaho, mas., ba molekulahoi gemoglobini khun nazdikand. Baroi chen kardani V. buzurgii shartiero ba kor mebarand, ki nanometr (nm) nom dorad. YAk nanometr million hissai yak millimetrro tashkil medihad. Andozai V.-i gunogun az 20 to ba sadho nanometr merasad. Baroi qiyos buzurgii hujayrahoi maydatarini khun – eritrositro meorem, ki on ba 7000 – 8000 nm barobar ast, yane V. nisbat ba eritrositho dahho va sadho marotiba khurd meboshand. V. zohiran kubshakl, chubchashakl, kurashakl, serqirra va rishtashakl meshavand.
V.-i sodda az safeda va kislotai nukleat tarkib yoftaand. YAke az zarrachahoi muhimtarini virus (kislotai nukleat) noqili akhbori genetiki ast. Agar hujayrahoi odam, hayvon, rastani va bakteriyaho hamesha du navi kislotai nukleat – dezoksiribonukleat (KDN) va ribonukleat (KRN) doshta boshand, pas dar V. – i gunogun faqat yak navi onho – KDN yo KRN mushohida meshavad (mahz hamin khususiyat asosi tasnifoti onhoro tashkil medihad). Duyumin juzi hatmii virion, yane safedaho dar V.-i gunogun farq mekunand. In imkon medihad, ki V. tavassuti reaksiyahoi immunologi omukhta shavand.
V.-i nisbatan murakkab ba gayr az safedayu kislotahoi nukleat hamchunin karbogidridu lipidho niz dorand. Har guruhi V. az safeda, charbu, karbogidrat va kislotahoi nukleati khosi hamin guruh iborat ast. Baze V. dar tarkibashon fermant niz dorand.
Har juzi virion vazifai muayyanro ijro mekunad. Mas., pardai safeda virionhoro az tasiroti nomusoid hifz menamoyad; kislotai nukleat mutasaddii khususiyathoi irsi va siroyati ast; fermentho boshand, dar afzoishi V. ishtirok mekunand va g. Odatan, kislotai nukleat dar markazi virion joy girifta, bo pardai safeda (kapsid) ihota shudaast. Kapsid az molekulahoi yakkhelai safedaho (kapsomerho) iborat buda, yakjoya bo kislotai nukleati V. shaklhoi geometrii simmetri (nukleokapsid) hosil mekunad. Dar holati simmetriyai kubi (kurashakl) doshtani nukleokapsid rishtai kislotai nukleat kalobashakl pech mekhurad, kapsomerho boshand, dar atrofi on joy megirand. V.-i poliomielit, oqsil, adenovirusho, reovirusho, rinovirusho va g. ba hamin tarz joy giriftaand. Hangomi simmetriyai spiralshakl (morpech) doshtani nukleokapsid rishtai kislotai nukleati V. ba shakli spiral tob mekhurad, har kadom pechishi on bo kapsomerhoi bo ham zich pushida meshavad. Sokhti kapsomerho va namudi zohirii virionhoro bo yorii mikroskopi elektroni mushohida kardan mumkin ast.
Miyonjoi V.-i sokhtashon murakkab shakli spirali sakht tobkhurdaro doshta, bo yak yo chand parda pushida shudaast. Tarkibi pardaho az moddahoi gunogun iborat meboshand. Mas., V.-i nagzak, gripp va paragripp aynan chunin sokht dorand. Hususan V.-i bakteriyaho – bakteriofagho mufassal omukhta shudaand. Poyachai fag bo gilofaki safeda pushida shudaast, ki az on nakhhoi boriki daroz pahn meshavand. Onho hangomi ba bakteriya payvast gardidani zarrachai fag vazifi uzvi chaspishro ba jo meorand.
Afzoishi virusho. V. ba parazithoi mutlaq mansuband. In chunin mano dorad, ki onho hatman zarar merasonand. Muhiti asosii faoliyati V. hujayra ast va ba hujayra dokhil shudani onho oqibati nek nadorad. Ba manoi majoziash V. rizqdihandai khudro mekushand. Ammo onho in korro na yaku yakbora, balki badi afzoish yoftan, bajo meorand. Misoli odditarini afzoishi V.-ro dida mebaroem. YAk nav zarrachai virusro tasavvur mekunem, ki az kislotai nukleat (KRN yo KDN) iborat buda, bo gilofaki safeda pushida shudaast. Pesh az hama virus jabbida meshavad, yane ba devorai hujayra (membranai plazmavi) mechaspad. Ilova bar in, har virion faqat ba hujayrahoi muayyan, ki retseptorhoi makhsus dorand, payvast megardand. Dar yak hujayra metavonand dahho va sadho virionho jabbida shavand. Bad ravandi ba hujayra vorid gashtani V. ogoz meyobad (onro khudi hujayra bajo meorad), ki onro viropeksis menomand. Hujayra guyo virionhoi ba vay chaspidaro ba darun «mekashad». Bakteriyahoi sokhtorashon nisbatan soda khud az atrof virionhoro doshta nametavonand. SHoyad dar V.-i onhoro siroyatkarda (bakteriofagho) mavjud budani jihozi murakkabu mukammale, ki kislotai nukleatro «tazriq» mekunad, ba hamin vobasta boshad.
Davrai digar – davrai «uryon shudan»-i virionhoi ba hujayra voridgashta meboshad. Bo in maqsad fermenthoi makhsusi hujayra istifoda burda meshavand. Onho gilofaki safedai V.-ro hal namuda, kislotai nukleati onro ozod mekunand. Kislotai nukleat ba yadroi hujayra dokhil megardad va yo dar sitoplazmai hujayra memonad. On nafaqat ba afzoishi V. «rohbari» mekunad, balki khususiyathoi irsii onhoro niz muayyan mesozad. Kislotai nukleati V. mubodilai khudi hujayraro furu nishonda, onro ba hosil kardani juzhoi navi virus vodor menamoyad. Bo yorii polimerazaho nuskhai kislotai nukleati volidayn girifta meshavad (transkripsiya va replikatsiya). YAk qismi nuskhahoi nav bo ribosomaho payvast megardand va dar onho sintezi safedahoi virusi ba amal barovarda meshavad (translyatsiya).
Badi on ki dar hujayrai siroyatyofta miqdori zarurii unsurhoi virus jam shud, ba ham payvastani virionhoi nasl (ba zaboni ilmi kompozitsiya) ba amal meoyad. In kor, odatan, dar nazdi hujayrapardaho, bazan bo ishtiroki bevositai onho meguzarad. Dar tarkibi virionhoi nav aksar vaqt moddahoe mavjudand, ki khosi hamon hujayrai V.-i dar on afzoishyofta meboshand. Dar chunin holatho virionhoi nav bo qabati membranai hujayra pushida meshavand.
Marhilai okhirin – az hujayra ba muhiti berun baromadan yo ozod shudani virionhoi nav meboshad. Hususiyati asosii enterovirusho (V. – i ruda) dar on ast, ki sadho, bazan hazorho virioni onho ba muhiti beruna khorij meshavand. V.-i digar (mas., V.-i tabkhol, reovirusho, ortomiksovirusho) pas az purra inkishof yoftanashon hujayraro tark mekunand. Onho to mahv shudani hujayra borho afzoish meyoband va tadrijan sintezi hujayraro kharob mesozand. Dar baze holatho V. dar dokhili hujayra misli kristall jam meoyand.
Hangomi gripp, hori, nagzak in zarraho dar sitoplazmai hujayra, dar mavridi ensefalit, varajai tropiki, tabkhol, surkhcha, poliomelit dar yadro, hangomi baze amrozi siroyati ham dar yadro va ham dar sitoplazma jo megirand.
Hususiyati V.-i dokhili hujayra baroi tashkhisi bemori sharoiti musoid faroham meorad. CHunonchi, agar dar hujayrahoi asabi magzi sar gun omadani V.-i sitoplazmavi (zarrachahoi Negri) ba mushohida rasad, pas on daleli asosii bemorii hori ast; vujud doshtani virushoi davrashakl yo bayzashakl (zarrachahoi Gvarnieri) dar hujayrahoi pust az bemorii nagzak darak medihad. «Anbuh»-i V. hamchunin dar mavridi ensefalit, oqsil va dig. bemoriho mushohida megardad. V.-i rastani «anbuh»-i khele gunoguni kristallshakl hosil mekunand.
Hullas, afzoishi V. ba tarzi makhsus surat megirad. Avval virionho ba daruni hujayra dokhil shuda kislotahoi nukleati virusiro ozod mekunand. Pas az on juzhoi virionhoi oyanda «tayyor» meshavand. Afzoish bo yakjoya shudani virionhoi nav va ba muhiti berun baromadani onho anjom mepazirad. Dar surati ba amal naomadani yake az in davraho sikl vayron shuda, afzoishi V. qat megardad yo nasli noqis ba vujud meoyad.
V. garchande az hujayra dahho va sadho barobar khurd boshand ham, onro mohirona idora mekunand. Baroi ba vujud ovardani nasli khud V. az moddahoi hujayra va energiya istifoda mebarand. V. az hisobi hujayra afzoish yofta, zakhirahoi onro kam mekunand, boisi ikhtiloli mubodilai moddaho va halokati hujayra megardand.
Tasnif va khususiyathoi bemoriovarii virusho. Asosi tasnifoti V. az chunin alomatho iborat ast: navi kislotai nukleat (KDN yo KRN), andoza, sokht, mavjud budan yo nabudani lipidho va g. Guruhhoi asosii V., ki angezandai bemorihoi odamand, dar jadval nishon doda shudaand. Tavre ki az jadval barmeoyad, ziyoda az 1000 virusi odam va hayvonot mavjud buda, dar ayni zamon qarib nisfi onho bemoriovar meboshand. Odatan, V. intikhoban tasir karda, uzvhoi muayyan va boftahoi ruda, bodomaki gulu, jigar, hujayrahoi asabi harommagz yo magzi sarro illatnok mesozand. Binobar in bemorihoe, ki onho ba vujud ovardaand (enterit, bemorihoi shadidi uzvhoi nafas, gepatit, ensefalit va g.), alomati muayyani kliniki dorand.
Baze V.-ero, ki angezandai kasalihoi hayvonot meboshand, khotirrason boyad kard. Garchande onho dar hujayrahoi hayvonoti khonagiyu vahshi, parranda, mohi va hasharot paraziti kunand ham, az rui sokht va khususiyathoi asosi ba V. – i dar jadval ovardai odam shabehand. Dar bayni onho guruhi kaloni V. mavjud meboshand, mas., V.-i nagzaki maymun , gov, shutur, govmesh, buz, khargush, mush, parrandayu hasharoti gunogun; adenovirushoi barzagov, asp, khuk, gusfand, sag, murg va murgobi; tabkholvirushoi maymun, bachapartoii aspho, khuk, kallamush va murg; reovirushoi maymun, kurshabparak, gusfand, murgon; togavirusho – angezandai ensefalomieliti asp, touni khuk, tabi khunrezi maymun; koronavirusho – angezandai bronkhiti murg, gepatiti mush, ensefaliti khuk va g; paramiksovirushoi gov, gusfand, murgi marjon, saba, tuti, pnevmoniyai gusfand, touni sag va g; retrovirusho – angezandai leykozi chorvoi kalon; reshi ravoni gurba va murgon, saratoni gadudhoi shiri mush va g; pikornavirusho – angezandai poliomelit va ensefalomiokarditi mushho, oqsil va g.
Doirai amroze, ki V. ba vujud meorand, nihoyat vase ast. Ba on ham siroyati vogir (mas., gripp, surkhcha, hori, khanozir, nagzak va g.), ham illati juzii pustu luobparda (tabkhol, ozakh), ham osebi uzvu boftahoi alohida (miokardit, gepatit, leykozho) va ham omoshoi badasl (saraton, reshi ravoni hayvonho) dokhil meshavand. Istifodai antibiotikho ba kam shudani bemorihoe, ki angezandaashon bakteriya va soddatarinho meboshand, musoidat kard. Ammo onho dar barobari in sababi afzudani vazni qiyosii bemorihoi virusii odam gashtand. Gripp, nazla, surkhcha, gepatiti virusi, varajahoi tropiki, tabkhol va dig. amrozi virusi hanuz ham az qabili bemorihoi mamul meboshand. Dar tabiat V.-i faqat mansubi odam kam duchor meoyand; hamai onho ba V.-i hayvonot nazdik yo monand meboshand. Bo V.-i angezandai gripp, surkhcha, khanozir, tabkhol, sitomegaliya, gastroenterit va nazla, kas khoh – nokhoh duchor meshavad; az V.-i angezandai gepatit, surkhakon, hori, poliomielit va miokardit kanorajui kardan mumkin ast. Odam yak davrai muayyani hassosiyat doshta boshad ham, dar tuli hayot khoh – nokhoh metavonad bo virusi yagon khel bemori siroyat yobad.
Hanuz dar batni modar ba kudak du virusi khavfnok – surkhakon va sitomegaliya tahdid mekunad. Kudakoni navzod va shirmak boshand, boz ham nozuktarand. Ba onho V.-i tabkholi navi 1 va 2, gepatiti V, gripp, nazlahoi gunogun, poliomielit, gastroenteritho tahdid menamoyand. Alalkhusus kudakoni khurd va kalontar nihoyat hassos meshavand. Onho ba hama namudhoi siroyati virusi va gepatiti A. hassos meboshand. V. ba odamoni kalonsol kamtar, vale ba pironsolon beshtar tasir merasonand.
Hamin tariq, V. az lahzai tavlid (aniqtarash hanuz pesh az tavallud) to pironsoli hamsafari doimii odamonand. Agar davomoti umri inson 70 sol boshad, 7 soli on bo bemorihoi virusi meguzarad. Az in jo malum ast, ki V. zarari kloni iqtisodi merasonand. Agar ba on ziyoni az digar amrozi virusi ba chorvo va rastani merasidaro ilova namoem, pas adadhoi beokhir hosil meshavand.
Biyoed, boz ba odamon barmegardem. Muqarrar gashtaast, ki odam sole bo du va beshtar siroyati virusi duchor meoyad, ammo dar tamomi davrai hayot virusho 200 marotiba ba organizmi u dokhil meshavand. Hushbakhtona in «vokhuriho» hamesha ba bemori anjom namepazirand, chunki dar rafti tahavvulot organizi inson bo bisyor V. muboriza burdanro omukhtaast.
Tasiri mutaqobilai virusho bo hujayra. Navhoi siroyati V. murakab va gunogunand. Dar baze mavridho bemori zud inkishof yofta, bo halokati hujayra anjom mepazirad. Dar mavridi digar V. ba dokhili hujayra daromada, gum meshavand va muddati daroz oseb namerasonand. SHakli yakumi tasiri mutaqobila siroyati oshkor (shadid), shakli duyum siroyati latenti (nihoni) nom dorad. Dar mavridi yakum bemori zudguzar buda, dar mavridi duyum on duru daroz va ba shakli muzmin davom mekunad; hujayraho zohiran betagyir memonand, az in ru muayyan kardani chunin bemori dushvor ast. Dar bayni in du namudi bemorihoi virusi bisyor shaklhoi darguzar niz mavjudand.
Hangomi siroyati virusii shadid pas az dokhil shudani virus hujayra kharob, yane pajmurda meshavad. Tadrijan yagon hujayrai zinda namemonad va faqat boqimondai favtidai onho ba nazar merasand. In holat ba bemorii siroyatii shadidi margovar monand ast. CHunin vaziyatro V.-i nagzak, poliomielit, oqsil va g. ba vujud meorand. Dar mavridi siroyati nihoni V. metavonand der goh dar hujayra monand va tasir narasonand. Ilova bar in, onho metavonand yakjoya bo nasli in hujayra, az avlod ba avlod guzarand. Muqarrar shudaast, ki dar tabiat siroyati nihoni nisbat ba siroyati shadid beshtar duchor meoyad. Dar asl hamai amrozi virusii malum metavonand ham dar shakli shadid va ham dar shakli nihoni jarayon girand. Siroyati virusii nihoni mumkin ast hangomi tabkhol, poliomielit, ensefalomielit, gepatit, hamchunin omos ba mushohida rasad. V.-i angezandai in bemoriho duru daroz (bazan tamomi umr) dar organizm monda, metavonand az khud darak nadihand. YAke az sababhoi on integratsiya (muttahid shudan)-i moddai genetikii virus va hujayra ast. Virusshinosi shuravi L.A. Zilber dar chunin mavridho iborai «bemorihoi mushtarak»-ro peshnihod namud. Hangomi kamquvvat shudani organizm (dar natijai khunuk khurdan, tasiri duru darozi nurhoi oftob, nurhoi rentgeni, stress) V. faol gashta, metavonand boisi sar zadani bemori gardand. Zeri tasiri omilhoi nomburda siroyati virusii noayon ba bemorii oshkoro meguzarad. Aksulamali organizm ba siroyati V. ba sababhoi bisyor, mas., miqdori virusi siroyatkarda, rohhoi ba organizm daromadani onho (darvozahoi siroyat), quvvai muhofizatii organizm va g. vobasta ast. Az in ru oqibati ba organizm roh yoftani V. niz metavonad gunogun boshad.
Ba V.-e, ki siroyati nihoniro ba amal meorand, pesh az hama V.-i tabkhol mansuband. Mas., V.-i tabkholi navi I-um illati juzii pust, luobparda va chashm, V.-i tabkholi navi II-yum boshand, illati uzvhoi tanosulro ba vujud meorand. In bemoriho bagoyat davomnok buda, pas az chand muddat takroran sar mezanand. Ba in guruh hamchunin V.-i angezandai shukufai farogir, mononukleozi siroyati va sitomegaliya dokhil meshavand. Takhmin menamoyand, ki onho, alalkhusus V.-i sitomegaliya, sadi siroyatnopazirii organizmro khalaldor va qobiliyati mudofiavii onro sust megardonand.
Digar viruse, ki duru daroz dar organizm noayon memonad, virusi gepatiti V ast. Hangomi in bemori, odatan, ba nom virushomilii solim mushohida megardad, ki nafaqat baroi odami homili virus, balki baroi atrofiyon niz khavfnok ast. Mutaassifona, chunin shakhson bisyorand. Az rui hisobi takhmini, shumorai onho dar dunyo 200 millionro tashkil medihad. Sababi ziyod budani in bemorii vaznin niz dar hamin ast.
Siroyati tadrijii virusho. Angezandagoni siroyati tadriji (virushoi sustsiroyat), illati magzi sarro ba vujud meorand. Angezandai panensefaliti shadidi sklerozi va panensefaliti shiddatgiri surkhakon V.-i surkhcha va surkhakon meboshand. In bemoriho bisyor duchor naoyand ham, khele vaznin meguzarand va hodisahoi margovari onho niz mushohida megardand. Leykoensefalopatiyai avjgir, ki angezandai on du navi virus – polioma va virusi hubobovari maymun SV 40 meboshand, boz ham kamtar vomekhurad. Namoyandai seyumi in guruh (virusi papilloma) sababi paydoishi ozakhho meshavad. Nomgui mukhtasari virushoi papilloma, polioma va virusi hubobovari SV 40 nomi umumii in guruhi V. – papovavirushoro tashkil dodaand.
Az siroyathoi virusii digari tadriji bemorii Kreytsfeldt – YAkobro nombar kardan mumkin ast. Dar in qabil bemoron kamaqli, falaj, parez (nimfalaj) mushohida gardida, sipas bo igmo va marg anjom meyobad. Hushbakhtona, shumorai chunin bemoron nihoyat kam ast (on az million yak nafarro tashkil medihad).
Dar bayni fore nom khalqiyati nisbatan kamshumori Gvineyai Nav bemorii Kuru oshkor karda shud. Bemori ba odati khurdani magzi sari kheshovandoni az Kuru favtida vobasta bud. Havfi siroyat makhsusan ba zanonu kudakon tahdid mekard, chunki onho dar kofta giriftan, tayyor kardan va khurdani magzi sari siroyatnok bevosita ishtirok menamudand. V. az afti kor ba tavassuti joyhoi burida yo kharoshidai pust vorid meshudand. Badi on ki yake az avvalin tadqiqotchiyoni bemorii Kuru – virusshinosi amrikoi Karlton Gaydushek ba mani odamkhuri muvaffaq gasht, in bemorii margovar ham nest shud.
Virusho va saraton. YAke az rohhoi hamzistii virusu hujayraho vaqte rukh medihad, ki moddai genetikii V. bo moddai genetikii hujayra yak meshavad (integratsiyai genomho). Dar natijai on virus guyo juzi muqarrarii hujayra gardida, az nasl ba nasl meguzarad. Saravval jarayoni integratsiya dar misoli bakteriofagho batafsil omukhta shud. Bakteriyahoe, ki qobiliyati biduni siroyat, yane khud az khud hosil kardani bakteriofagro dorand, der boz malumand. Hususiyati bakteriofag hosil namudani onho az nasl ba nasl meguzarad. Agar bakteriyahoi lizogeniro bo bakteriyahoi ba onho hassos siroyatnok kunand, afzoishi bakteriofag va halokati mikroorganizmho ba vuqu nameoyad. Bakteriofag dar in bakteriyaho khususiyati siroyatii khudro az dast medihad. Bakteriyaho minbad ham dar muhiti gizoi khub inkishof meyoband va sokhti muqarrari dorand. Farqi onho az bakteriyahoi siroyatnayofta dar on ast, ki ba siroyati takrori tobovar meshavand. CHunin bakteriyaho bakteriofagro ba nasli khud meguzaronand. Dar natija faqat qismi nochizi (az 10 haz. faqat 1-to) hujayrahoi alohida vayron va halok megardand. Taassurote ba amal meoyad, ki dar in muborizai ziddi bakteriofag bakteriya golib omad, vale dar asl in tavr nest. Vaqte ki bakteriyahoi lizogeni ba sharoiti nomusoid meaftand yo ba tasiri nurhoi ultrabunafsh, rentgeni va oksidkunandahoi purquvvat duchor meoyand, V.-i «pinhonshuda» faol gashta, shakli purrai khudro megirand. Dar in holat aksariyati hujayraho vayron meshavand va chunone ki dar mavridi siroyati shadidi muqarrari mushohida mekunem, paydoishi V. ogoz meyobad. In hodisa induksiya va omilhoe, ki onro ba vujud meorand, omilhoi induksiyakunanda nom dorand.
Lizogeniya dar bisyor laboratoriyahoi jahon tahqiq karda shudaast. Zimni in mavodi farovoni tajribavi ba dast omad, ki dar dokhili bakteriyaho ba shakli profagho (bakteriofaghoi bo khromosomahoi bakteriyaho yakjoyashuda) vujud doshtani bakteriofaghoi mutadilro sobit mesozand. Profag hamzamon bo hujayra (sinkhroni) afzoish meyobad. Profagho, ki juzi makhsusi hujayraand, dar yak vaqt funksiyai khud, yane nigoh doshtani akhbori genetikiro niz ijro mekunand. Akhbori genetiki baroi sintezi hissachahoi butuni hamin navi fag zararur ast. Dar mavridi ba sharoiti nomusoid aftidani bakteriyaho in khususiyati profagho ba kor meoyad, omilhoi induksiyakunanda aloqai bayni khromosomai profag va bakteriyaro khalaldor sokhta, profagro faol mekunand. Lizogeniya dar tabiat vase pahn gashtaast. Dar baze bakteriyaho (mas., stafilokokkho, bakteriyahoi domana) qarib har kadom namud lizogen meboshand.
Taqriban 40 virusi angezandai leykozho (saratoni khun), saratonu reshi ravoni sardkhunon (qurboqqaho), khazandagon (morho), parrandagon (murg) va shirkhuron (mush, kallamush, mirimushon, maymun) malumand. Hangomi ba jonvaroni solim guzaronidani chunin V. omoshoi badasl avj megirand. In masala dar odamon murakkab ast. Dushvorii kor bo V. (angezandagoni saraton va leykozi odam) dar on meboshad, ki bisyor vaqt hayvonhoi muvofiqro baroi kori laboratori judo karda giriftan muyassar namegardad. Bo vujudi on virusi angezandai leykozi odam oshkor karda shud.
Virusshinosi shuravi L.A. Zalber s-hoi 1948 – 49 nazariyai virusogenetikii paydoishi saratonro ba vujud ovard. Takhmin mekunand, ki kislotai nukleati V. va dastgohi irsii hujayra bo ham yak meshavand. CHunin muttahidi beoqibat namemonad, yane hujayra metavonad baze khususiyathoi nav paydo kunad, ki yake az onho qobiliyati zud afzoish yoftan ast. Dar natija hujayrahoi javon ba vujud meoyand; onho zud taqsim meshavand (illati pesh az saraton), qobiliyati afzoishi beist dorand va baroi tashakkuli omos zamina meguzorand.
V.-i omosovar (omoszo) chandon faol nestand. Az in sabab onho hujayraro taboh namesozand, ammo dar on tagyiroti irsi ba vujud meorand. Badi in hujayrahoi omos guyo digar ba V. ehtiyoj nadorand. Haqiqatan ham dar omoshoe, ki allakay tashakkul yoftaand, aksar vaqt V. mushohida karda nameshavand. Takhmin mekunand, ki V.-i navro dar tarkibi KDN-i hayvonoti az V.-i omosovar siroyatyofta didan mumkin ast.
Hamin tavr, dar surati integratsiya «amaliyoti makhfii» V. nihon memonad va der vaqt khudro zohir namesozad. Hangomi omuzishi daqiq malum megardad, ki chunin «pinhonshavi» nopurra ast. Mavjudiyati V.-ro az rui paydoishi antigenhoi nav dar sathi hujayra metavon oshkor namud. Agar dar tarkibi hujayra V.-i omosovar vujud doshta boshand, onho qobiliyati afzoishi beist paydo mekunand yo tagyir meyoband. In guna khususiyati onho alomati avvalini afzoishi omosi badasl ast. Transformatsiya (numui badasli hujayra)-ro safedae ba amal meorad, ki dar genomi V. ramz shudaast. Taqsimshavii betartib boisi paydoishi manbai transformatsiya megardad. Agar in holat dar organizm ruy dihad, pas illati qablisaratoni ba amal meoyad.
Dar membranahoi hujayra paydo shudani antigenhoi sathii omos onhoro baroi organizm «begona» mesozad. Az in lihoz onhoro sistemai immunitet chun hadaf oshkor khohad kard. Pas, charo omosho pydo meshavand? Malum, ki omos beshtar dar odamoni pironsol (binobar sust budani faoliyati immunitet) mushohida meshavad. Ehtimol, surati taqsim shudani hujayrahoi tagyiryofta nisbat ba javobi immunitet teztar boshad. SHoyad, chi tavre ki dalelhoi bisyor nishon medihand, V.-i omosovar ba sistemai immunitet fishor ovarand va yo tasiri onro bozdorand. Bazan ba in holat bemorihoi siroyati va hatto doruhoe, ki ba bemoron (mas., hangomi payvandi uzvu boftaho) medihand, sabab shuda metavonad.
Virushoi manfiatovar. V. manfiat ham dorand. Dar ibtido V.-i bakteriyakhur (bakteriofag)-ro tadqiq namudand. Malum gasht, ki onho avlodoni nazdiktarini khudro zud va berahmona nest mekunand. Qalamchamikrobi toun, domana, isholi khunin, vibrioni vabo va g. barobari bo in V.-i zohiran bezarar duchor omadan, dar peshi nazar nobud meshudand. Tabiist, ki bakteriofaghoro baroi peshgiri va muolijai bisyor bemorihoi siroyati (isholi khunin, vabo, tifi shikam) istifoda mebarand. Ammo pas az komyobihoi avvalin nokomiho rukh dodand. Malum gasht, ki tasiri bakteriofagho ba bakteriya dar organizmi odam nisbat ba probirka (zarfe, ki dar on bakteriyahoro mesabzonand) susttar ast. Gayr az in bakteriyaho zud ba bakteriofagho odat va hassosiyati khudro nisbati tasiroti onho gum mesozand. Pas az kashfi antibiotikho ahamiyati bakteriofagho hamchun doruvor kam shud. Ammo to imruz onhoro baroi oshkor sokhtani bakteriyaho istifoda mebarand. CHunki bakteriofgho «bakteriyahoi khud»-ro aniq yofta megirand va hal menamoyand.
V.-e, ki ba hayvonoti muhrador va hasharot siroyat mekunand, hamchunin az qabili virushoi mufidand. S-hoi 50 a. 20 dar Avstraliya masalai muboriza bar ziddi khargushhoi vahshi, ki ba kishovarzi zarari kalon meovardand, ba miyon omad. Dar muboriza bar ziddi onho V.-i miksomatozro ba kor burdand. Dar davomi 10 – 12 ruz in V. tamomi hayvonoti siroyatyoftaro nobud sokhtand. Baroi pahn namudani onho khomushakho istifoda karda shudand.
Dar bobati ba muqobili zararrasonho kor farmudani V. misolhoi ziyod ovardan mumkin ast. Hama medonand, ki kirmina va gambuskho chi zarar dorand. Onho bargi ziroati foidanokro mekhurand, niholhoro mekhushkonand. Ba muqoibili onho V.-i poliedroz va granulyoz muboriza mebarand. Dar qitahoi khurd onhoro bo puliverizator, dar maydonhoi vase boshad, az samolyot meposhand. Dar Kaliforniya hangomi az kirmak muhofizat namudani yunuchqa va dar Kanada baroi nest kardani gambuski sanavbar hamin usul kor farmuda shud. V.-ro dar oyanda dar muborizai ziddi kirmi karam, lablabu va mitta ba kor burdan mumkin ast.
Vokunishi organizm ba tasiri virus. Munosibati tarafayni virusu hujayra pesh az hama bo khususiyati V. va hassosiyati hujayraho muayyan karda meshavad. Mas., agar hujayraho retseptor (darrokho)-i muvofiq nadoshta boshand, V. ba onho roh yofta, tasiri kharobiovar merasonand. Hatto dar surati mavjudiyati retseptorho niz mutaassirii hujayraho nisbati V. mushohida nameshavad (siroyat dar onho vusat nameyobad). Nihoyat, agar hujayraho ba V. hassos boshand, pas in manoi onro nadorad, ki virus hatman onhoro mahv mesozad. Dar tabiat viruse nest, ki ba siroyat va mahvi hamai hujayraho qodir boshad. Aksar vaqt natijai tasiri mutaqobilai V. va hujayraho ba miqdori virusi ba organizm rohyofta vobasta ast.
Tasiri V. dar organizm muqobilati sakht ba vujud meorad (on dar hosil shudani interferon va ba kor daromadani sistemai immunitet ifoda meyobad). Safedahoi virus, ki avval baroi organizm begona budand, roli antigenhoro mebozand va javoban podtan hosil mekunand. Funksiyai asosii podtanho yoftan va bezarar gardondani antigenhost. Dar in kor ba onho hujayrahoi immuni kumak measonand (onho hissachahoi virusro doshta, hazm menamoyand).
Organizm nafaqat V.-i ba vay rohyoftaro nest mekunad, balki baroi dar oyanda ba onho duchor naomadan niz tayyori mebinad. Malum ast, ki odami yak bor bemor gashta duyumbora ba hamon bemorii virusi kam duchor meoyad. Raftu takroran bemor shavad ham, on zud va sabuk meguzarad. Baroi muhofizat az V. shart nest, ki odam ba onho duchor oyad. CHi tavre ki malum ast, kudaki shirmak ba bemorihoi virusi kam giriftor meshavad. Tabiat dar haqqi kudakoni shirmak gamkhori kardaast. Onho hangomi dar batn budanashon ba vositai khun va badi tavallud yoftan, ba vositai shiri modar masuniyat paydo mekunand. SHiri modar rudahoi kudak, yane daromadgohi asosii angezahoi bemoriro hifz menamoyad. Hamzamon bo in, baroi az bemorihoi asosii virusi najot dodan, ba kudak vaksina meguzaronand.
Baroi muhofizat az V. aksulamali iltihobi ahamiyati kalon dorad. Dar in mavrid ba gayr az makrofaghoi mamuli, hamchunin harorati baland va ziyod budani turshii muhit niz boisi mahvi V. khohand shud. Hamin tavr, posbononi makhsus (immunitet) va nomakhsus (interferon, reaksiyai iltihobi va g.), salomatiro hushyorona nigoh medorand.
Agar dar borai V. hama chizro tahlil namoem, pas ba khulosai ajib omadan mumkin ast. Az yak taraf V. hamai moneahoro pasi sar karda, metavonand bemoriro ba vujud orand; az tarafi digar organizm qodir ast ba onho muboriza barad va golib oyad. In hardu monandi jangi tan ba tan ast, ki boyad yake galaba kunad. Ammo oqibathoi digar niz imkonpazirand. CHunonchi (ehtimol in varianti az hama mamul boshad), du tarafi bo ham zid duru daroz yakjoya zista , ba hamdigar osebi jiddi namerasonand. CHunin «zindagii ahlona» metavonad mohho, solho va hatto dahsolaho davom kunad. In holat baroi hardu jonib sozgor ast. Az yak taraf virus baroi khud sohibe meyobad, ki az hisobi u ruz meguzaronad; az tarafi digar organizm bemor nameshavad va in salomati nisbatan oson ba dast meoyad. Ammo chunin muvozanat der davom nameyobad. Mekhanizmi on gunogun buda, hanuz purra omukhta nashudaast. Dar baze mavridho bisyor hujayrahoi organizm ba V. hassos nestand, vale yak qismi hujayrahoi tagiyryofta (mutantho) ba har hol ba afzoishu mavjudiyati onho roh medihand. Dar mavridi digar boshad, allakay khudi V. mutant (az jihati genetiki tagyiryofta) ba hisob meravand. Dar jarayoni afzoishi in guna V. virionhoi noqis – hissachahoe, ki dar onho moddahoi genetiki (KRN yo KDN) qisman yo purra vujud nadorand, hosil meshavand. CHunin virionho ba paydoishi virionhoi mutadil khalal merasonand.
Dar tabiat mutanthoi ba harorat hassosi V. niz duchor meoyand. Onho faqat dar harorati muayyan qobili afzoish meboshand. Binobar on harorati baland, ki khosi bemorihoi siroyati ast, in V.-ro mahv mesozad. Mutadil shudani harorat boshad, ba afzoishi virionhoi zinda musoidat mekunad va dar natija harorat boz bolo meravad.
Boz ba organizm barmegardem. Har organizm qobiliyati khosi ba vujud ovardani interferon, podtanho va dig. omilhoi muhofizro dorad. Darajai omilhoi muhofizi organizm dar vaziyati gunogun (hangomi stress, vobasta ba obu havo, sinnu sol ) metavonad pastu baland shavad. Tabiist, ki V. badi ba organizm vorid gashtan, ba muhiti baroyashon musoid yo nomusoid meaftand. Dar mavridi yakum onho boisi bemori megardand; dar mavridi duyum afzoishi onho sust meshavad, az khud darak namedihand, hol on ki tamoman barham namekhurand.
Baroi fahmo shudan, mo shartan varianthoi ehtimolii hamzistii V. va hujayraro judo kardem. Dar asl dar organizm varianthoi nomburda metavonand hamroh boshand, ki in tashkhisi bemorihoi virusii nihoniro dushvor megardonad.
Dar okhir boz yak mekhanizmi tasiri mutaqobilai virusu hujayrahoro ba khotir meorem. V.-e , ki ba «fishori immunitet» tob nameorand, majburan shakli khudro andake tagyir medihand va bo hamin roh az tasiri podtanho va dig. omilhoi immunitet raho meyoband. In holatro bo qonuni Darvin oidi muboriza bahri hayot va zinda mondani namudhoi mutobiqgashta manidod kardan mumkin ast.
Peshgiri va muolijai bemorihoi virusi. Se usuli asosii muborizai ziddi bemorihoi virusi malum ast: moyaguzaroni (vaksinatsiya), istifodai interferon va khimioterapiya. Har kadomi in usulho ba tavri khud tasir merasonad: vaksina (moya) sistemai immunitetro ba kor medarorad, interferon ba afzoishi virushoi dokhili hujayra mone meshavad, doruhoi khimiyavi ba virusho tasir rasonida, bemoriro boz medorand.
Usuli az hama qadim va etimodbakhsh moyaguzaroni meboshad. On qarib 200 sol in jonib ba insoniyat sodiqona khizmat mekunad. Avvalin kushishhoi muborizai ziddi bemorihoi virusi hanuz pesh az kashfi V. joy dosht. Mohiyati on khele oddist: «dushmanro boyad bo yaroqi khudash kusht». Dar in jo virus muqobili virus mebaroyad. Dukhturi anglis E. Jenner mushohida namud, ki shirfurushe, ki bemorii nagzaki govro az sar guzaronidaast (in bemori khele sabuk ast), minbad ba nagzaki odam giriftor nameshavad. S. 1796 u bo nagzaki gov odamoni solimro em kard (vaksina guzarond), pas az in onho ba nagzak giriftor nashudand. On solho az nagzak millionho odamon mefavtidand va in kashfiyoti Jenner khele muhim bud. Az on vaqt solhoi ziyod guzashtand. Olimi fransavi L. Paster s. 1885 vaksinai duyumi ziddivirusi (doruhoe, ki organizmro az siroyati virus va bakteriyaho emin medorand, hamin tavr menomidagi shudand)-ro baroi peshgirii hori hosil namud. Badi kashfi V. az virushoi kushta yo qamquvvat dar miqyosi sanoati vaksina istehsol mekardagi shudand. Dar surati ba organizm guzaronidani in guna V. bemori ba vuqu nameoyad va hatto bar ziddi hamon virus immuniteti faol paydo meshavad. In usulro peshgiri bo vaksina menomand.
Tayyor kardani vaksina kori murakkab ast. Dar on dukhturon, biologho, biokhimikho, injeneron va dig. mutakhassison ishtirok mekunand. Vaksinaho boyad tasirbakhsh va bezarar boshand.
Bo yorii vaksina bemorii nagzak tamoman barham khurd. In yake az galabahoi buzurgi ilmi tib dar a. 20 ast; poliomelit va hori kam duchor meoyand; bemorihoi surkhcha, surkhakon, parotit, varajai tropiki, ensefalit kam shudand. Ba sharofati vaksinatsiya hayoti millionho odamon najot yoft.
Digar usuli hifzi odam az V., ki ba vaksinatsiya nazdiki dorad, istifodai zardob va gamma-globulin ast. Onho az khuni odami giriftori yagon amrozi virusi yo az khuni hayvoni ba yagon virusi muayyan masuniyatdor tayyor karda meshavand. CHunin zardobho podtan, yane safedahoi makhsus dorand, ki onho baroi bezarar gardondani V.-i muvofiq qodir buda, pas az chand soati ba organizm vorid shudan, immuniteti sust ba vujud meorand. In usul baroi peshgirii surkhcha, muolijai ensefalit va dig. bemorihoi virusi istifoda megardad.
Mutaasifona, vaksinatsiyai ommavi hamesha saddi rohi bemorihoi virusi nameshavad. Zero vaksinaho tasiri intikhobi dorand va kambudii onho niz dar hamin ast. Dar holate, ki hamon yak bemori, mas., gripp va nazlaro V.-i bisyor (qarib 150 khel) ba vujud meorand, vaksinatsiya nisbati onho amalan imkonnopazir megardad. Behtarin navhoi vaksinai ziddi gripp faqat boisi kam shudani bemori megardand, vale onro purra barham doda nametavonand. Hudi V.-i gripp boshand, zud tagyir meyoband va vaksinahoi peshtar tayyorshuda nisbati onho tasiri khudro gum mekunand.
Bar zammi in, agar hatto bar ziddi hamai V.-i bemoriangez vaksina tayyor kunand ham (onho ziyoda az 500 khel meboshand), ba tamomi odamon guzaronidani on amri muhol ast. Binobar in, baroi muboriza bo V. khimioterapiya ba miyon omad. Tafovuti khimioterapiya az vaksinatsiya na dar peshgirii bemori, balki dar muolijai on ast.
CHi tavre ki malum ast, yagon dorui mamuli sulfanilamidi yo antibiotikho afzoishi V.-ro bozdoshta nametavonad. Dushvorii asosii khimioterapiya dar on ast, ki V. dar dokhili hujayraho afzoish meyoband. Az in ru har guna tasir ba sintezi V. boisi ikhtiloli mubodilai moddaho dar hujayra megardad. Dar natija aksar doruhoe, ki afzoishi V.-ro bozmedorand, dar ayni vaqt ba faoliyati hujayraho niz tasiri nomusoid merasonand. Binobar in, antibiotikho va antimetabolithoe, ki qobiliyati dar probirka bozdoshtani afzoishi V.-ro dorand, ba organizm chandon tasir namerasonand.
Vaqthoi okhir muayassar gardid, ki doruhoi ziddivirusii az jihati kliniki muvofiq ba dast ovarda shavand. Doruhoe, ki az ensefaliti virusi muhofizat mekunand, dar tajriba sanjida meshavand. Komyobihoi avvalini khimioterapiya az peshomadhoi in usuli muboriza bar ziddi V. shahodat medihand.
Bar khilofi vaksina va doruhoi khimiyavi doirai tasiroti interferon vase buda, amalan ba hama guna V. tasir merasonad, afzoishi V.-i hujayraro bozmedorad. Baze dalelho sobit menamoyand, ki agar interferonro organizm nagz qabul nakunad, bemorihoi virusi vaznintar meguzarand. Sanjishhoi kliniki nishon dodand, ki interferon dar asnoi bemorii nazla, alalkhusus agar bemoriro rinovirus ba vujud ovarda boshad (yane dar holathoe, ki vaksinaguzaroni chandon foidanok nest), tasiri beshtar merasonad. Istifodai interferon ziddi illathoi tabkholii pust, chashm va luobpardaho niz ahamiyati kalon dorad. Omuzishi doruhoi khimiyavi va interferon davom doshta boshad ham, surati imruzai peshrafti ilm ba on dalolat menamoyad, ki tib dar oyandai nazdik baroi rahoi az bisyor bemorihoi virusi vositahoi samaranok ba dast khohad ovard.

VIRUSHOE, KI BAROI ODAM HAVFNOK MEBOSHAND

Oila, guruhi asosii virusho, virushoi judogona Andozai virusho ba hisobi nanometr (nm) Adadi tipi virushoe, ki dar tabiat duchor meoyand Adadi tipi virushoe, ki ba odam oseb merasonand Ehtimoliyati bo virus duchor shudan (ba hisobi wacko Bemorihoe, ki angezandaashon virushoyand
Virushoe, ki KDN dorand
Oilai virushoi tabkhol 120 – 200 > 30 5 90 – 100 Hayvon
Virusi tabkholi tipi I 120 – 200 > 1 1 50 – 70 Bemorii chashm, luobparda, pust, bazan omos va ensefalit
Virusi tabkholi tipi II 120 – 200 1 1
Virusi obakon 120 – 200 1 100 Obakon
Sitomegalovirus 120 – 200 1 1 90
Virusi Epstayn – Barr 120 – 200 1 1 nomalum Omosi halqum
Gepadnovirusho 1 1 10 – 15 Gepatiti V (gepatiti zardobi)
Oilai adenovirusho 70 – 90 34 7 90 Nazla, bemorii chashm, ozakh
Avlodi papillomavirusho 45 – 55 9 3 50
Avlodi poliomavirusho 45 – 55 5 2 10 – 30 Ensefalopatiya, ehtimol omos
Virushoe, ki KRN dorand
Oilai rabdovirusho 50 – 95 30 8 10 – 30 Hori, stomatiti vezikulyari
Oilai koronavirusho 75 – 160 9 3 50 – 70 Nazla
Oilai paramiksovirusho 150 20 6 100 Nazla
Virusi khanozir 150 1 1 100 Hanoziri vogir
Virusi surkhcha 150 1 1 100 Surkhcha
Oilai ortomiksovirusho 80 – 120 3 3 100 Grippi A, V, S
Oilai bunyavirusho 90 – 100 > 200 > 50 nomalum Ensefalit
Oilai retrovirusho 80 – 100 > 20 nomalum – Angezahoi takhminii saraton, saromos, leykoz
Oilai reovirusho 60 – 80 80 20 20 – 50 Nazla
Guruhi rotavirusho 60 – 68 2 2 100 Gastroenteriti shadid
Oilai togovirusho 40 – 70 Beshtar az 200 Qarib 40 nomalum Varajaho
Guruhi virushoi surkhakon 60 – 75 1 1 85 Surkhakon
Oilai pikornavirusho 20 – 30 169 169 40 – 70
Enterovirusho 20 – 30 30 30 40 Poliomielit
Virushoi Koksaki A va V 20 – 30 29 29 40 Miokarditho
Rinovirusho 20 – 30 110 110 70 Nazla
Virushoi gepatiti A 20 – 30 1 1 40 Gepatiti A (siroyati)

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