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VAZI ZABONI ADABI  VA DAVLATI

Jayhoni, Daqiqi, Maysari, Firdavsi, Nosiri Husrav, Hofizi SHerozi, tarikhshinosonu jugrofidonhoi arab va bisyori digaron zaboni adabii asrhoi IX—XV tojikro porsi, forsi, porsii dari va dari guftaand. Sababi chunin nomho giriftani on hanuz malum nest. Vale hamnn qadarash aniq ast, ki porsi va forsi aynan yak chiz buda, forsii   dari, ki dari shakli kutohi on ast, dar bayni zabonho, lahjaho va shevahoi ziyodi zabonhoi eroni mahz zaboni adabi budani onro takid menamoyad. Malikushshuaro Bahor, Sadriddin Ayni, Said Nafisi, Parvizi Notili Honlari, E. E. Bertele, B. G. Gafurov, A. M. Mirzoev, Zabehullohi Safo va bisyor donoyoni digar bar on aqidaand, ki zaboni forsii   dari dar qalamravi Somoniyon hanuz 200—300 sol pesh az zuhuri Somoniyon, barobari zabonhoi pahlavi, khorazmi, sugdi, takhori va gayra amal mekard va royij bud. Dar borai istilohi «dari» donishmandi nomvari eroni Zabehullohi Safo menavisad: «Vajhi tasmiyai in zabon ba dari taalluqi on ba darbori shohon ast, zero in qoida az qadim malum budaast, ki zaboni mavridi takallumi darboru dastgohi davlati va marokizi podshohiro «dari» meguftand, yane mansub ba «dar» (=darbor=dargoh). Al-Muqaddasi dar «Ahsan-ut-taqosim» ba nahvi ravshantare manii dariro ba gunae, ki ovardaem, bayon mekunad va on dar mavridi zaboni ahli Bukhorost, ki dar borai on chunin meguyad: «Dar zaboni mardumi Bukhoro takrore vujud dorad, magar namebini, ki chi meguyand: «yake adorme va didam yake marde va bakhshidam adarme» va bar in qiyos kun va dar miyoni kalomi khud bisyor meguyand: «donisti», be on ki foidae dar on boshad, juz on ki in zabon dari ast va zabonhoe az qabili onro az on jihat «dari» guyand, ki zabonest, ki nomahoi podshoh bad-on navishta meshavad va arizahoe, ki ba u taqdim medorand, ba on zabon astu ishtiqoqi on az «dar» ast va on mani «bor» ast (yane, on ki zaboni dari zabonest, ki ahli bor — yane, ahli dargohi podshoh) bad-on sukhan meguyand».22 Ba qavli A. M. Mirzoev, «zaboni darii porsi zaboni ahli Bukhoro, Marv, Balkh, Nishopur va, umuman, zaboni aholii Movarounnahru Huroson buda, dar asri X, dar baro­bari in ki  zabon yak umumiyatero tashkil mekardaast, shevahoi har yak mahal bo khususiyathoi khosi khud az hamdigar farq mekardaand».23 Ba in guftaho chizi digare ilova kardan shart nest. Tanho yak nuktai bisyor muhimro boyad zikr kard, ki dar borai on ki  lahjai dari zaboni ahli mashriqi Eron, yane khosa Hurosonu Movarounnahr astu adabiyoti forsi az qarni savumu chahorum ba bad ba in zabon navishta meshavad, in zabon davomi lahjai pahlavii shimoli va yo pahlavii ashkoni buda, bo guzashti zamon bo zaboni arabi omezish yofta, to ba darajai zaboni dinu davlat va ilmu farhang, hamchunin zaboni adabiyoti tamomi mardum qaror giriftaast. Ustod Zabehullohi Safo yak nuktai digarro ham tavzeh medihad, ki ovardani onro niz joiz meshumorem. U menavisad: «Az qarni savumu chahorum ba bad in lahjaro, ki pas az tashkili darborhoi mashriq dar ahdi islomi ba surati zaboni rasmi daromad, ba asomii mukhtalife, monandi dari, porsii dari, porsi, forsi khondavu onro dar barobari arabi (tozi) va pahlavi (pahlavoni) qaror dodaand. In «porsi», ki dar tasmiyai favq ba kor raftaast, gayr az porsik ba manii pahlavii ahdi Sosoni  va forsi yo porsi ba manii lahjai muttadovil dar Fors ast, ki az qadimulayyom ba in nom khonda meshavad. Dar in jo porsi beshtar baroi muqobala bo arabi (tozi) va turki ba kor raftavu ba manii aam eronist, na baroi intisob ba qabila va yo qaboili muayyane az eroniyon».24 In guftaro az zaboni donishmandi buzurgi Eroni muosir «qasdan» ovardam, to ravshan gardad, ki mo charo za­boni Rudakiro forsivu dari meguem, hol on ki za­boni forsi khosi ahli Fors ast?! Ba in suol az javobi bolo behtar javobe dodan dushvor ast. Bazan az tarafi eroniho niz chunin pursishho ba miyon meoyad. Az khonandagoni azizam taqozo doram, ki hamesha dar khotir doshta boshand, ki mafhumhoi «Eron», «eroni», «fors», «forsi» har kadome ba du mani, ham ba manii tarikhi va ham ba manii imruza fahmida meshavad. Dar bobi fahmishi vojai «tojik» ham hol chunin ast.

      Paydoishu tashakkul va takomuli zaboni adabi tarikhan bo khat vobasta ast. Ba vositai khat ba zaboni adabi, ki shakli mukammali zaboni umumikhalqi meboshad, asarhoi adabi, ilmi, mazhabi va falsafi talif meyoband. Zabon, dar barobari umumiyati tarikhi va yagonagii sarzamin, omili asosii mavjudiyati khalq va nishonai asosii millat ast.

     Nakhustin kitobi buzurgi hadishoi Paygambari Islom hazrati Muhammadro farzandi khalqi tojik Imom Muhammad ibni Ismoili Bukhori (810—879) bo nomi «Al-jome-us-saheh» tartib doda bud, ki tahti unvoni «Sahehi Bukhori» shuhratmand gardidaast. In kitob az 7 jild iborat ast. Avvalin tafsiri mukammali Quron ham ba qalami olimi eroninajod Muhammad ibni Jarir At-Tabari (vaf. 923) taalluq dorad. In asar ham az 7 jild iborat buda, bo Quron yakjoya soli 352 h. ba forsii tojiki gardonida shudaast.

     Zaboni tojiki yake az zabonhoi khele qadimai dunyo buda, tarikhi tashakkulu takomuli on besh az 1500 solro faro megirad. Inkishofi on dar asrhoi IX—X ba ravandi tashakkuli khalqiyati tojik sakht vobasta ast. Tahqiqoti olimoni gunoguni dunyo muayyan kard, ki mahalli paydoishi zaboni forsii dari Movarounnahru Huroson va ibtidoi paydoishi on asrhoi bad az Hijrat budaast. In zabon dar barobari zabonhoi pahlavi, por­ti, sugdi, bokhtari, khorazmi va amsoli onho ba guruhi zabonhoi eroni dokhil shuda, dar asrhoi IX—HSH bo on qavmu qabilaho va khalqiyathoi eroninajodi ziyode, ki ba ham muttahid shuda budand, guftugu mekardand.

Albatta, in zabonho ba ham khele nazdik budand, vagarna baroi Bahromi Gur (420—438) hech zarurate nabud, ki bo ahli diyori khud ba chandin zabon harf zanad: «Bahromi Gur ba har zabone sukhan gufti: ba turki gufti va andar masjid bo omma dari gufti va vaqti chavgon zadan pahlavi gufti va andar harbgoh bo mubadon va ahli ilm porsi gufti».25

«Bozyofti katibahoi forsi (forsii miyona) dar Marv, ki ba asrhoi UP—USH taalluq dorand, imkon medihad ba khulosae omad, ki dar in jo allakay zaboni forsiro ba kor meburdaand. Muvofiqi malumoti purarzishi al-Jahshiyori, to soli 724 dar qalamravi Huroson khatti forsi (az afti kor, dar asosi alifboi pahlavi) istemol meshudaast. Binobar akhboroti Ibn al-Muqaffa va Muqaddasi mumkin ast hads zad, ki hanuz dar nimai yakumi asri USH zaboni forsi (tojiki) dar Balkh pahn gardida bud. Dar asrhoi UP—USH in zabon dar Eroni SHimolu SHarqi, Afgonistoni SHimoli va dar janubi Osiyoi Miyona, az jumla dar Tojikistoni Janubi ham maqomi mustahkam dosht»26

«Az sukhani Narshakhi (asri X) malum ast, ki dar masjidi Bukhoro, ki soli 713 sokhta shuda bud, Quronro ba zaboni forsi mekhondaand» 27, – menavisad B. G. Gafurov.

Barobari istiloi arabho dar sarosari khilofat zaboni arabi majburan chun zaboni dinu davlat va ilmu ada­biyot qaror girifta, dar bayni khalqhoi tobeshuda jori gardid. Dar sarzamini mo niz qarib 200 sol in siyosat davom yoft. Vale, ba huquqi mahdudi khud nigoh nakarda, zaboni forsii dari, ki zaboni ommai mardumi mahalli bud, ba sayri takomuli tadrijii khud davom doda, bar asli khud poydor mond. Tashakkuli khalqiyat, barqaror gardidani davlati mustaqili tojikon, peshrafthoi kishovarzi, ziroatkori, bogdori, jorvoparvari, kuhkani, chuyangudozi, hunarmandi, kulolgari, shishasozi, maishati khos va muvaffaqiyathoi ilmu madaniyat ba on ovarda rasondand, ki  zaboni forsii dari az ibtidoi islom (asri UP) inkishof yofta, dar ahdi Somoniyon ba darajai zaboni adabi va rasmii davlati bardoshta shavad.

Asosi in zaboni adabiro lahjayu shevahoi Bukhoro, Samarqand, Marv, Balkh, Badakhshon va Nnshopur tashkil mekard. Vaziri Nasr ibni Ahmadi Somoni (914—943) —Abuabdulloh Muhammad ibni Ahmadi Jayhoni, ki  so­li 326 hijri (938 melodi) ba joyi Balami nishasta bud, dar asari khud «Ashkol-il-olam», ki tarjuma va yo bozguyi forsii   on (asri XVI) to zamoni mo omada rasidaast, menigorad: «Zaboni ahli Bukhoro zaboni sugdist, magar andake, ki az on bigardadu zaboni eshon darist. Mardumoni Bukhoro dar odobu fazl behtar az joyi digarand» (iqtibos az navishtai Ahror Mukhtorov).

Dar natijai takomuli tabii va omezishi zabonhoi sugdivu bokhtari zaboni forsii   dari base ravnaqu inkishof paziruft, az yunoni, hindi, yahudi va arabi bisyor kalimavu tabirhoro girift. Dar natijai hamai in, zaboni forsii   dari bo pukhtagi, zakhirai ganii lugavi, sarfu nahvi ustuvor, normahoi muayyanshuda,   istilohot  va  vositahoi  gunoguni  uslubi  qodir  gardid, ki dar doirahoi rasmi, dastgohhoi davlati, mukotibahoi rasmi, korguzorii devonho (vazoratho) va marosimhoi mazhabi ba kor burda shavad. Ba in zabon asarhoi ilmi, adabi, mazhabi, tarikhi va falsafi talifu tarjuma meshudand. Dar asri III hijri (X melodi) allakay asarhoi ziyodi tarjumavi ba vujud omadand, ki tarjumonhoi ziyode dar in amr shugl mevarzidand. SHarhi kitobhoi gunogunro az zabonhoi yunoni, hindi, suriyoni ba arabi va az arabi ba forsi barmegardondand. Tabibi shoirpeshai Somoniyon Maysari dar ilmi tib asari «Donishnoma»-ro ba nazm ofarid, ki az panj hazor bayt iborat buda, holo yak nuskhai on dar Poris mahfuz ast. «Donishnoma»-i Abualii Sino, «At-tafhim»-i Aburayhoni Beruni, asari jugrofiyoyii muallifash nomalumi «Hudud-ul-olam» ba in zabon talif, «Tafsiri Tabari» (soli 956), «Tarikhi Tabari» va amsoli inho az arabi ba on tarjuma shudaand.

Za­boni asarhoi ulumi daqiq asosan arabi boqi mond, vale oid ba ilmhoi daqiq niz asarho ba zaboni forsii   dari navishta meshudand. YAke az onho, ki to zamoni mo omada rasidaast, «SHumornoma»-i Ayyubi Tabarist, ki oid ba ilmi hisob (arifmetika va algebrai ibtidoi) bahs mekunad. Dar zamoni Mansur ibni Nuh (961—977) Abumansuri Muvaffaq ibni Alii Haravi oid ba tib kitobi «Al-abniya ani-l-haqoiq-il-adviya»-ro tartib dod, ki yak nuskhai nodiri qalamii soli 1050 (mohi shavvoli 447 hijri) az jonibi shoiri maruf — muallifi «Garshospnoma» Asadii Tusi kitobatshudai on to zamoni mo rasida, to hol dar kitobkhonai Vena nigahdori meshavad.

Az nimai avvali asri IV sar karda in mardum khudro «tojik» va zabonashonro «forsii   dari» menomidagi shudand. Sarzamini onho az bahri Aralu Tiroz (Jambuli imruzai Jumkhurii Qazoqiston) to bahri Ha­zar  (Kaspiy) va az Koshgar to Siston doman gustarda bud.

Az asri VIII sar karda baroi ifodai zaboni forsii   dari alifboi forsii arabi istifoda me­shavad, ki baroi tojikoni Movarounnahr to soli 1928 khidmat kard. Eroniho, afgonho va tojiku forsizabonhoi kishvarhoi digar hanuz ham az khattu alifboi arabi istifoda mebarand. Dar asrhoi IX— X poyai adabiyoti olamshumuli tojiku fors ba hamin zabon guzoshta shud. Rudaki , Daqiqi, Abualii Sino, Balami, Firdavsi, Beruni va bisyor buzurgoni digar dodi sukhanro dar in zabon doda, onro boz ham suftayu pukhta kardand. Somoniyon ba in zabon navishta shudani asarhoi ilmivu adabiro tashviqu himoyat kardaand. Alloma Bobojon Gafurov menavisad: «Hele pesh az barpo gardidani davlati Somoniyon tojikon ba zaboni modarii khud lafzan asarhoi badei ejod mekardand. CHunin amri voqei, ki dar tamomi davrai hukmronii arabho, ananahoi adabii qabl az islom az bayn naraftand va khalq tasvirhoi badei  va  syujethoi  bostoniro  mahfuz dosht, yake az dalelhoi nisbat ba asri IX khele qadimtar budani tarikhi  adabiyoti  tojik  meboshad» 28  va, pason, khulosa mekunad: «Muvofiqi rivoyati Al-Muqaffa va Muqaddasi ham chunin barmeoyad, ki dar nimai avvali asri hashtum dar Balkh zaboni forsi pahn shuda bud.»29

Ba tojiki bargardonida shudani osori dinii musulmoni istiqloli zaboni tojikiro purra tamin kard. Ba qavle, hanuz dar ahdi Nasr ibni Ahmadi Somoni (914—942) tarjumai tafsiri Quron shuru shuda, dar nimai qarni dahum tarjumai purrai «Tafsiri Tabari» anjom paziruft, ki onro dar zamoni saltanati Mansur ibni Nuhi Somoni ba ehtimomi vaziri u Balami pisari khudi Balami dar bayni solhoi 353 — 365 hijri anjom doda bud. Dar muqaddimai kitob darj gardidaast: «Va in kitob tafsiri buzurg ast az rivoyati Muhammad ibni Jarir at-Tabari, rahmatullohi alayhi, tarjumakarda ba zaboni porsi va dari ba rohi rost va in kitobro ovardand az Bagdod, chihil mushaf bud. In kitob binvishta ba zaboni tozi va ba asnodhoe daroz bud». Mansur ibni Nuh, ki ba arabi chandon balad nabud, onro fahmida nametavonist, farmud, ki ba zaboni forsi bargardonand: «Pas ulamoi Movarounnahrro gird kardu in az eshon fatvo kard, ki ravo boshad, ki mo in kitobro ba zaboni porsi gardonem? Guftand: — Ravo naboshad khondanu navishtani tafsiri Quron ba porsi mar on kasro, ki u tozi nadonad. Digar on bud, ki in zaboni forsi az qadim boz donistand az ruzgori Odam to ruzgori Ismoili Paygambar (a) hama paygambaroni mulkoni zamin ba porsi sukhan guftandi.»30 Abulqosim Hakimi Samarqandi dar borai oyinu rusum kitobe insho kard, ki onro tamomi ulamoi Bukhoro bipisandidand. Va boz amir «farmud, ki in kitobro ba porsi boyad kard, to khosu omro manfiat buvad».

Dar borai inkishofu tahavvuli zaboni forsi haminro guftan lozim ast, ki «in zaboni davrai peshazislomii arab ne, balki yakunim hazor sol peshtar ba vujud omada buda, yodgorihoi khattii on ba asri shashumi pesh az melod rafta merasad» (Bobojon Gafurov).

Ba darajai zaboni rasmii davlati va adabi bardoshta shudani zaboni dari, avvalan, baroi sust shudani zaboni ba mardumi mahalli begona — arabi roli muhim bozida, ba in vosita umuman tasiri khilofatro dar hayoti iqtisodiyu siyosii mamlakat kam mekard. Soniyan,  baroi muttahid gardonidan va purquvvat shudani istiqloliyati khalqhoi hamnajodi mahalli, masalan, bokhtarihoyu sugdiho, omili tavonoe bud. Binobar hamin, targibu tashviq va pushtibonii zaboni dari baroi mustahkam shudani mavqeu nufuzi davlati Somoni az vazifahoi muhimtarini siyosi ba shumor meraft.

Minbada zaboni forsii   dari dar Eron, SHimoli Hinduston, Iroq, Qafqoz, Turkiya, Turkiston, Koshgar va gayra pahn gardida, ba in zabon merosi mushtaraki ilmiyu adabii in khalqho ofarida shud, ki iftikhori jahoniyon meboshad.

In jo zikri yak padida noguzir ast: dar qarnhoi IX- XI osori ilmi, baraksi osori adabi,  ki  ba  forsii   dari ejod megardid, beshtar ba arabi navishta meshud. Hamchunin, dar in qurun zardushtiyoni eroni niz quvvat  girifta, jihati  ehyoi  zaboni  pahlavi  kushishe  namuda, bar zammi naskhoi «Avasto» va tafsirhoi on, ba talifi yak silsila kutubi mazhabivu ilmi ba pahlavik noyil gardidand, ki «Dinkart» muhimtarini onhostu az nuh jild iborat astu odobu aqoidu rivoyathoi dinivu asotirivu vaqoei tarikhi (zindaginomai afsonavii Kayumars, Jamshed, Gushtosp, Zardusht va amsoli in)-ro faro megirad. In kitobro, ki aslan «Zand akoseh» nom dosht, mubadon ba tarzi shifohi hifz namuda, sina ba sina va zina ba zina ba naslhoi badina intiqol medodand. Ozarfaranbagi pisari Farrukhzod onro dar zamoni Halifa Mamun (813—832) ba rishtai tahrir kashida, kitobat namuda bud.

Kitobhoi digari muhimmi pahlavi, ki dar in zamon tasnif shudaand, inho budand: «Bundahishn» (oid ba ofarinishi jahon, tarikh va jugrofiya), «Guzorishi shatrang» (usuli shatranjbozi) «Ardavirofnoma» (sheri Zardusht), «SHkangumani vijor» (fiqhi zardushtiyon) va gayra. Vale zaboni pahlavi, ba illati on ki osori dini mansukhu aqoidi mazhabiro faro megirift, nametavonist bo zaboni forsii   dari, ki zaboni davlati, adabiyot va ilmu mardum bud, muqovimat kunad. Az ii ru, bisyor donishmandon kitobhoi pahlaviro ba forsii   dari va arabi tarjuma kardand. Hullasi kalom, qalamravi Oli Somon dar qarnhoi SH—IV hijri (IX—X melodi) az obodtarinu farhangitarin kishvarhoi islomi ba hisob rafta, Abuabdulloh ibni Ahmadi Jayhoni — vaziri donishmandi Nasr ibni Ahmad (914—943) dar asari mazkuri khud31, chunon ki bolotar ishora raft, va dahhoi digar muarrikhonu jugrofiyonigoronu safarnomanavisoni peshinu pasini khudivu begona dar sifati tamomi shahru viloyathoi sarzamini Somoniyon malumoti ravshanu mufassal doda, har kadome az onho rivoju ravnaqi kamtar yo beshtare doshtani in yo on navu namudu shokhai ilmu farhangi tojikii oriyoniro batafsil raqambandi kardaand, ki dar bolo jami mukhtasarashonro peshkashi khonandagoni aziz gardonidem. Bad-in mani, digar doir ba obodonivu ganovati sarzamini pahnovari Somoniyon sukhanro kutoh karda, dar intiho navishtai yake az okhirin tadqiqot roje ba mavzui bahsi mo — «Eron dar zamoni Somoniyon»-i oqoi Javodi Haraviro khulosavor zikr menamoyam: «Dar nohiyai Movarounnahr shahrhoi Samarqandu Bukhoro ba soni du gavhar durakhshidavu doroyi qidmati bas derinavu kuhane dar tarikh niz budaand. Az tarafe, ba daleli qaror giriftan dar kanori rudi Sugd az khurramivu sarsabzii khose niz barkhurdor budaand. Dar ibtidoi qudratyobii Somoniyon shahri Samarqand ba unvon maqarri hukumat ba hisob meraft. Vale bo margi Nasr (279 h.) poytakht ba Bukhoro intiqol doda shudu Amir Ismoili Somoni shahri Bukhororo ravnaqu vusati farovone bakhshid. Batadrij Bukhoro ba unvoni yake az muhimtarin  shahrhoi   Eron   shinokhta    shudu   bo   Bagdod   —   markazi  Hilofati  Abbosi  kusi barodari zad, markazi donishmandonu ulamovu adibon gardid». 

 

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