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VAZI SIYOSIYU IQTISODII SURIYA, LUBNON, FALASTIN VA IROQ (asri 19)

Dar nimai duyumi asri XIX-to solhoi 90-um dar iqtisodiyoti Suriya, Lubnon va Falastin sarmoyai khoriji, alalkhusus sarmoyai Faronsa mavqei hukmronro ishgol mekard. Davlathon imperialisti muttasil in muzofothoi imperiyai Usmoniyonro ba manbai ashyoi khomi kishovarzii sanoati, sohai mablagguzori va bozori furushi molhoi khud tabdil medodand. Suriya va Lubnon mahsuloti mevagi, qandi nayshakar, zagirpoya, tamoku, pakhta va baroi sanoati bofandagii Angliya va Faronsa kalobai abreshim istehsol mekardand.

Sistemai bonkii in davlatho niz az tarafi sarmoyai khoriji nazorat karda meshud. Dar Suriya, Lubnon va Falastin shubahoi sershumori bonki Ottoman va bonkhoi Angliya va Germaniya kor karda, daromadi kalon megiriftand, az on jumla, bonki Angliya – Falastin, Bonki tijoratii Falastin, Bonki Salonika, Bonki qarzdihii Lion, Bonki germaniyavii SHarq, Bonki falastinii Germaniya, Korhoi marbut ba sugurta az tarafi avstriyagiho nazorat karda meshudand. SHirkathoi khoriji kishtigardii bahrii in davlathoro niz ba dast darovarda budand.

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Zulmi shadidi Turkiyai sultoni va asorati khoriji ba on ovarda rasond, ki Suriya, Lubnon va Falastin yagon khel sanoati peshqadam nadoshtand. Ustokhonahoi mavjudai khurd asosan ba korkardi avvaliyai ashyoi khomi kishovarzi mashgul budand.

Dar nohiyai az jihati strategi muhimi Falastin, ki ba mavzei Kanali Suets hamjavor bud, manfiathoi mamlakathoi puriqtidori imperialisti bo ham barkhurda budand. Har yaki onho kushish mekard, ki vazi farqiyati dinii mahalro dar in nohiya baroi mustahkam kardani mavqei khud istifoda barad. Gayr az in shirkathoi gunoguni khoriji va maqomoti moliyavii sionisti ba kharidani zaminhoi pomeshikho va kishovarzoni arab shuru karda budand. Dar okhirhoi asri XIX dar in zaminho boshishgohhoi ziyodi muhojironi yakhudii germaniyavi sokhta shudand. In kor ogozi mustamlikagardonii sionisti va germanii zaminhoi Falastin bud. Markazhoi muhojironi mustamlikachiyoni germaniyavi dar Falastin hamchun rohi muhimi dar in mintaqa pahn kardani tasiri Germaniya istifoda burda meshudand.

Dar choryaki okhirini asri XIX va ogozi asri XX ba Iroq voridshavii shirkathoi inhisorii khoriji surat megirad. Naqliyoti bahru daryogardi, kori bonki, tijorati khoriji va sanoati korkardi avvaliyai ashyoi khom ba zeri nazorati sarmoyadoroni evropavi va pesh az hama, ba zeri nazorati sarmoyai anglisi medaromadand. Kishtigardii daryo tavassugi Dajla va Furot va SHatt-ul-Arabro az soli 1861 shirkati anglisii Linch ba dast darovard. On soli oyanda aloqai bahrii bayni Hinduston va bandarhoi khaliji Forsro barqaror kard. Dar solhoi 90-um dar in mamlakat nazdiki 10 shirkati naqliyoti khoriji faoliyat dosht. Dar ogozi asri XX shirkati anglisi kishtagardiro dar Dajla purra inhisori khud kard. Anglisho dar Iroq khati telegraf ham sokhtand. Dar asosi sarmoyai anglisi dar Bagdod va Basra shubahoi bonki Ottoman kushoda shudand.

Anglisho dar Iroq khujaini yagona nabudand. Ba onho lozim meomad, ki baroi manfiathoi khud bar ziddi sarmoyadoroni Faronsa, Belgiya va Italiya muboriza barand. Vale dar in muboriza raqibi asosii anglisho imperializmi Germaniya bud. YUnkyorho va sarmoyadoroni nemis naqshai mustamlikagardonii muzofothoi osiyoii imperiyai Usmoniyonro mekashidand va orzu doshtand, ki Iroqro ba makoni galla va kishtzorhoi pakhtaparvarii khud tabdil dihand.

Ba doirai tijorati jahoni kashida shudani Iroq va afzoishi sodiroti mahsuloti kishovarzi istehsoloti kishovarzii onro to yak daraja ba pesh harakat dodand. Vale Iroq misli peshtara mamlakati kishovarzii doroi tekhnikai aqibmonda va usulhoi kammahsuli khojagidori mondan girift. To ogozi Jangi yakumi jahoni in davlat nimmustamlikai imperializmi anglis shud.

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