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VAZI ADABI: Dar zamoni hukmronii arab

Ajdodi khalqi tojik dar davomi tamomi 200 soli hukmronii arab hej goh az idomati faoliyati ilmiyu adabi dast nakashidaand. Dar avval adiboni eroninajod na faqat dar markazhoi khilofat, balki  dar sarosari Eronu Hurosonu Varorud ba zaboni arabi ejod mekardand.50

Mardumi eroninajod az qadimtarin aholii kurai arz buda, dar ibtido az Hindukush to sohilhoi Don, az  bahri  Hazar   to Dajlavu Furot    va    dar Mashriq to Isfijobu Hallukh sukunat varzida, bokhtariho,  khorazmiyon,  sugdiho,  forsho,    sakoiho,    skifho, sarmatho,  takhoriyon va  qavmhoi    digari    eroninajod dar  sarzaminhoi  nopaydokanore zista, ba zabonhoi ba ham nazdik takallum mekardaand. In mardumon, ki az ibtido bo Bobulu Misr, Hindu CHin, YUnonu Rum, badho  bo   Rimu  Arabu  Turk   robitahoi  farhangi doshtand, adabiyoti ganii shifohivu khattie ba vujud ovarda   budand, ki  to  imruz   mashhuri    olamiyon  ast. Ammo ejodkoroni asosii in adabiyoti jahonshumul, ki dar bunyodi on khalqhovu qavmhoi ziyode sahm  guzoshtaand, tojikon, yane eroniyoni sharqi, va forsho, yane eroniyoni garbi, meboshand. Az in jihat, adabiyoti forsizaboni   asrhoi     IX—HU-ro   bisyoriho     (S.   Nafisi, S. Ayni, P. N. Honlari, E. E. Bertels, YAn Ripka    va digaron) barhaq adabiyoti forsu tojik menomand. Tarikh guvoh ast, ki adabiyoti forsu tojik az qadimtarin va  ganitarin  adabiyoti dunyost, ki  az  rivoyatho, usturaho, mifho, qissaho, dostonho, surudho, chomaho, taronaho, chakomaho, dubaytiho, afsonaho, latifaho, masalho, maqolu zarbulmasalho va  amsoli  inho sarshor bud. Afsonai  «Gurzod»,  ki  badho chun «Gaybzod» va sipas bo nomi «Gurugli» mashhur gardidaast, usturaho, surudhoi mehnatiyu marosimi va gayra pindori mardumro dar  borai  bakhtu saodat va orzuvu omoli eroninajodon ifoda namuda, dar onho tasavvuroti mardum oid ba ashyoi atrof, hodisahoi tabiat, obu zamin, boronu abr, radu barq, kayhonu koinot, dardu darmon, hayotu marg, zindagii on dunyo va monandi inho inikos yoftaand.

In qabil guftaho az dahon ba dahon guzashta, dar yodi sinaho mahfuz memondand.

Naqlu rivoyathoi niyogon roje ba ofaridgori pok YAzdon, Ahuramazdo, Ardavisura, Anahito, Mitra  (Mehr, Hurshed), Angni  (Ogon, Otash), Moh va amsoli inho aqoidu etiqodot va jahonfahmii eronihoro tavjeh medihand. Usturaho doir ba nakhustin insoni ruyi zamin    Kayumars, paydoishi avvalin jufti odami (Maya va  Mashyonak), qissaho oid ba podshohoni odilu khalqparvar Hushang, Jamshed va Faridun, dostonhoi qahramonii peshvoyoni khalq Rustamu Kovai ohangar, fojiahoi dilkharoshi sarguzashti Suhrobu Siyovush, davati paygambaron  Garshosp,    Zardusht, Moni va Mazdak, ki  hama ba tarzi khud chun namoyandahoi neruhoi Neki va Rushnoi amal karda, ba muqobili quvvahoi Badi va Zulmat, ki timsoli khulqi noshoyamand, Ahriman, Durug, Arjosp, Afrosiyobi gunahgori    marg, Zahhoki moron,  ki hamesha  ba  magzi sari    inson,  ki ramzi khiradu donish ast, tahdid mekunad, alayhi  shohoni  zolimu  khunkhor,  goratgaronu  istilogaroni ajnabi, sahronishinoni  rohzan, devu ajinai khayoli, jodugaronu sohiron va gayra muboriza burda, dar nihoyati kor piruz  megardidand.  Rivoyatho dar  borai Simurgu Samandar khele dilangezand.  Namunahoi  behtarini  adabiyoti shifohi   (folklor)  ba adabiyoti khatti guzashta, bunyodu bunlodvor adabiyoti forsiro    chun  yake az ganitarin adabiyoti olam ba vujud ovardaand.

Namunahoi qadimtarini adabiyoti bostonii forsu tojik dar hazorsolai duvumi qabl az melod arzi vujud namuda, «Gotho»-i «Avasto» hanuz dar asrhoi HP—H-i qabl az melod ejod gardidaand, ki farogiri andeshahoi paygambari eroninajodon Zardusht meboshand. «Kornomai Doro» va «Ayotkori Zariron» (asri V qabl az melod), «Zariaf va Odatida» (asri IV qabl az melod), «Kornomaki  Artakhsheri Popakon» (asri VI), ki sarguzashti asosguzori khonadoni Sosoni Ardasheri Bobakon (224- 241) ast, «Arjang»-i Moni (215—276), «Pandnomaki Anushakravon»   (asri VI), tahriru tadvini  chandinkaratai «Hudoynomak»,  asari sugdii «Dostoni  Rustam» (asri VII)  va gayraho     namunahoi barjastai adabiyoti Eroni boston va mardumi tojik meboshand, ki  dar onho nabardi hameshagii du mabdai ziddi yakdigar —

Neki va Badi va Rushnoivu Toriki tajassum yoftaast.

Dar asri VI asarhoi ziyode az hindi («Kalilavu Dimna», «Sindbodnoma»),   yunoni   (asli   «Vomiqu Uzro», «Salomonu Absol»), lotini va gayra dar Taysafun,   Gundi SHopur,   Balkh,  Hirot,  Marv,  Samarqanl, Sugd va gayra ba pahlavivu sugdi bargardonida shuda budand. «Hazor afsona», ki aslan manbai forsi dosht, hanuz pesh az istiloi arab murattab gardida, dar asri IX ba  zaboni  arabi tarjuma shuda,  badho  bo nomi «Hazoru yak shab» dar  sarosari jahon  mashhur gasht.

Eronu Hurosonu Movarounnahr dar tuli se asri avvali islom makoni rivoji dinhoi mukhtalif buda, dar in kishvarho dini islom, oyini zardushti, keshi monavi, mazhabi isavi, maslaki yahudi va dar baze joyho, hatto, talimoti buddoi va etiqodoti hindi amal mekard.  Baroi nashri  afkoru targibi  aqoidi khud muballigini in  adyonu mazohib  zabonhoi  arabi, pahlavi, suryoni, sanskrit va gayraro ba kor meburdand. Dabistonu dabiristonho,  madrasavu  masjidho,  otashkadavu dayru  kitobkhona va  amsoli inho chun konunhoi bahsu tashviqi andesha va markazhoi ejodi shinokhta  shuda  budand.  Aksari kitobhoi  pahlavi    badan, dar asrhoi USH—IX, ba arabi naqlu bargardon shudaand.

Fotihoni  arab  bo tamomi hasti kushishe ba  kharj dodaand, ki zabonu farhangi eroniro bilkul az ruyi zamin bardorand. Va bo in niyyat dar sarzamini tojikonu kulli eroniyon rasman khattu alifboi arabi va zaboni toziro  jori  namudand.  Barobari  gustarish    paziruftani islom dar  Movarounnahru Huroson  aksari  rivoyathoi Quron dar borai khilqati Olamu Odam, kishtii Nuh, qissahoi  YUsufu   Sulaymon,  Ashobi   kahf,   masalhoi arabi roje ba hasharotu parrandaho va hayvonot, murgi Qaknus (Feniks), bihishtu duzakhu miroj va gayra ba folkloru adabiyoti kitobii forsu tojik vorid shuda, dar qatori digar unsurhoi adabiyoti Eroni boston qaror faro giriftand.

Bale, dar davomi 200 soli hukumati arab mardumoni eroni hej goh az idomatu tarviji faoliyati ilmii khud boznaistodaand. Mardumi    mahalli dar viloyathoi gunogun ba lahjahoi sugdi, khorazmi, takhori, tabari, kurdi, ozari, rozi, kirmoni, luri, forsi (nohiyai Fors), forsii   dari va gayraho asar meofaridand. Talif ba    zaboni pahlavi davom doshta, dar asri IX khele avj girift. Lekin aksari navisandaho ba zaboni adabii umumi, yane forsi, sukhan rondavu asar menavishtand. Avvalin ulamovu udaboi forsiguy Abumuhammadi Balami,  Abumansuri  Daqiqi,  Abulqosimi   Firdavsi va Nosiri Husrav zaboni osori khudro «forsi», «porsi», «forsii   dari», «dari» nomidaand, ammo mardumi kishvari bekaroni oriyoi ba lahjahoi ziyodi mahalli  taronavu  badeha     suruda,  qissavu  afsona  meguftaast. Roje ba zuhuri vojai «dari» fikru andeshahoi mukhtalif vujud dorand, ammo mo bar on hastem, ki «dari» bo kalimai «darbor», ki mushavviqu muravviqi zaboni adabii kitobi bud, bealoqa nest. Bo in hama, qabl az sabzishu gustarishi adabiyoti vijai forsizabon adabiyoti ganii arabizaboni mardumi eroniyulasl arzi vujud kard, ki  shomilu sholudai pindori neki  sohibonash budaast.

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