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VAZNI ODAM

vazni-odamVAZNI ODAM (Pondus corporis), massai tani odam, nishondodi antropometrie, ki bo rohi barkashidan bo maqsadi baho dodan ba inkishofi jismoni, tagziya va holati salomati amali gardonda meshavad. V. o. ba kolbad (jussa), jins va sinnu sol vobasta ast. Vazni tan nishondihandai nisbii inkishofi jismoni va vazi tandurustii odam meboshad.
Har shakhs vazni khudro boyad nazorat kunad Harchand odam vazni khos dorad va on tagyir yofta meistad, meyori muayyani vazn (vobasta ba sinnu sol, jins va dig. khususiyatho) muqarrar karda shudaast. Mas., baroi kudaki sinni to 4-sola, ki vazni badanash az darajai inkishofi jismonii u aniq guvohi medihad, chunin meyor muqarrar shudaast (jadvali 1). Odatan, padaru modaron tanho tagyiri vazni solhoi avvali hayoti kudakon (khususan sinni shirmaki)-ro bo diqqat nazorat karda, ba vazni kudakoni sinnashon kalontar kam ahamiyat medihand. Az in ru, bo meyori vazni kudakoni sinnashon kalontar niz shinos shudan muvofiqi maqsad ast (jadvali 2). In meyor badi muoinai kudakoni sinnashon gunogun az jonibi mutakhassison (pediatrho, antropologho, fiziologho va g.) tartib doda shudaast.
Jadvali 1.
Vazni kudakon dar davrai se soli avvali hayot (ba hisobi gramm)

Sin Pisarbachaho Dukhtarbachaho
Navzodon 3500 ± 450 3300 ± 4600
1 – moha 4300 ± 650 4100 ± 5500
2 – moha 5300 ± 750 5000 ± 550
3 – mokha 6300 ± 750 600 ± 5500
4 – moha 6900 ± 750 6500 ± 800
5 – moha 7800 ± 800 7400 ± 950
6 – moha 8700 ± 750 8000 ± 950
7- moha 8900 ± 1000 8300 ± 950
8- moha 9500 ± 1000 8500 ± 1000
9- moha 9900 ± 1200 9300 ± 1000
10- moha 10 400 ± 1200 9500 ± 1300
11- moha 10 500 ± 1000 9800 ± 1000
12- moha 10 700 ± 1200 10100 ± 1200
15- moha 11 400 ± 1300 10500 ± 1300
18- moha 11 800 ± 1200 11400 ± 1100
21- moha 12 700 ± 1400 12300 ± 1400
24- moha 13 000 ± 1200 12600 ± 1800
30- moha 14 000 ± 1300 13900 ± 1600
36- moha 15 000 ± 1700 14900 ± 1500

Dar ayni hol akseleratsiya niz dar maddi nazar meboshad. Az in ru, dar jadval ham nishondihandai vazn va ham nishondihandai qad ovarda shudaast.
Agar vazni kudak nisbat ba nishondodi jadval andake kam yo ziyod boshad, in nishonai yagon bemori nabuda, ba khususiyathoi sokhti badan (darajai inkishofi mushakho, ustuvorii boftai ustukhon va g.) vobasta ast. Dar davrai bosurat qad kashidan (7 – 8 va 12 – 14-solagi), vazn az meyor dur meshavad. Vale az meyor 15 – 20% ziyod gashtani vazn alomati farbehii darajai yakum, 20 – 50% darajai duyum va 50 – 100% va beshtar az on darajai seyum va chorum meboshad.
Afzudani vazn chandon ziyod nest, vale farbehii darajai yakum toraft meafzoyad, ki khavfi jiddi dorad. YAkum, on baroi dilu ragho tahmili ziyodatist va boisi baland shudani fishori khun megardad (nig. Bemorii gipertoniya). Kudakoni farbeh khasta, dardi sar va behol meshavand. Farbehi ba uzvhoi takyayu harakat niz tasiri manfi merasonad, chunki ustukhonho, bandakho va boftai tagoyak hanuz noustuvorand. Pas, vazni ziyodatii kudaki «farbehak» gayritabiist va ba ustukhonbandii u tasiri noguvor meorad. Duyum, chunin kudakon az farbehii khud dar nazdi digaron dar khojilat memonand, injiq, giryonchak, tundmizoj va ruhan dar azob ba voya merasand.
Ziyodii vazn beshtar alomati ikhtiloli mubodilai moddaho, faoliyati sistemai uzvhoi endokrini va g. meboshad. Binobar in agar vazni kudak nogahon afzoyad, az dukhtur (pediatr, endokrinolog va g.) maslihat giriftan zarur ast.
Jadvali 2
Vobastagii vazni badan (bo kg)
az qad (bo sm) dar kudakoni sinni 4 – 15-sola

Sinnu sol Vazn Qad
pisarbachaho dukhtarbachaho pisarbachaho dukhtarbachaho
4 – sola 15,5 – 18,9 14,4 – 17,9 98 – 107 95 – 106
5 – sola 17,4 – 22,1 16,5 – 20,4 105 – 116 104 – 114
6 – sola 19,7 – 24,1 19,0 – 23,6 111 – 121 111 – 120
7 – sola 21,6 – 27,9 21,5 – 27,5 118 – 129 118 – 129
8 – sola 24,1 – 31,3 24,2 – 30,8 125 – 135 124 – 134
9 – sola 26,1 – 34,9 26,6 – 35,6 128 – 141 128 – 140
10 – sola 30,0 – 38,4 30,2 – 38,7 135 – 147 134 – 147
11 – sola 32,1 – 40,9 31,7 – 42,5 138 – 149 138 – 152
12 – sola 36,7 – 49,1 38,4 – 50,0 143 – 158 146 – 160
13 – sola 39,3 – 53,0 43,3 – 54,4 149 – 165 151 – 163
14 – sola 45,4 – 56,8 46,5 – 55,5 155 – 170 154 – 167
15 – sola 50,4 – 62,7 50,3 – 58,5 159 – 175 156 – 167

Vazn dar odamoni kalonsol ham tagyir meyobad. On ba qadu qomat, sinnu sol va holati tandurusti vobasta ast. Baroi aniq kardani meyori V. o.-i solim sokhti badanro ba nazar megirand. On se namud dorad: asteniyavi, normosteniyavi va gipersteniyavi. Ba astenikho kharobi, qafasi sinai boriku daroz, mushakhoi sustu bequvvat, ba normostenikho qafasi sinai farokh, shonapahni, mushakhoi purquvvat, ba giperstenikho tanumandi, farbehi khos ast. Dar jadvali 3 meyori vazn vobasta ba namudi kolbud va darozii qad ovarda shudaast. In malumot baroi odamoni 25 – 30 sola ast (badi har dahsola 1 kg zam meshavad).
Jadvali 3.
Vobastagii vazni badan (bo kg) az qadu qomat (bo sm)
dar mardho va zanhoi jussaashon asteniyavi (I),
normosteniyavi (II) va gipersteniyavi (III).

Qadu
qomat Mardho Qadu
qomat Zanho
Vazn Vazn
Jussa Jussa
I II III I II III
155 49,0 56,0 62,0 150 47,0 52,0 56,5
160 53,5 60,0 66,0 155 49,0 55,0 62,0
165 57,0 63,5 69,5 160 52,0 58,5 65,0
170 60,5 68,0 74,0 165 55,0 62,0 68,0
175 65,0 72,0 78,0 170 58,0 64,0 70,0
180 69,0 75,0 81,0 175 60,0 66,5 72,0
185 73,5 79,0 85,0 180 63,0 69,0 75,0

Agar namudi qadu qomat aniq naboshad, chunin formularo kor mefarmoyand:
Vazn ba hisobi kilogramm
––––––––––––––––––––––––––––
Qad ba hisobi detsimetr
Agar hosili taqsim 2,8 – 3,1 shavad, vazni kam, 3,2 – 4,3 vazni mutadil va 4,4 – 5,3 farbehiro nishon medihad. Ba in maqsad az tarzi dig. hisob niz istifoda mebarand. Mas., az rui usuli Brok vazni muqarrarii odami kalonsol dar surati az darozii qad (ba hisobi sm) 100 vohidi sharti kam kardan, hosil meshavad. Inchunin dig. chenakhoe niz mavjudaand, ki dar asosi onho inkishofi jismonii odamro muayyan mesozad. Mas., az rui usuli Pine az darozii qad (ba hisobi sm) hosili (summai ) qimati vasegii qafasi sina (ba hisobi sm) va qimati vazn (ba hisobi kg)-ro tarh mekunand. Dar in hol buzurgii nishondodi adadi har qadar khurd boshad, organizmi odam niz hamon qadar khub inkishof yoftaast. Agar in buzurgi az 10 khurd boshad, tan purquvvat, az 25 kalon boshad, organizm zaif ast.
Harchand, ki usuli hisob muvofiqi maqsad ast, istifoda az jadvalu nomogrammahoe, ki dar asosi muoinai odamoni sinnu sol va salomatiashon gunogun tartib doda shudaand, behtar meboshad. Az meyor khele kam yo baraks, ziyod shudani vazn khavf dorad. Mas., kamii vazn mumkin oqibati ikhtiloli faoliyati uzvhoi hozima, silsilai asab yo gadudhoi usorai dokhili, zuhuroti bemorihoi khavfnok va siroyati boshad. Farbehi niz joiz nest. On pesh az hama alomati pir shudan ast. Ba berabtii kori dilu ragho, fishori balandi khun, ziqi dil, ateroskleroz beshtar odamoni farbeh giriftor meshavand.
Ziyodii vazn umrro kutoh mekunad (nig. Farbehi). V. o. tamomi umr tagyir meyobad. On ham ba jins va sinnu sol va ham ba faoliyati kor, tartib va sifati khurok, tagyiri iqlim vobasta ast. Agar sababi ziyodii vazn purkhuri boshad (khususan dar kudakon va odamoni az 40 – 45-sola bolo), pas bo maslihati dukhtur istemoli shirini, non va dig. gizohoi serangishtob va serravganro kam kardan lozim ast (nig. Parhez, Tagziya). Dar mavridi farbehie, ki ba gizo va kamharakati vobasta nest, bo dukhtur maslihat boyad namud.

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