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VARZISHI SHIFOi

kinetoterapieVARZISHI SHIFOi (Kinetotherapia, therapia correctiva), yake az vositahoi tabobat va peshgirii bemoriho. Asosan dar darmongohu sanatoriyaho istifoda burda meshavad. Usuli asosii reabilitatsiyai tibbist. Istifodai bamavrid va durusti V. sh. baroi zud tabobat yoftan va barqaror shudani qobiliyati korii bemoron kumak merasonad.
Samarai V. sh. dar tuli asrho sanjida shudaast. Tabiboni YUnoni Qadim – Buqrot, Asklepiad va dig. mashqhoi jismoniro yake az juzhoi muhim va hatmii muolija mehisobidand. Tabibi mashhur Jolinus baroi bemoron nafaqat mashqhoi gimnastiki, balki zavraqroni, aspsavori, shikor, jamovarii meva, sayru gasht va mashro niz tavsiya mekard. Tabib va faylasufi tojik Abuali Sino dar «Al-Qonun fi-t-tib» mashqhoi jismoniro hamchun yake az unsurhoi tibbi muolijavi va peshgirii bemori takid kardaast.
Vositai yagonai V. sh. mashqhoi jismoni, yane harakati mushakhost. Dar mavridi V. sh. tamomi vositahoi tasirbakhshero, ki tarbiyai jismoni dar ikhtiyor dorad, istifoda mebarand. Bo maqsadi tabobat on mashqhoero kor mefarmoyand, ki makhsus intikhob shuda, az jihati metodi tanzim gardidaand. Hangomi tain kardani mashqhoi jismoni dukhtur khususiyati bemori, darajai tagyiroti sistemayu uzvho, inchunin malumotro doir ba muolija ba nazar megirad. Asosi tasiri muolijavii V. sh. az mashqhoe iborat meboshand, ki faoliyati organizmi osebdidaro barqaror mesozand. Mashqho du nav meshavand: mashqhoi umumi, ki maqsad az onho solim gardondan va mustahkam kardani organzim ast va mashqi makhsus, ki baroi az bayn burdani illati kori sistemayu uzvhoi muayyan ravona shudaand. Mashqhoi gimnastiki ba du guruh judo karda meshavand: a) az rui sharti anatomi – baroi guruhi muayyani mushakho (panjaho, kafi po va g.); b) muvofiqi faoliyat – passiv va faol. Hamon mashqhoe passiv nomida meshavand, ki onhoro khudi bemor bo kumaki uzvhoi solim yo bo madadi metodist (instruktor)-i V. sh. ijro menamoyad. Hamon mashqhoe faol mahsub meshavand, ki onhoro purra khudi bemor ijro mekunad. Baroi varzishi makhsus guruhi muayyani mashqho intikhob meshavand. Mas., baroi taqviyati mushakhoi shikam mashqhoro rost istoda, nishasta va khobida ba jo meorand. Dar natijai muntazam mashq kardan, organizm ba vazninii ruzafzun odat karda, nojurihoi bemoriro bartaraf mesozad. Muhimtarin jihati muolijavii mashqhoi jismoni tasir ba asabho meboshad. Omili asosii tasiri mashqhoi jismoni ba bemor qabl az hama nerubakhshii umumii onhost. Mashqhoi jismoni faoliyati khalalyofta yo barhamkhurdaro barqaror mekunand, ba kori asabho tasiri musbat merasonand. Istifodai mashqhoi jismoni samarai digar vositahoi tabobat (doru, fizioterapiya, muolijai balneologi va g.)-ro afzun megardonad. Tafovuti V. sh. az usulhoi digari muolija dar on ast, ki bemor hangomi ijroi mashqhoi jismoni dar jarayoni tabobat faolona shirkat mevarzad. Mashqhoi V. sh. ahamiyati tarbiyavi niz dorand (bemor odat mekunad, ki muntazam bo mashqhoi jismoni mashgul gardad). Onho dar rafti muolija ba zarurati zindagi tabdil meyoband; hatto vaqte ki bemor sihat shuda ba shugli khud idoma medihad, varzishi jismoni baroi u hamchun odat boqi memonad.
V. sh.-ro boyad dukhtur muqarrar va nazorat kunad. Faqat u holati bemor va khususiyati bemoriro medonad va qodir ast tasiri jismonii V. sh.-ro muayyan sozad. Baze bemoron bo khudtabobat, mas., ba davidan, ijroi mashqhoi gimnastiki va g., ki baroi odamoni solim peshbini shudaand, mashgul meshavand. CHunin tabobati bejo metavonad ba bemor zarari kalon rasonad. Muolija boyad qatiyan bo tainot va nazorati dukhturi mutakhassis guzaronida shavad.
Dar mavridi V. sh. usulhoi gunoguni mashqhoi jismoni – gimnastika, bozi, sport istifoda meshavand. YAke az onho gimnastika meboshad, ki tavassuti on ba guruhhoi judogonai mushak va bandu bugum tasir merasonand. Mashguliyathoi gimnastiki az rui usuli makhsus, ki baroi har yak bemori muayyan shudaast, guzaronida meshavand. Onhoro metavon baroi har nafar alohida, baroi guruhi khurd (2 – 3 naf.) yo guruhi kaloni bemoron (8 – 10 naf.) guzarond. Bo maqsadi ijroi mashguliyatho dar sharoiti khona ba bemor maslihathoi makhsus doda khohand shud. Muqarrar kardani muhlati mashqho, intikhobi holati durusti avvala, adadi mashqhoi takrori va surati ijro, intikhobi durusti fosila va maromi harakat, durust ivaz kardani davrahoi mashq va istirohat, tanzimi ehsosot, ba nazar giriftani khususiyathoi shakhsii bemor va g. niz az jumlai tadbirhoi zarurie meboshand, ki dar mavridi V. sh. hatman ba etibor giriftan lozim ast.
YAke az navhoi V. sh. – gimnastikai islohi meboshad. Vazifai on rafi baze illati uzvhoi takyayu harakat va muolijai nuqsi andom, qomati khamida va kaj shudani sutunmuhra ast. Gimnastikai islohiro beshtar dar davrai rushdi organizm, yane dar sinni kudaki va navjavoni ba kor mebarand. Dar mavridi kaj shudani sutunmuhra maqsadi mashq purquvvat kardani on mushakhoest, ki dar atrofi sutunmuhra joy giriftaand. Dar mavridi kajii sutunmuhra mashqhoi islohiro hatman yakjoya bo mashqhoi umumii rohi nafas tain mekunand. Hangomi V. sh.-i kudakon beshtar bozihoi gunogunro istifoda mebarand. In kor shavqu havasi bachagonro afzun megardonad, vale bo vujudi in baroi peshgirii khastagi meyori bozihoro qatiyan rioya boyad kard. Mashqhoi sporti (bo mahdudiyatho) asosan dar muassisahoi sanatoriyu kurorti istifoda burda meshavad (voleybol, tennis va g.).
Muntazam va biduni fosila guzaronidani mashguliyatho, payvasta murakkab kardani mashqhoi judogona, ba hisob giriftani sinnu sol, kasbu kor, serharakatii mariz va khususiyati jarayoni bemori az jumlai sharthoi asosi bahri natijai khub dodani V. sh. meboshand. Mekhanoterapiya, tabobat tavassuti mehnat va mash mashguliyathoi ilovagii V. sh. mahsub meshavand. Mashguliyathoi V. sh. payvasta bo obutobi organizm surat megirand.
Doirai tainoti V. sh. khele vase ast. Onro hamchun usuli muolijai vazifavi dar mavridi oseb yoftani dastu po, tezonidani ofiyatyobii jarohat, shikastani sutunmuhra, illati mushaku ustukhon va bandu bugumho istifoda mebarand (nig. Artrit, Spondilit, Spondilez). Dar amaliyai jarrohi V. sh.-ro pesh va bad az amaliyoti jarrohi kor mefarmoyand. V. sh. bahri nisbatan zudtar barqaror shudani faoliyati organizmi illatyofta musoidat mekunad. Dar klinikai bemorihoi daruni V. sh.-ro hangomi amrozi uzvhoi dilu rag, makhsusan bemorii kamkhunii dil tain mekunand. Dar mavridi saktai dil V. sh. hamchun juzi hatmii tabobat ba majmui tadbirhoi barqaror namudani salomatii bemor dar tamomi davrahoi muolija (bemorkhona, sanatoriya, darmongoh) dokhil karda meshavad. V. sh. makhsusan bahri reabilitatsiyai badi jarrohii bemoron ahamiyati kalon dorad. Metodikai istifodai V. sh. dar mavridi gipotenziya (past shudani fishori khun) va gipertenziya (baland gashtani fishori khun), norasoii iklilii muzmin, illati dil va amrozi digari uzvhoi dilu rag tahiya shudaast. Bo kumaki mashqhoi jismoni ba faoliyati rohhoi nafas, ki dar natijai bemori illat yoftaand, tasir rasonda, mushakhoi nafasro taqviyat bakhshidan mumkin ast. Binobar in V. sh.-ro dar asnoi pnevmoniyai shadid va muzmin, ziqi nafas, emfizemai shush va dig. illati uzvhoi nafas istifoda mebarand. Ahamiyati V. sh. hangomi bemorihoi mubodilai moddaho, farbehi, niqris, diabeti qand va g. niz kalon ast. V. sh. hamchun usuli muolija hangomi falaji purra va nopurra, nevroz, inchunin bemorihoi siroyatie, ki dar natijai onho asabho kharob shudaand, istifoda meshavad. V. sh. juzi hatmii muolijai qarib tamomi bemorihoi ginekologii muzmin ast. Dar kori tatbiqi V. sh. bahri muolijai bisyor bemorihoi rohi medayu ruda tajribai ziyod andukhta shudaast. V. sh.-ro makhsusan baroi tabobati bemorihoi davrai bachagi kor mefarmoyand. Bemori serharakatii kudakro, ki sharti hatmii tashakkul va inkishofi mutadili organizm ast, khalaldor mesozad. Az in sabab V. sh. juzi muhimi jarayoni muolijai hamai bemorihoi davrai bachagi mahsub meyobad.
Dar sharoiti hozira, ki peshrafti ilmu tekhnika doirai mehnati jismoniro mahdud karda, joi onro moshinu avtomatho giriftaand, V. sh. dar majmui muolijai bemoron ahamiyati makhsus paydo kardaast. Kamharakati (gipokineziya) va angezishhoi az had ziyodi asabi ba tandurustii odam khatari kalon dorand. Kamharakati boyad bo yorii mashqhoi muntazami gimnastikai pagohiruzi, namudhoi gunoguni varzishi jismoni va sport bartaraf karda shavad. In, khususan, baroi bemorone, ki durudaroz bistari meboshand, muhim ast. YAkbora kam shudani harakati bemor boisi nojuri va nokhushihoi gunogun megardad. Ba tartibi ruzi bemor bo kamoli kordoni dokhil kardani harakathoi gunogun (sayru gasht, gimnastikai makhsus va g.) oqibathoi noguvori gipokineziyaro bartaraf va kori mutadili organizmro tamin mesozad. V. sh.-ro dukhturi muolij tain karda, mashguliyathoro instruktorho (metodistho)-i V. sh. tahti rohbarii dukhturoni V. sh. meguzaronand.
Ad.: Alieva E.G., Znachenie rannego primenenie LFK i massaja v reabilitasionnom periode bolnikh s revmatoidnim artritom. Dar maj.: «Zdravookhranenie Tadjikistana», D., 1995, № 3; Hamon muallif, Rol dlitelnikh trenirovok v lechenii bolnikh gipertonicheskoy boleznyu. Dar kit.: Aktualnie problemi klinicheskoy onkologii», D., 2002; Epifanov V.A., Lechebnaya fizicheskaya kultura, M., 2004.

E.G. Alieva.

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