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VARZISHGAR KIST

Agar khohi, ki basketbol bozi kuni, boyad na faqat qoidahoi tekhnika onro omuzi. Basketbolchii khub boyad purquvvat, purdosht, chaqqon, chobuk boshad. Basketbol dar in bob ba tu yori merasonad. Ammo tu ham boyad ba on kushish namoi, ki chun varzishgari haqiqi inkishof yobi.

Ba tu dar maydoncha chi tavr zud basketbolchiyon, doimo samt va suratro ivaz namudanashon, chi tarz baland jahidan, kushishi tubro sohib shudanashon yo onro ba halqa partob dodanashon didani muyassar meshavad.

Hangomi bozi onho qarib 7 km medavand, dahho jahishhoro anjom medihand. Baroi on boyad tayyori yo omodagii khubi jismoni dosht, varzishgari haqiqi boyad bud. Zero tub bo surati qarib 18,3 m dar soniya meparad! Boyad dastho purquvvat boshand!

Varzish

Az in ru pesh az on, ki tubro ba dast gired, khislathoi jismonii asosii ba basketbolist zaruri chaqqoni, quvva, purtoqatiro hamaruza takmil dihed.

Pesh az hama boyad bozii bandparakro doni. Bale, bale bo bandparaki oddi. Darozii on boyad chi qadar boshad? Bandparakro az har du okhirash girifta, dar boloi on ist, poyhoro dar barobari kitf guzor, dasthoro poyon furor va kham namo. Agar bandparak sakht gasht, daroziash baroi tu muvofiqat menamoyad .

Bo tarzhoi gunogun paridan az bandparakro omuz: bo qadamguzori az boloi on (rasmi 49); teladihi bo yak va hardu poy (rasmi 50);

qaychimonand kardani poyho (rasmi 51) va gayra. Har chi beshtar bipar. Bidon, ki basketbolchiyoni khub dar yak daqiqa ba bandparak mejahand,

150-160 marotiba bo hardu po tela medihand. Tu ham ba in natijaho kushishu say namo. Dar ogoz be damgiri 10-15 soniya bipar, sipas 20-30 soniya va parishhoro hisob kun.

Hangomi mashqi pagohi mashqhoi zaylro ijro namo:

  1. Poyhoro dar barobari kitfon guzoshta, dasthoro ba tarafho daroz namo. Bo kafi dastho ba panjahoi poy biras.
  1. Badanro gardonida, dasti rost ba poi chap, poyhoro dar zonuho kham nakarda dasti chapro ba poi rost rasoned va gayra.
  1. Rost shuda ba boloi poi chap nishined, sipas hamin amalro ba poi rost anjom dihed.
  1. SHined. Gelkhuri ba aqibro ijro namoed va poyhoro az boloi sar ba farsh rasoned. Bo daston ba farsh takya kuned. Rost shuda, ba pesh kham shaved, dastonatonro ba panjai poyho rased.
  1. Poyhoro vase guzoshta, ba chap va rost kham shaved, bo orinji chap ba kayai poyhoi rost, bad orinji rostatonro ba panjai chapi poy rasoned va gayra.
  1. Poyhoro ohista guzored. Ba aqib kham shuda, kushish kuned, dastonro ki ba pushti poy rasoned.

In amalhoro ijro karda albatta. Tu be ishtiboh chaqqon meshavi. Ana yakchand mashq baroi inkishofi

in khislat:

  1. Nishastani bo navbat ba poyhoi chapu rost (rasmi 58).
  2. Davidan ba 30 m. Avval davi sust, bad bosurat. Dam girifta, davidanro takror namo.
  1. In masofaro davida, zonuhoro baland bardoshta, zud suratro ziyod namo.
  1. Zud 3-5 marotiba ba balandi baro. Tanaffus pas az har dafai baromadan.
  1. Bo dastonaton darakht yo devorro dored. Ba joi khud har chi teztar daved.

Agar az bandparak paridanro yod gired va doim in korro kuned – chobuki, jahish va badoshtiro inkishof medihed.

Jahishro metavon bo vositahoi digar inkishof dod. Har yak imkoniyati jahidanro istifoda bared:

  1. Vaqte ki dar sayohat boshed az boloi har yak monea chuquri, chub butta parida guzared.
  1. Kushish namoed, ki ba ashyohoi dar balandi voqebudai shokhhoi darakhton, takhtai basketbol rased.
  1. Az boloi kursihoi gimnastiki bo pahlu bo har du po parida guzared. Dar 10, 20,30 soniya chand bor jahidanro hisob kuned.
  1. Ba har kadom balandi parida (kursii gimnasti, qutti va gayra) va har chi zudtar az boloi on bipar.
  1. Az zinaho parida guzared.
  1. Harchi bolotar pared, tob khurda va durust furud oed, muvozi-natro nigoh dored.
  1. Nishastan, jahidan ba balandi, harakat kardan ba peshro omuzed.
  2. Fosilai doimiro (masalan 20m) intikhob namuda, bo har du yo yak poyya bo jahishho harakat kuned. Jahishhoro hisob namoed. Hamon fosi-lai intikhobnamudaatonro harchi beshtar bo jahishhoi kamtar tay namoed.

Oyo dar dast bo tub parida metavoni. Boz ham khubtar meshavad agar ba tolor, ba maydoncha, ba maydon tu bo rafiqi khud oi. Hardu metavoned mashqhoi gunogunro ijro namoed.

Ana baze az onho:

R a s m i 6 1 R a s m i 6 2 R a s m i 63 R a s m i 64

  1. SHumo bo rafiqaton dar muqobili yakdigar rui farsh , ba orinjho takya doda istodaed. Panjahoi yak dastro ba yakdigar chasponida, kushish namoed, ki yakdigarro az joy junboned. Ba kadome az shumo in kor muyassar megardad.
  1. Ba pesh bo dastoni kushoda rafta, bo yakdigar bo kitfon takya kuned va kushish namoed rafiqatonro az joy junboned.
  1. Dar muqobili yakdigar nishasta, bo kafhoi poyhoi rostguzoshta takya namoed. Dasthoi yakdigarro qapida ba pesh va aqib tela dihed.
  1. Nishast dar muqobili yakdigar, dasthoro yozonda kafhoi dastonro chasponed. Jahida, kushishi yakdigarro az joy junbondan namoed.
  1. Nishast bo yak poy, digarro ba pesh yozoned, dasthoro chasponda jahed. «Ki beshtar tob meorad?» .

  1. Dar muqobili yakdigar nishined. Bo poyhoi darozkarda davr zanoned: yake ba rost, digare ba chap .
  1. Dar muqobili yakdigar isted. Poi yakdigarro doshta kushishi yakdigarro az joy kashidan namoed .
  1. Dar pahlu isted. Az dasti yakdigar girifta masofai 15-metrro jahida tay namoed: jahidan, teladihi bo poi chap, rost va hardu poro yodgired .
  1. Dar muqobili yakdigar nishined. Dasthoro bo hamdigar chasponda va yake ba pesh, digar ba aqib pared. Ba holati avvala bargarded.
  1. «Juybor»-i vaseshavanda kashed. Kushish kuned, ki dar joi az hama vaseash pared (rasmi 68).

Futbol yake az bozihoi varzishii qadimmeboshad, ki dar qarnhoi miyona paydo shudaast. Vatani futbol Angliya ba hisob meravad. Dastai muntakhabi futboli Ittifoqi SHuravi. Ba on 15 jumhurii ittifoqi shomil budand. Dastahoi muntakhabi IJSHS goliboni bozihoi Olimpi dar Melburn (s.1956) va Seul (s.1988) gardidand. Dar solhoi okhir dar barnomai bozihoi Olimpi va chempionathoi jahon musobiqa bayni dastahoi zanho dokhil karda shudaast.

Dar miyonai qarni XX tavajjuh ba bozii nav – minifutbol ziyod gardid. Bozi bo on dar tolori varzishii maktab va dar maydonchaho imkon dorad.

Qoidahoi asosii bozi

Jadvali 1

CHenakhoi maydon, qadam SHumorai bozingaron darozi balandi

Bar/balandii darvoza, m. SHumorai davraho va vaqti boziho, daqiqa

Vaqti tanaffusho daqiqa basta ast.

Boziro yake az dastaho az rui qura az markazi maydon shuru menamoyad. Badi har yak tubi zadashuda aynan hamin ba amal meoyad. Baroi vayron kardani qoidahoi bozi – zarba ba harif bo dast yo poy, peshpo dodan, hamlai durusht, az aqib tela dodan, matalkuni, bozi bo dast zarbai jarimavi tain megardad. Baroi vayron kardani qoidai bozi dar maydonchai jarimavi zarbai jarimavii 11-metra ba darvoza muqarrar karda meshvad. Zarbai ozod baroi bozii khavfnok, zada giriftani tub az dasti darvozabon, kashol dodani vaqt tain megardad. Holati nobozi bo dastho (bo poyho – dar mini-futbol) az khathoi pahlui partofta meshavad.

Agar tub az himoyatgaron yo darvozabon az khati rosti darvoza guzarad, zarbai kunji tain megardad, ki az kunji maydon bo poy zada meshavad. SHumorai ivazkuni dar futbol se, dar mini-futbol nomahdud ast.

Baroi rahoi az osebho dar mashguliyathoi futbol zarur ast, ki qoidahoi zerinro rioya namoed:

  1. Pesh az bozi tamrin boyad kard.
  2. Az poyafzoli makhsus yo kedi istifoda bared.
  3. Ba mashqho yo bozi bo tub tanho pas az tamrini peshaki be tub shuru boyad kard.
  1. Bozii khavfnok bo poyhoi rost zadan va zarbaho, peshpo zadan, bo po zadan az aqib man ast.
  1. Bo his kardani dard dar mushakho yo uzvhoi poyho, ehsosi badi norohati mashguliyatro qat karda, dar in bora ba murabbi, volidayn khabar dihed.
  1. Pas az khatmi mashguliyat obbozi namuda sipas liboshoro pushed.

Futbol hamai qobiliyathoi harakatkunandagiro inkishof doda, chunin khususiyathoi kharakter chun choloki, chobuki, sabru toqat, irodaro tarbiya menamoyad. Dar ayni zamon inkishofi shakhsiyati bozingar dar futbol inikosi khudro dar amaliyothoi kollektivona, qobiliyati dodani tamomi quvva va mahorat bahri galaba zuhur meyobad.

Qoidahoi asosii bozi Harakatkuni. Vositai asosii serharakatii futbolbozon dar bozi dav ba hisob meravad. Qadami futbolist kutoh va muloim ast, ammo on boyad vaqti zaruri davida tavonad, zud ba joi kholi joygir shavad, tub va harifro pesh yo daryob namoyad.

Qismati judonashavandai tekhnikai idorakunii tub zarbaho ba tub bo poyho, burdan va man kardani tub meboshad.

Navhoi asosii zarbaho va mankunihoro az khud namuda, futbolbozon metavonand dar baze bozihoi mashqkuni shirkat kunand, mini futbol bozi namoyand.

Zarbai tarafhoi dokhilii kafho  baroi intiqoli tub dar fosilahoi kutoh va miyona, inchunin baroi sohib shudan ba darvoza az fosilai kutoh istifoda megardad. Zarba az jo va bo dav ijro megardad.

Poi takyai az zonu na on qadar khamshuda, kame az pahlu az tub dar 10-15 sm guzoshta meshavad.

Kafi poi zarbazananda tavre joygir meshavad, ki khati az kaf va panja guzaranda bo parishi tub perpendikulyar boshad.

Mashq:

  1. 5-6 qadam az devor dur isted. 20-30 zarbaho ba tubi az jo najunbanda dar joro ijro kuned.

Kushish kuned, ki tub az rui khati rost parvoz namoyad. Say kuned mashqro avval bo poi boquvvat, bad poi zaif ijro sozed.

  1. Pas az 2-3 qadam davi ohista kushish namoed tubi khobraftaro ba devor poyoni ravon kuned. Bad az on ki dar mo in zarbaho ba khub paydoshavi sar kardand, say namoed tubro ba bolo ba nishona dar balandii 60-70 sm kashidashuda ravona sozed.
  1. Dar juft. Dar 3-4 m duri az yakdigar joygir shaved va bo navbat poyoni tubdihiro ijro kuned.

Agar shumo az du nafar ziyod boshed ba du yo setoi judo shaved. Tekhnikai durusti mankunii tub bo harakathoi mankunandai poyho, sar, badan noil megardad. Ist metavonad purra boshad, ki bad az on tub dar peshi poi futbolboz khob rafta, vaqte ki harakati tub purra qat nashudaast va faqat surati on sust gardidaast va samti harakatash tagyiryobanda ast.

Boziho «Az qafoi tub», «guzashtan az muhofizatgar», «fireb doda tub zan!», «davidan bo tub», «Ki chaqqontar?!», «Tubro pesh kuned!».

Man kardani tubi gelon bo kafi poy (rasmi 70 a, b). In amal vaqte ijro meshavad, ki tub ba peshi bozingar harakat mekunad yo meoyad.

Poi mankunanda, kame az zonu khamshuda, ba peshvozi tubi nazdikshavanda bardoshta meshavad, dar boloi tub «kamon»-ro tashkil medihad.

Kafi poi takyai ba samti harakati tub paralleli ast. Hangomi barkhurdi tub bo tagi poy kame aqib gashta, tubro ba zamin zer karda, andom ba pesh partofta meshavad.

Mankunii tubi gelon bo tarafhoi dokhilii kafho dar bozi beshtar vomekhurad va ijro karda meshavad. Poi takyadori kame khamkhurda ba pesh guzoshta meshavad, ba on vazninii badan meguzarad. Poi mankunanda az zonu kham megardad, kafi on zud ba berun tob mekhurad.

Vay ba peshvozi tubi nazdikshavanda guzoshta meshavad. Dar lahzai barkhurdi tub ba poy narm ba aqib meguzarad va tub dar peshi bozingar khobida boqi memonad

Burdani tub baroi baromadan ba mavqei ozod, yo vaqte ki bozingaroni hamdasta «mahkam»-and va ba hej kas tubi aniq dodan imkon nadorad, istifoda burda meshavad.

Burdani tub bo zarbahoi na on qadar sakht amali megardad. Nigoh dar lahzai barkhurd bo tub ba on ravona shudaast va ba vaziyat dar maydon futbolist bo binishi vase menigarad.

Mashqhoi sanjishii namunavi Rohravii tez va guzashtan ba dav, dav dar joy bo guzashtan ba davidani rost qadamhoi ivazshavanda bo guzashtan ba muqarrari, rohravi bo guzashtan ba davi «mormonand» bayni ashyoho, davi bo istodan va qadamhoi qaychimonand, pas az davi ohista bo qadam istodan, bad az shitobidan bo jahish istodan, zarba bo tarafhoi dokhilii kafho, mani tubi gelon bo tarafhoi dokhilii kafi poyho, burdani tub ba rost, bo guzashtan az predmetho.

Testhoi sanjishii namunavi (baroi mashqkunandagon dar seksiyahoi futbol)

Ezoh: Ba futbol dar darshoi varzish na tanho pisaron, balki dukhtaron ham bozi mekunand.

Tubi dasti. Bozi bo tubi dasti yo gandbol dar okhiri asri XIX dar Daniya paydo shudaast. 50 sol lozim shud, ki in bozii ajoib va hassos dar tamomi jahon mashhuriyat kasb namoyad. Az rui gandbol chempionathoi jahon guzaronida meshavad va ba barnomai bozihoi Olimpi dokhil megardad. Ham komandahoi zanona va ham mardonai sobiq SSSR chandin marotiba chempionhoi bozihoi Olimpi, jahon va Avrupo gardidaand.

Hej yak davlati dunyo dar gandbol chunin komyobiro dar bozihoi Olimpi, chun komandai muntakhabi sobiq SSSR nadosht: az 10 medalho – 6 tilloi, 1 nuqragi va 2 birinji. CHahor marotiba tilloi olimpiadahoro burdaand (1976, 1988, 1992, 2000) mardon bo sarvarii A. Evtushenko va V. Maksimov, zanho du marotiba (1970, 1976) dar tahti rohbarii I.Turgina.

Alomathoi asosii bozi mahoratu malakae, ki baroi hayoti ruzmarra zarurand – dav, jahishho, partobdihi. Mashguliyati payvastai gandbol baroi zohirshavii baroi suratnokii balandi bozihoi serharakat, zud, nogahoni va harakathoi chobukona bo tub musoidat mekunad.

Aloqamandii sharikon dar komanda, reaksiyai sarivaqta ba holathoi zudivazshavandai bozi.

Dar bozi istifodabarii chaspishhoi quvvagi bo harifon baroi tub, baroi mavqei bozigi ijozat doda shudaast.

Bozi hamesha bo holati balandi ehsosoti az sababi surati bozi, dinamikai muborizai varzishi, kharakteri kollektivi harakathoi bozigi meguzarad. Hamai in sharoiti musbi baroi inkishofi tasirnoki hamai qobiliyathoi harakatkunanda, inchunin tavajjuh, masuliyatnoki khislathoi irodavi amali megardad.

Qoidahoi asosii bozi Dar sinfi V ba tubi dasti bozi kardanro ogoz menamoyand. Maydoncha baroi bozi az 18 to 40 m ba darozi va az 9 to 20 m ba bar ast. Darvoza 3 kh 2 m (2,70 – 1,80 – baroi mini-tubi dasti) ast. Dar har dastai dar maydon bozikunanda 7-nafari, yake az onho – darvozabon ast. Ivazkunii bozingaron dar har vaqti bozi ijozat doda meshavad.

Muhlati boziho 2 qism 15-daqiqagi baroi dukhtaron va 20 daqiqa baroi pisaron (baroi kalonsolon 2 kh 30 daqiqa) meboshad. Tanaffus 10 daqiqa. Bozingaron huquq dorand tubro dar dast to 3 soniya doshta va na

ziyoda az se qadam monand. Pas az on zarur ast, ki ba darvoza partoyand, tubro ba digar kas dihand yo ba burdani tub ogoz namoyand.

Tubro bo yak dast ba muhlati nomahdud burdan ijozat doda meshavad, ammo pas az doshtan onro ba dodan yo ba darvoza partoftan lozim ast.

Mone shudan ba harif faqat bo badan mumkin ast. Az holati nobozi tub bo yak dast partofta meshavad. Agar tub az khati pesh az himoyatgaron (darvozabonro hisob nakarda) ravad, on goh az kunj partofta meshavad.

Az bozingari tubro ba bozi darovarda dar hamai holatho harifon ba 3m aqib meistand. Bozingaroni maydon nametavonand ba mintaqai darvozabon dokhil shavand va darvozabon dar maydon qoidahoi umumi baroi hamaro rioya menamoyad.

Jarimaho baroi khatogi. Dar mavridi qoidavayronkunii na on qadar muhim (sabuk, kamahamiyat) davodavi, du baranda, bozi bo poy, dokhilshavi ba maydonchai darvozabon, chaspishi daston, qapidan va zarbahoi harif, partobi ozod az joy khatogi tain megardad. Baroi khatogie, ki ba imkoniyathoi zadani tub ba darvoza aloqamand ast, partobi jarimavi ba darvoza az fosilai 7 metr tain megardad, himoyatgar tanho darvozabon astu khalos. Baroi qoidavayronkunii shadid yo akhloqi gayrivarzishi bozingaron az maydon be huquqi ivazkuni to 2 daqiqa pesh karda meshavand.

Gandboliste, ki se marotiba az maydon ronda shavad, minbad dar bozi ishtirok namekunad, uro bozingari digar ivaz menamoyad.

Bozi az markazi maydon bo qurapartoii yake az dastaho ogoz meyobad. Bad az zadani har yak gol dastai golsardoda boziro az markaz ogoz mekunad.

Hangomi guzaronidani mashguliyatho yo musobiqaho zarur ast, ki qoidai tekhnikai bekhatari rioya gardad:

  1. Pesh az bozi tamrin namuda, mushakho va payvandhoro khub garm namudan.
  1. Holati gigienii maydon baroi boziro taftish karda, holati darvozahoro muoina karda, mustahkamii turho va ustuvorii onhoro taftish menamoyand.
  1. Liboshoi varzishii bozingaronro az nazar meguzaronand. Bo poyafzoli mekhdor bozi kardan mumkin nest. Gushvorho, zanjirho, soat va digar oroishotro boyad girift, nokhunhoro boyad qaychi kard.
  1. Ba bolochubi darvoza ovezon shudan man ast.
  2. Hudhimoyakuniro dar aftidan rioya boyad kard. CHashmhoroehtiyot kardan lozim ast.
  1. Hangomi partoftani tub ba darvoza bo jahish ba bolo pesh bijahed, poi teladihandaro ba tarafe az himoyatgar guzarond.
  1. Muqovimati hujumkuni bo dasthoi rost mamnu ast, az aqib az sar yo dast nadored.

Qoidahoi asosii bozi

Holati himoyatgar (rasmi 72), poyho dar barobari qadam meistand, uzvhoi zonugi kham gashta, andom kame ba pesh kham shuda meistad. Dastho vase ba tarafho kushoda shuda ba bolo, kafho ba pesh, angushtho guzoshta shudaand. Himoyatgar boyad ba hujum kardan va muqovimati hujumkunanda, tubro zada giriftan, mavqei qulayro ishgol kardan tayyor boshand.

Dar holati difoi harakatkuni bo qadamho ba chap va ba rostro omuzed, zud ba pesh ba 3-4 m baromadan va aqib pusht ba darvoza, tezdavi ba 8-15 m ba pesh baroi qapidani tub.

Holati hujumkunanda (rasmi 73) poyho az qismati zonuho khamshuda, yake ba pesh, digar az aqib (fosilai bayni kafho 40-50 sm), dastho kame kham shuda va ba pesh ba tarafi tub barovarda shudaand. Bozingar ba harakatkuni va doshtani tub tayyor ast.

Holati asosii darvozabon  poyho kame az zonuho kham shuda, kafho dar barobari 20-25 sm, dastho ba tarafho guzoshta shudaand, orinjho kham shuda, kafho ba pesh.

Darvozabon boyad doimo omoda ba bozi qaror girad. Hangomi hujum az pahluho darvozabon dar nazdikii kunj meistad.

Dasti nazdik ba pahluchubi darvozaro mepushonad, digari ba bolo ravona gashtaast, kunji boloii durro mahkam menamoyad. Harakatkuni dar maydon yake az alomathoi asosii tekhniki hisob meshavad.

Bozingaron bo qadamhoi muqarrari va chaspanda, davi ru va pusht ba pesh, bosurat, bo jahish harakat menamoyand. Harakathoi ba peshi tasirnok ba bozingar baroi ishgoli joi dar on lahza qulay dar maydon, kanda shudan az harif baroi dar holati qulay baromada partoftan ba darvoza yori merasonad.

Harakat yo joivazkunii himoyatgaron asosan bo qadamhoi ivazshavanda dar holati himoyavi ba chap va ba rost, davi bosurat ba 3-4 m ba pesh az khati 6-9-metra va pushtnoki aqib bargashtan, ba darvozahoi khud ba amal meoyad.

Zud az davi ru ba pesh ba davi bo qadamhoi ivazshavanda guzashtan, nimpahlu bo gardish ba rost va ba chap, ba pesh pushtnoki.

Joivazkunii hujumkunandagon – in tezdavii kutoh (5-7 m) va qadamhoi chaspanda va qaychimonand ba chap va ba rost, zuddavii daroz (tezdavi 20-30 m), davi bosurat ruy va pusht ba pesh bo tagyirdihii samt, jahishho.

Hujumkunandagon va himoyatgaron boyad pas az davidan darhol istand, muvozinatro dar holati bozingari gum nakunand. In usul baroi fireb dodani harifon, intikhobi vaziyati qulay zarur ast.

Tavaqquf yo ist bo yak yo du qadam pas az davidan bo qadamhoi pahni istkunanda bo gardishhoi nugi poy ijro meshavad. Badi davi tez yo bosurat qadami avval kutoh, duyum – mankunanda karda meshavad. Qomat dar holati rost yo kame kham ba aqib voqe megardad.

Joivazkunii darvozabon az joivazkunii bozingaroni maydon kamtar farq mekunad. Darvozabon dar holati asosi bo qadamhoi chaspandai kutoh az yak pahluchub ba pahluchubi digari darvoza (ba tarafi joygirshavii tub), davi tezi kutoh (2-4 m) ba pesh hangomi partoft ba darvozai u, bo bargardi ba aqib, pusht ba darvoza.

Hangomi hujumho ba darvozai u darvozabon dar holati doimo harakatkuni va omoda budan ba bargardonidani zarbaho meboshad.

Bozihoi serharakati makhsusi namunavi baroi azkhudkunii joivazkuni va tavaqqufho. «Pushtnoki davidan». Juft. YAk nafar pushtnoki ba pesh yo bo qadamhoi chaspanda megurezad, duyum bo davi oddi rasida ba pushti avvala savor meshavad. Bad az in bozingaron joyhoi khudro ivaz menamoyand.

«Davidan az pusht». Juft. Hamlakunanda bosurat samti davro ba chap yo ba rost ivaz karda, ba pushti sharikash medavad. Himoyatgar kitfro ba pesh partofta, bo qadamhoi chaspanda yo nimpahlu, harifro namemonad. Ivazkunii joyho pas az davidani fosilai muayyan.

«Qatora». Dar guruhho. Ogozkunanda pesh az guruhhoi az 4-7 nafar buda meistad, ki az miyoni yakdigar doshtaand. Sardor bo davi tez ba chap va ba rost ba okhiri saf medavad va ba bozingari okhirin savor meshavad.

Hamai guruh pahn nagardida bo qadamhoi chaspanda ba rost va ba chap joy ivaz mekunad va shariki khudro himoya menamoyad. Pas az savorshavii okhi rin yo kandashavii guruhho sardor ba bozingari yakum tabdil meyobad va bozingari okhirin ba sardor.

Doshtani tub bo yak yo du dast. Poyho kame az zonuho khamshuda, dastho dar orinjho, panjaho dar sathi sina. Tubro bo kafhoi vase pahngardida va angushton nigah medorand. In holat imkoniyat medihad tubro az harif pushonad, ba digar kas dihad yo khud ba bozi guzarad va boziro davom dihad.

Bo yak dast tub az hisobi nigahdorii muvozinat doshta meshavad dar davrai tayyori ba tubdihi, partoft yo burdani on. Angushtoni pahnguzoshtashuda tubro mustahkam medorad, kame onro fishordoda.

Doshtani tub bo har du dast (rasmi 77) – unsuri asosii bozi mebo shad. Baroi dilpurona doshtani tub zarur ast dar joy, dar harakat, dar jahishro az khud namoyand. Baroi doshtani tub dar joy boyad ba tarafi tub

tob khurd va dastro kame dar qismathoi orinjhoro kham sokhta ba pesh daroz kard. Angushthoi omoda ba tarafho guzoshta shudaand.

Angushtoni kalon qarib namerasand va digarhoyashon chuquriro tashkil medihand, monandi doshtani tub. Dar lahzai barkhurd bo tub angushton onro meqapand va dastho az qismathoi orinjho kham mekhurand, quvvai

tubi parvozkunandaro sust megardonand. Dar vaqti qapidan zarur ast, ki baroi idoma dodani bozi darhol holati ustuvorro qabul kard.

Doshtani tubho, ba poyon, ba bolo, ba tarafho, gelkhuranda va jahandaro omuzed. Azkhudkunii doshtani tubro bo juftho ogoz namoed:

dar pahlui yakdigar istoda, yakum zarbaro sust namuda qabul mekunad,

duyumi, har dafa quvvai teladihiro ziyod karda, tubro ba dasti shari-

kash meguzorad.

Dodani tub (rasmi 78) – yake az alomathoi az hama muhimi bozi. Do-

dani tub boyad aniq, zud, purquvvat va sarivaqt boshad. On dar joy, dar

harakat, bo jahish, pinhoni bo dastoni rost va chap ijro meshavad.

Az hama besh tubdihi az bolo bo dasti khamshuda mamul gardidaast.

Hangomi tubdihi bo dasti rost qismi chapi badan ba pahlu gardonida

shuda, ba tarafi tubdihi bo guzoshtani ba peshi poi chap. Tub dar dasti

rost joygir ast, kame az orinj kham shuda va dar pahlu dar sathi sar yo bo-

69

lotar.

Bo gardishi zud badan ba pesh – ba chap va az aqib teladihii poi is-

toda tubdihi ba amal meoyad. Avval ba pesh orinji dasti tubdor baroma-

da, bad qismati kitf. Dast darrav kham mekhurad va bo harakati ilova-

gii panja va angushton tub ba pesh ravona megardad.

Mashqho:

  1. Tubdihi ba yakdigar dar juftho bo afzoishi fosila.
  2. Holati muqarrari – holati avvala – poi rost ba pesh. Hamzamon

bo doshtan qadami chap ba pesh namuda va ba rafiq tubro dod.

  1. HM. – holati (rosti) hujumkunanda. Hamzamon bo doshtan tub bo

poi chap ba pesh qadam guzoshta, hangomi qadami rost ba aqib – bolo me-

bardorand, bo poi chap qadam meguzorand, tubdihiro ba shariki khud ijro

namuda va zud ba aqib bargashta dar holati muqarrari yo oddi qaror me-

girand.

Boziho: «Tubro ba zamin parto», «Gardonandai tub», «Hol medihi»,

«Tubro doshta gir», «Muhoriba bo monea», «Tubdihi ba yakdigar»,

«Bozi dorondani bo tub bo sar», «Tub ba khudiho».

Burdani tub qoidai asosii tekhniki dar gandbol ba hisob nameravad.

Onro bazan istifoda mebarand, asosan hangomi peshravii zud, vaqte ki

tubro ba hej kas dodan imkon nadorad yo vaqti gurekhtan az harifi

hamajoniba mahkamshuda. Dar mintaqai inkishofi hujum tubbari qarib

istifoda namegardad, on ba kohish yoftani surat meshavad.

Gandbolist, barandai tub, bo harakathoi teladihandai narmi

panjaho ba rui maydon ba peshu ba pahlu zarba mezanad, ba on kunji za-

rurii inikos medihad. Quvvai teladihi balandii jahishho – (70-80 sm)

durust mekunad.

Tubbariro bo dasthoi rost va chap, bo tagyirdihii samtho, holati

firebdihi dar muqobili himoyai faolro omuzed.

Partoftani tub ba darvoza az joy bo tavonoii imkonpazir amali

megardad. Hangomi ijroi 7-9 m va partofthoi gayrichashmdosht be

omodagi az masofahoi gunogun ba kor burda meshavad.

Dar lahzai partoftani tub markazi vazninii bozingar ba khamshavi

dar zonui poi istodai aqib guzaronida meshavad. Tavonoii khotimaviro

bo khamshavii baquvvat– «zarbai sakht» – panjaho az bolo ba poyon, na

tanho ba tub quvvai parish medihad, balki daqiqii ba hadaf rasidan

amali megardad.

Mashqho:

70

  1. Partoftani tub ba yakdigar az masofai 15-20 m bo dasthoi rost va

chap.

  1. Ijroi partofthoi 7-9-metra baroi daqiqiyat ba kunjhoi gunoguni

darvoza.

  1. Boziho «Ba hadaf rasonidan», «Tubparroni».

Voleybol. Nakhustin marotiba voleybol dar Iyoloti Muttahidai

Amriko dar soli 1895 paydo shudaast. In boziro muallimi varzish Vi-

lyam Morgan fikr karda barovardaast. Dar ibtido ba voleybol bo

kamerahoi rezini bozi mekardand, ki onro az boloi bandi dar balandii

198 sm kashida shuda, sipas – az boloi tur mepartoftand.

Dar 100 soli guzashta voleybol yake az mamultarin va ommavitarin

navi varzish dar jahon va dar mamlakati mo, inchunin navi varzishi

olimpi gardid. Dastahoi Tojikiston payvasta mashguliyat doshta va ba

bozihoi olimpi omodagi mebinad.

In bozi ba kudakon va kalonsolon dastras ast. Ba on chi dar

tolorhoi varzishi va chi dar maydoni kushod bozi kardan mumkin ast.

Dar bozi qobiliyathoi nerugi, jahish, choloki, hamohangii harakatho in-

kishof meyoband. Bozii voleybol na faqat salomatiro tahkim mebakhshad,

balki boz chunin khislathoro chun choloki, notarsi, maqsadnoki, dar dasta

bozidan, yorii baynihamdigari, ehsosi dustiro tarbiya menamoyad.

Qoidahoi asosii bozi.

Voleybol – bozii varzishii dastavi ast, ki du dasta 6-nafari dar

maydonchai 18kh9 m bozi mekunand.

Bozingaroni yake az dastaho sayu kushish mekunand bo tubpartoi yo

zarbaho ba on ba jonibi raqibon tavre ravona sozand, ki qoidahoro

vayron nasokhta tubro baraks bargardonida natavonand,.

Turi voleybol maydonro ba du nimi barobar judo mekunad. Bari

tur – 1m, balandi – 2,43sm baroi mardon, 2,24sm – baroi zanon, 2,10sm –

dukhtaron, 2,20sm – baroi bachaho va javonon.

Bozi az 3 yo 5 qism iborat ast, ki har kadomi on to muddat yo vaqte

idoma meyobad, ki yake az dastaho 25 khol (bo farqiyat ba du khol) nagirad.

Qismi halkunanda panjum meboshad, ki to 15 khol davom mekunad. Har

dasta huquq dorad se marotiba, blokro ba hisob nagirifta dar tarafi

maydoni khud ba tub dast rasonand. Tubro bargardonidan bo hamai

qismathoi badan az miyonu poyho baland ijozat ast. Tub dar bozi to dav-

rae memonad, ki ba maydon narasad, devor, saqf va digar ashyoho yo to

71

khatogihoi yake az bozingaron. Baroi har tubi burdashuda dasta 1 khol me-

girad.

Bozingaron dar maydon (rasmi 79) du khatro tashkil mekunand:

peshinaho (2,3,4) va aqibbudagon (5,6,1). Guzarishi bozingaron az rui

gardishi aqrabaki soat ijro megardad.

R a s m i 79

Dar mashguliyatho doir ba voleybol zarur ast, ki bozingaron libosi

varzishii muvofiq – futbolka, shortho, krossovkaho yo kediho bo

tagpushhoi muloim doshta boshand.

Baroi peshgiri namudani osebho boyad qoidahoi tekhnikai bekhatarii

zerin rioya gardand:

  1. Dar ibtidoi mashguliyat mashqhoi peshakii narmkunandai badan,

mushakho va payvandhoro garm mesozand.

  1. Maydoni boziro muoina kardan, ki dar on ashyohoi khavfnok

mavjud naboshad.

  1. Az bolo bo dasthoi rost, angushtoni kalon ba pesh naguzoshta

tubro qabul nakunand.

  1. Dar vaqti qabuli tub az poyon dasthoro az qismati orinjho kham

nakardan.

  1. Bodiqqat nazorat namudan, ki dar peshi poyho naafted.
  2. Pas az jahishho ba poyhoi khamshuda ba holati vase furud biyoed.

Qoidahoi asosii bozi

Dar voleybol 5 qoidahoi asosi mavjud ast: dodani tub, qabul, ba

yakdigardihi, zarbai hamlavi va mankuni. Hamai in alomatho bo

holathoi gunogun va joyvazkunii bozingaron musoidat menamoyand.

Holati muqarrarii bozingar (rasmi 80) – in holati oddii muvofiqi

voleybolboz: poyho kame kham shuda, vazni badan ba har du po barobar

taqsim shuda, badar ba pesh kham gashta ast.

72

Hangomi joyivazkuniho qadamhoi ____________chaspanda istifoda meshavad, ki ba

pesh, aqib ba rost, ba chap ijro megardand. Harakat bo poye, ki ba samti

joyivazkuni nazdik ast (hangomi joyivazkuni ba rost – az poi rost, dar

vaqti joyivazkuni ba chap – az chap) ogoz meyobad. CHunin joyivazkuni mav-

ridi istifoda qaror megirad, vaqte ki bozingar vaqti kifoya dorad va

ba masofai na on qadar dur joy ivaz kardan lozim ast.

Qadami dugona hangomi darhol baromadan ba tub istifoda megar-

dad. Harakat az dur ba samti harakati poyho ogoz mekunand.

Davro hangomi joyivazkunii nisbatan kalon istifoda mebarand,

jahishhoro boshad dar vaqti ijroi zarbahoi hamlaovar va moneshavi.

Joyivazkuniro zarur ast, ki dar vaqti tamrini har yak mashguliyat

dokhil namud. In metavonad dav az holathoi oddii gunogun (nishast, khob,

pusht ba pesh va gayra) davi «mormonand», davi yakto-yakto, joyivazkuni

bo qadamhoi chaspida bo fireb qoidahoi bozi boshand.

Tubdihi az bolo bo du dast (rasmi 81) qoidahoi asosii tekhniki me-

boshad. Bozingar boyad durust ba tub baromada va holati avvalaashro

qabul kunad.

Tekhnikai ijroish: poyho az zonuho kham gashta, yak poy ba pesh. Badan

rost, dastho ba pesh – ba bolo guzoshta shuda va az orinjho kham shuda,

panjaho qat gardida. Angushton omoda shuda va kame qat gardidaand.

Hangomi tubdihi dastho va poyho rost megardand va ba tub samti zaruri

doda meshavad.

Mashqho:

  1. Hamkuni va qatkunii daston az qismathoi payvandho harakati

davrii panjaho, zerkuni va bozkunii angushtoni dast.

  1. Az takyai rost dar devorho yakvaqta va bo fosila khamkuni va

qatkunii dastho.

R a s m i 80 R a s m i 81

73

R a s m i 82

  1. Partofti tubi damkardashuda bo du dast.
  2. Mashqho baroi panjahoi dast bo gantelho, espanderi panjagi (as-

bobi dastfishori), zer yo pakhshkunii tubi tennis.

  1. Tubpartoi az boloi sari khud, ba devor, dar joy.
  2. Bo juftho: tubdihi ba yakdigar, ki az balandihoi gunogun mepar-

rand; tubdihi az

  1. Tubdihi bo du dast az bolo ba khati sayri baland, miyona va past.

Boziho: «Tubdihii voleybolbozon», «Tub az rui davr», «Tubi par-

ron», «Musobiqai tubho», «Aznavpartoii tub», estafetaho bo tubho,

«Tub ba bayn», «Darkhosti shumoraho».

Qabuli tub az qismati poyonii khud (rasmi 82). Tubdihi yo zarbai

hujumi mamulan az poyon bo du dast qabul karda meshavad.

Baroi qabul bozingar holati mobayni yo poyoniro ishgol mekunad.

Dastho rost karda shuda va poyon gardida, panjaho «musht ba musht» pay-

vastaand, yo «orinj ba orinj». Tub ba qismi poyoni orinj peshi kitfho bo

qatkunii yakvaqtainai poyho va badan ba pesh – ba bolo qabul karda me-

shavad. Dasthoi rost ba sathi sina baland bardoshta meshavand.

Mashqho:

  1. Baroi khud tarzi az hama qullayi payvastani panjaho hangomi

qabul az poyonro intikhob namoed. Panjahoro 5-6 marotiba payvast va

judo namoed.

  1. Zadani tubi voleybol dar joy. Harakati dastho az hisobi khamku-

nii poyho ijro megardad.

  1. Dar juftho: sharik tubro ba masofai 2-3 m mepartoyad. SHarika-

ton tubro az poyon qabul menamoyad.

  1. Dar nazdi devorho giriftani tub az poyon (10 marotiba paiham).
  2. Qabuli tub az poyoni sari khud dar joy. Balandii tubdihi 1-1,5 m.
  3. Dar juftho: qabuli tub az poyon va dodani on ba rafiqash az bol

obo du dast.

In mashqro mumkin ast yakka, dar nazdi devorho ijro kard.

Partofti poyonii rost. Bozi dar voleybol az tubdihi shuru mesha-

74

vad.

Bozingar berun az khatti pesh joygir shuda, tubro mepartoyad va bo

zarbai yak dast onro ba tarafi raqib tavre ravon mesozad, ki tub ba tur

narasad.

Hamai partoftho ba poyoni va boloi judo meshavand. Dar mavridi

partoftani boloi zarba ba tub dar sathi sarho va bolo zada meshavad va

mavridi poyoni – poyon az sathi sarho. Agar tubdihanda ruy ba jonibi tur

boshad – tubdihii rost, agar az pahlu boshad – pahlugi.

Az hama tubdihii oddi baroi voleybolbozoni navogoz rosti poyoni

(rasmi 83) ba shumor meravad. Dasti rost bosurat ba aqib guzaronida

va bo dasti chap tub ba bolo ba 30-50 sm partofta meshavad. Ba tub bo

panjai sakht dar sathi miyon zarba zada meshavad. Bad az zarba bozingar

bo poi rost qadam ba pesh mekunad.

R a s m i 83

Mashqho:

  1. Tubro bo panjai dasti chap joygir mekuned. Onro rost ba balan-

dii 50-60 sm partofta va imkoni ba farsh aftidan medihed (10-15 maro-

tiba).

  1. Bo dasti rost tubro, ki dar panjai rostkardashuda dar sathi miyon

dasti rost ast, zadan.

Pesh az zarba dastro ba qafo partofta bo on zarbaro anjom

medihed.

  1. Tubpartoi ba devorro az masofai 5-6 m ijro namudan.
  2. Tubpartoiro az boloi tur az masofai 4-6 m amali sokhtan.
  3. Aynan hamon, ammo az khatti rui.

SHahrak. Donistani tekhnikai bekhatari dar darsi varzish hangomi

varzishi shahraki.

Qoidai tartib (raftor) dar mashguliyatho. Libosi varzishi va poy-

afzol. Peshgirii oseb. Gigienai varzishgari javon.

Qoidai boziho. Maydonchai varzish. Tajhizot, asbobu anjom. Vazifa

va huquqi bozingaron. Tarzhoi guzaronidani musobiqaho. Istilohoti

75

dovari.

Taminoti moddi. Maydoni boziho. Bozi dar maydonchai makhsusan

tajhizonidashuda yo dar rohravi 15-30 m mumfarsh gardonida shuda guza-

ronida meshavad. Dar maydoncha dar yak samt dar fosilai 2-2,5 m az yakdi-

gar du rostkunja kashida meshavad. Har yak tarafi rostkunja ba 2 metr

barobar ast. Dar masofai 2-3 m az rostkunjaho khat meguzaronand – in

nimdavra, dar masofai 2,5-3 m khati digar – davraro meguzaronand. Az

tarafhoi aqibi rostkunja, kame (1-1,5 m) az on qafotar teppachai khoki yo

az simturi ohani monea mesozand, baroi on ki chubchahoi bozikunanda

(chillik va dangal) ba tarafhoi gunogun parand.

Baroi boziho ba shahrak lozim ast, ki (chillik, dangal)-ro paydo

karda, yo khud onhoro az chub sokhtan mumkin ast.

Dangal boyad 60-70 sm darozi doshta, lik – 10-15 sm ast. Dangalho bo-

yad ba quvvai bachaho muvofiqat namoyand va na ziyoda az 450 g vazn doshta

boshand.

Qismati boloi dangalro baroi istifodai qulay (agar on az chub so-

khta shuda boshad) zarur ast, ki kame sufta namoyand. Hamai likho hajm,

shakl va vazni yakkhela dorand. Asosashon rostkunjaand. In ba onho

ustuvori medihad, ki onhoro vertikali meguzorand.

Qabl az hama durust zadani dangal ba likhoro meomuzand. Baroi in

du tarzi asosii in mashqhoro nishon medihand – zadan bo dastoni rost

va kham. YAkumi az onho bo dasti rost guyo ki az kitf ijro megardad va

«kitfi» nomida meshavad. Pas az zadani lik tobkhuron ba maydoncha

paralleli meparrad. Partofti dangal, ki az orinj kham shudai dast

«orinji» nom dorad. Va dar in partoft dangal harakati tobkhurandagi

ba maydoncha paralleliro ba khud megirad.

Zzadani dangal ba likro az khud namuda, mumkin ast bozi guzaronid,

ki dar on du yo ziyoda bozingaron (to panj dar yak dasta) ishtirok menamo-

yand.

Maqsadi bozi az on iborat ast, ki bo shumorai kamtari dangal shu-

morai muayyani qolabhoro zadan.

Baroi kudakoni sinni khurdi maktabi, chun qoida, 6 qolab istifoda

mebarand.

Har yak az on az panj shahrak iborat ast, ki dar mobayni khatti ru ba

rui rostkunja muqarrar megardad. Ba bachaho baroi bozi chunin

qolibhoro peshkash namudan mumkin ast: «tup», «lonai musalsal», «mu-

shak», «havopaymo», «maktub» (rasmi 84,85).

76

Aftonidani qolabhoro az asp shuru mekunand. Vaqte ki az beruni

rostkunja aqqalan yak shahrak zada meshavad, on goh zada aftondani

shahrakhoi boqimonda allakay az nimaspa davom menamoyand.

Qolabi «maktub»-ro hatman az asp zadan lozim ast, hol on ki avva-

lan shahrakro, ki dar bayni rostkunja istodaast mezanand.

Bozi hamesha bo zadanii qolabho az rostkunjai rost shuru mesha-

vad. Bozingari har dasta huquq dorand zadanii du dangaliro paiham

ijro namoyand, bad az on partofthoro shakhsi digar ijro mekunad, ki az

hamon dasta ast.

Agar hamai qolabhoi yakumi shahrak zada shudand qolabhoi digariro

meguzorand va gayra.

R a s m i 84 R a s m i 85

Tekhnikai bozi. Tarzhoi doshtani dangal. Holati asosi va tarzhoi

holatii zarbaho.

Taktikai bozi. Intikhobi vaziyat, joyivazkuni.

Boziho: «Dangal», «lik», «Az davra berun zan», «liki parranda»,

«SHahraki khurd».

CHavgonbozi. Tasodufan nest, ki

purquvvattarin chavgonbozon varzishgaroni

Hinduston va Pokiston mahsub megardand. In bo-

zii qadima dar mamoliki janub beshtar gustarish

yoftaast. Navhoi gunoguni in boziho dar Ellada va

Rim, Fors va Hindustoni qadim ba vujud omadaast.

Harchand bo nomi muosirash in bozi ba

chuponhoi faronsavi, ki tubro bo chubchahoi shast-

monand «khoke – kryuk» mezadand, vazifador ast.

Dar bozihoi III Olimpi «lyakross» – bozii mil-

lii hinduhoi kanadagi bo tub va chavgonho bud.

Qoidai muosiri chavgonbozi (khokkey dar zamin) dar Antverpen dar

77

bozihoi Olimpii VII dar avgusti 1920 muayyan gardid.

Dar qarnhoi V-IV to solshumorii mo chavgonbozi dar Tojikiston

malum bud. Dar nohiyahoi duri Pomir bo markabho, vale aksar vaqt

piyoda bozi mekardand.

Baroi in boziho faqat chub, ki okhirash kaj shuda boshad – chavgon ta-

lab megardidu khalos.

Nomi khudro chavgonbozi az bozihoi qadimii chor-

vodoron giriftaast. Allakay bad az on, ki chun

chavgonbozi bo asp dar tamomi Osiyoi Markazi pahn

gasht, bozi ba digar mamoliki SHarq ham guzasht.

CHavgonbozi bo asp dar bisyor sarchashmahoi adabi –

tarikhi yodovari meshavad. Dar «SHohnoma»-i

Abulqosim Firdavsi ba tasviri bozi yak qismati pur-

rai dostoni «CHavgonbozii Siyovush va Afrosiyob» bakh-

shida shudaast. Nazmi klassiki tojik kornamoihoi

Rustam, Siyovush, Bahrom va digaronro tarannum mena-

moyad. Dar khalq khotira az digar ustodoni bozii chavgon, az on jumla

Garshosp va Eraj boqi mondaast. Eraj dar bayni mardumoni SHarq chun

«Eraj – pahlavon» mashhur ast.

Tarikh nishon medihad, ki Iskandari Maqduni pas az zabt, yo

ishgoli Osiyoi Markazi va Eron, baroi jalbi jangovaron chavgonbozi

tashkil medod. Abuali ibni Sino chavgonboziro ba navhoi az hama

qavii mashqhoi varzish dokhil mekard.

Unsurulmaolii Kaykovus hanuz dar asri XI dar kitobash

«Qobusnoma» ba pisarash maslihat medihad, ki dar bozi boyad boehtiyot

boshad, tasiya medod, ki dar dasta 8 bozingar doshta boshand.

Az asri V sar karda in boziro turkho, arabho va khalqhoi digar ham

omukhtand.

Donishi tekhnikai bekhatari dar darsi varzish hangomi mashguliyati

chavgonbozi hatmiand.

Qoidai tartib dar mashguliyat. Libosi varzishi va poyafzol. Pesh-

girii oseb. Gigienai varzishgari javon.

Qoidahoi bozi. Maydonchai varzishi, tajhizot, asbobu anjom,

ashyoho.

Vazifaho va huquqi bozingaron. Tarzhoi guzaronidani musobiqaho.

Istilohoti dovari.

Taminoti moddi. Maydoni bozingari. Faqat dar maydoni hamvor

78

chavgonbozi kardan mumkin ast. Darozii maydoni bozingari ba 91 m, ba-

ri on ba 50-55 m barobar ast. Har yak nimai maydon dar navbati khud boz

bo choryakkhatho judo gashtaand. Har choryakkhat bo khatti fosilador ba sam-

ti darvoza paralleli dar masofai 22,90 m az on meguzarad. Ba darvozaho

turho mahkam shudaand.

CHenakhoi dokhilii darvoza: darozi – 3,66 m, balandi – 2,14 m. Baroi

on ki maydonchai jarimavi nishon doda shavad, pesh az har darvozaho bo

khatti darvoza parallel va dar masofai 14,63 m az on khat ba darozii 3,66

m guzaronida meshavad. Sipas az okhiri har khat choryak ba atrof to

qaribii khati darvoza guzaronida shuda, inchunin ba sifati markazi dav-

ra har yak pahluchubi darvoza istifoda megardad.

Bari khathoi darvoza va khathoi maydonchai jarimavi boyad 7,5 m bo-

shad. Dar masofai 7,31 m az bayni darvoza mustaqiman pesh az onho ni-

shonai 7-metra nishon doda meshavad.

Dar kunjhoi maydoni bozi 4 bayraqchai kunji guzoshta meshavad. 6

bayraqchahoi pahlugi khati mobayni maydon va choryakkhatho nishon

medihand va dar masofai 0,91 m az sarhadi maydon joygir karda mesha-

vand.

Balandii bayraqchaho naboyad kamtar az 1,20 m boshad. Ba khathoi

darvoza dar masofai 4,57 m va 9,14 m az har poyaho bo khathoi kutohi sa-

fed kunjhoi jarimavi baralo tasvir karda yo nishon doda meshavand.

Ba khathoi darvozaho va khathoi pahlugi dar masofai 2,74 m az

bayraqchahoi kunji kunjhoro meguzorand (ba rasmi 86 nigared).

rasmi 86. Maydoni bozi baroi chavgonbozi (chenakho bo metr)

Tub. Qutr barobari 7,4 sm. Vazni tup 156 g to 163g dakka mekhurad.

Mutobiqi qoidaho tub metavonad charmin boshad yo purra ba rangi

safed rang karda shuda boshad yo bo qism-qism safed rang gardad. Dilaki

tub az muy yo yagon ashyoi sabuki tayyor karda meshavad. Ammo az tasiri

nami chunin tub zud vazn va shakli khudro ivaz mekunad. Hangomi

79

musobiqahoi dastaho tubero istifoda mebarand, ki az omekhtai mayda-

kardashudai kauchuk tayyor gardidaast.

CHavgon. Vazni imkonpaziri chavgon az 340 to 794g dakka khurda va bo

unsiyaho (1 unsiya – 28,35 g) andoza karda meshavad. Nisbat ba darozii on

mahdudiyat nest, vale daroziash mamulan ba 85-90 sm merasad. Ba dasta

kajak shiresh yo chasponida meshavad. CHaspish az rui prinsipi fona ijro

shudaast. 1,2 yo 3 qabathoi rezini dar dokhili dasta ba chavgon narmii za-

ruriro medihad. Kajak az darakhthoi chormagz, tut, akatsiya tayyor megar-

dad. Payvastagii chub az joi khamshavi boyad ba tarafhoi berunii on

paralleli boshad, zero chavgon metavonad ba osoni judo gardad. Ba khoti-

ri nashikastan boya gon lenta pechonidani chavgon tavsiya nameshavad. In

kor to darajae metavonad hajmho chavgonro tagyir dihad, ki on ba

qoidaho javobgu nest.

CHavgon boyad az dokhili halqa, ki qutri dokhiliash ba 5,08 sm barobar

ast, guzarad va tanho az yak taraf pahn boshad.

CHavgoni hindi qarib dar tamomi olam gustarish yoftaast, ki bo

kajaki khamshudai kutoh va dastai yaklukhtash farq mekunad (nigar ba ras-

mi 87)

Rasmi 87. CHavgonho: a)dasta va kajak; b)dasta, namud az bolo; v)kajak az

tarafhoi aqib va zarbavi.

Tekhnika. Hosiyathoi khosi chavgonbozi tarzhoi istifodai chavgon va

natijahoi badii tekhnikii qoidahoi boziro muayyan mekunad.

Ahamiyat va hajmi mashguliyatho, ki baroi mahoratu malakai tekhni-

kii ravona gardidaand, dar chavgonbozi nisbat bo digar navhoi varzish

ziyodtar ast.

Dar in mavrid ba masalahoi taktiki va omodagii jismonii umumi

diqqati kalon judo karda meshavad.

Makh s u si ya t h oi u n s ur ho i a so si i t e kh ni ki . B oz ing a r bo ya d a z

a b v

80

ho lat i a so s i ba t e zi i jr oi ta mom i h ar a ka th o v a

ama li yot ho r o b o ch av go n sh u ru n amo ya d .

Holati dastho. Tarafi hamvor yo pahni chavgon ba chap ravona gardi-

daast. Dasti chap az okhiri dasta meqapad, dasti rost takhminan dar mo-

bayni dastai chavgon joygir shudaast.

Dav. Baroi davidan dar chavgonbozi umumiyati tabdili nogahonii

samt ba aqib yo tarafho khos ast.

Bozingar bo zonuhoi kame khamshuda medavad, hamchunin vazni badan

asosan ba nugi poyho ravon megardad. U chavgonro vobasta az vaziyat bo

yak dast medorad (bo rost hangomi davidani darozi zud, bo chap

mustaqiman pesh az hamla az tarafi chap), yo bo hardu dast dar peshi badan

(dar sathi tub).

Burdani tub. Mutobiq ba holathoi bozingari tub ba harakat, bo

zarbahoi susti dasti baranda (agar az jonibi mukholif mone naboshad),

yo hangomi ivazi bonavbati dasthoi baranda va aqib (dar vaqti

muqobiliyat az tarafhoi mukholif yo hangomi firebi mukholif) darovarda

meshavad.

Ahamiyati halkunandaro in jo hamohangii bayni harakathoi badan

va qismathoi daston va kor (faoliyat) bo chavgon mebozad.

Nigoh doshtani tub.

Tubro doshta, chavgonboz boyad chavgonro ozodona nigoh dorad.

Lagzishi elastikii chavgon ba aqib hini barkhurdi tub «parish»-i tubro

bozmedorad.

Bo dast man kardani tubhoi «baland» va «past» ijozat doda na-

meshavad. Dar in mavrid faqat ijozati mansozii harakati tub hast, na

in ki ba on samti dilkhoh doda shavad.

Tubronii betanaffus. Tub dar maydon boqi memonad. Kajaki chav-

gon bevosita az aqibi tub guzoshta shuda va tubro to masofai 25 sm

hamrohi mekunad.

Partoft az joy. Tarafi hamvori kajaki chavgon ba tub nazdik

ovarda meshavad. Sipas dar natijai zarbai purquvvati ziyod yo kam tub

metavonad ba balandii gunogun bardoshta shavad va ba masofahoi mukhta-

lif partofta shavad. Zarba bo alvonjkhuri hangomi partoftho ba darvo-

za, tubdihi va tubdihi az pahlui maydon ijro megardad.

Partoft dar holi harakat. In navi zarbaro (hangomi bozi bo

tubdihii kutoh ba yakdigar qulay ast), bozingar dar holati chavgonro bo

rohi partoftani kutoh ivaz nakarda, amali mesozad. Partoftho bo

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dasthoi baranda va pas. Hangomi zarba bo dasti dar pesh qarordoshta

fosila bayni hardu dast boyad na on qadar kalon boshad. Dar in mavrid

tob dodani dasti rost bo dastai chavgon ba bolo melagjad. CHavgonboz

kame poi chapro ba pesh meguzorad, agar baranda dasti rost boshad. Tub

dar in vaqt boyad tavre khobida boshad, ki ba on ba qismati khamgashtai

kajaki chavgon zadan mumkin ast. Dar lahzai tob dodan va dar lahzai

okhiron chavgon naboyad az sathi kitf bolo bardoshta shavad.

Hangomi zarbai dasti pesh dar mavridi gardishi dasti duyum

tubdihii pinhoni ijro megardad.

Tekhnikai bozii darvozabon.

Darvozabon tubhoi «poyoni»-ro bo poyyash, tubhoe, ki dar sathi zo-

nuand bo siparho, tubhoi balandro bo dastonash megardonad.

CHavgonro balandtar az sathi kitfon bardoshta nametavonad.

Taktika. Qoidai chavgonbozi. Zarbaho ba darvozaho tanho az dav-

rai zarbavi, (holati gayribozi) hamai taktikai boziro muayyan meso-

zand.

Baroi ba komyobi noil gashtan, zarur ast, ki ba «qoidai gayri

bozi» rioya namuda, ba har vasila tubro ba mintaqai davri zarbavi bu-

barand.

Dar bozi taktikai infirodi, guruhi va dastjami, inchunin takti-

kai darvozabon istifoda megardad.

Qoida. Dasta iborat az 1 darvozabon, 2 himoyatgar, 3 hujumkunanda

va to 6 nafar bozingari ehtiyoti iborat ast. Vaqti boziro 2 davri 20-

daqiqagi tashkil mekunad, az rui shartnoma metavonad kamtar boshad.

Zarbaho ba tub man ast. Tub boyad hamesha dar maydon monad. Hangomi

baromadi tub az bozi dar masofai 1 m az pahli rondani ozodi tub amali

megardad. Bozingaroni boqimonda dar in lahza dar fosilai 3 m az joyi

ogozi bozi joygir meshavand. Hangomi amali shudani tubi kunji bozin-

garoni dastahoro himoyakunanda az khati berun az darvoza ba tarafho, ki

muqobili joi ijrokunii tubi kunji ast, joygir meshavand.

Boziho. «Deg», «Ba hadaf rason», «Zarbai ki durtar?», «Tub az

davra», «Tub ba chuquri».

Tennisi tui miz. In bozi dar okhiri asri guzashta ba vujud omada-

ast, harchand bozi, be muboliga, reshahoi qadima dorad. Vatani on Bri-

taniyai Kabir mahsub meshavad. Aqidai digare niz mavjud ast, ki tenni-

si rui miz guyo az Osiyo ba vositai Hinduston ba Angliya guzashta va az on

jo dar digar mamoliki Avrupo niz pahn gashtaast. Ammo bozii muosiri

82

tennis mahz dar Angliya dar soli 1884 sabt gardidaand. Mahz anglisho

(D.Gibbs, D.Jako) tubi plastiki va mizi tennisro ikhtiro namudaand.

Dar Britaniyai Kabir boziro bo ismi beshtar sadodor ping-pong

nomidand.

Ba berun az jazira tub dar ibtidoi qarni XX intiqol gasht. Dar

soli 1901 on dar Avstriyayu Vengriya, Olmon, badtar dar SHvetsiya, CHe-

khiya va digar mamlakatho arzi hasti namud. Dar soli 1926 chempionati

avvali jahon doir ba tennisi rui miz barguzor gardid.

Dar Ittihodi SHuravi roje ba in bozi dar intihoi asri XX it-

tilo yoftand va dar okhiri solhoi 20-um, makhsusan solhoi 1927 – 1929,

gustarish yoft. CHempionati yakumini SSSR soli 1951 dar Vilnyus bargu-

zor gasht.

Donishhoi tekhnikai bekhatari dar darsi varzish oid ba

mashguliyathoi tennisi rui miz hatmiand.

Qonuni tartibot dar mashguliyatho. Libosi varzishi va poyafzol.

Peshgirii osebbini. Gigienai varzishgari navras.

Qoidai bozi. Mizho baroi tennisi rui miz, tajhizot, asbobu anjom,

ashyo. Vazifa va huquqi bozingaron. Tarzhoi guzaronidani musobiqa.

Istilohoti dovari.

Taminoti moddi. Joyi bozi. Maydonchai dar ikhtiyor doshta haddi

aqal boyad 12m kh 6m boshad. Baroi guzaronidani musobiqahoi

baynalkhalqi – 14m kh 7m. Bolopushi farsh boyad narm boshad.

Sarchashmahoi rushnoi boyad az farsh 4m bolo voqe boshad.

Dar mizi bozi ravshani boyad 400 lk tashkil dihad. Muhiti atrof

va khati mahdudkunandai maydon, bo darbargirii qabuli tub, boyad torik

mahrum az har guna inikosnamoi boshad.

Miz metavonad az har guna mavod sokhta shavad va boyad mustahkam

boshad. Sathi rupush yo boloi mizi bozingari boyad yaklukht va bo rangi

sabz rang shuda boshad. Vay bo khati safedi 2 sm az pahluho va aqib

mahdud megardad.

Hati mobayni bo pahmii 3 mm, ki baroi bozihoi juft zarur ast,

metavonad hamchunin hangomi bozihoi yagona guzoshta shavad. Turi rangi

sabzi torikdoshta mizro ba du hissai barobar taqsim mekunad. On ba du

takyagoh berun az miz mustahkam megardad (rasmi 88).

83

R a s m i 88

Tub. Az matoi safed yo plastiki hajman az 11,43 to 12,70 sm iborat

buda, 2,4 to 2,53 g vazn dorad.

Raketka boyad az darakhti torik boshad. Agar pahnii raketka

bolopushro ba nazar megirand, on goh in polopush boyad yo az rezinai

narm, gafsii umumi haddi aksar 2 mm yo az rezinai muloim, qabati boloi

az rezinai narmi dandonador, ki gafsii umumi naboyad az 4mm ziyoda bo-

shad, boshad.

Bolopush yaklukht va torik boshad.

Hangomi qapishi avrupoi dastai raketkaro bo se angushtho medo-

rand (rasmi 89), angushti ishorati dar kanori raketka barovarda shuda,

kalon az tarafi digar joygir shuda, ba tarafi kushoda va bo kame ba an-

gushti miyona mechaspad. In qapish beshtar baroi ijroi zarbahoi gunogun

– shakli hamlakuni va himoyavi muvofiq ast.

R a s m i 89. Do sh t a n i r a k e t k a

Omodagii makhsusi umumi va varzishi. Mashqhoi nizomi. Rohravi,

dav: bo nuki panjai poyho, qaychishakl, bo takror – 5 kh 30 m, hushdori

binoi.

Ibtido az holathoi gunogun. Mashqhoi inkishofdihandai umumi be

ashyoho: baroi mushakhoi dast, poy, badan. Mashqho baroi tashakkuli du-

rusti nishast.

Mashqhoi inkishofdihandai umumi bo predmetho: bo chubi

gimnastiki, argunchaki kutoh, tubhoi basketboli va purkardashuda,

raketkaho, tubhoi tennis.

Jahishho: az joy, ba darozi va ba bolo, bo davi tez ba darozi va

84

balandi, jahish ba bolo bo kandashavi va baraks. Partofti tubi tennis

ba hadaf va ba duri. Firebi zarbahoi mukhtalif. Bozi dorondani tubi

tennis. Bozihoi serharakat, estafetaho.

Tekhnikai bozi. Tarzhoi __________qapidani raketka. Holati asosi va mavqe.

Navhoi zarbaho (bo fosila, hamlavar, himoyavi).

Partoftho: bo navbat ijro kardani silsilai partofthoi gunogun

(az bolo, poyon, bo tobkhurii omekhta).

Javobi partoft va zarbaho: «teladihi, gelon», «zeri burish», «kholi

guzoshtan». Zarbaho bo tubi kutohkardashuda «pushtaki». YAkjoyakunii

partoftho bo zarbahoi hamlavi va himoyati.

Bozihoi juft. Himoyai «sham» bo tobkhurii boloii tub. Zarbai

khotimavi ba markazi miz dar qaribii tur, ba kunji miz. Zarbahoi

javobi. Bozi bo du tubho. Gelondani tup ba chap va ba rost.

Taktikai bozi. Intikhobi mavqe, surat. Bozii hujumkunanda zid-

di himoyatgar. Bozii himoyatgar ziddi hujumkunanda. Taktikai bozihoi

yakka. Hususiyathoi bozihoi juft. Taktikai bozi dar mintaqahoi guno-

gun. Joyivazkuni dar bozihoi yaknafara, juft va omekhta.

Boziho. «Osiyob», «Hama muqobili yak kas», «Hadafro takhrib namo yo

biras», «Tubi gapgir», «Argunchak», «Quvva hast».

Badminton. Badmintoni az bozii hindii «Pune» ibtido megirad.

Mahz az Hinduston dar soli 1872 guruhi afsaron-mustamlikadoroni

anglis dar nazdikii Glogestershira boziero bo nomi badminton namo-

ish dodand.

Hamon sol chun soli tavalludi bozii badminton ba hisob meravad.

Donistani tekhnikai bekhatari dar darshoi varzish hangomi

mashguliyathoi badminton.

Qoidai tartib dar mashguliyatho.

Libosi varzishi va poyafzol. Peshgirii osebbini. Gigienai var-

zishgari navras.

Qoidai bozi. Maydon baroi bozi, hajmho, chenakhoi on. Asbobu

anjom (raketka, tur).

85

Taminoti moddi. Maydon baroi bozii badminton rostkunja ba-

roi bozii juft – 13,10 kh 6,10 m buda, baroi bozii yaknafari 13,40 kh 5,18 m

meboshad. Maydonhoe mavridi istifoda qaror megirand, ki faqat baroi

yakkabozon yo faqat baroi bozihoi juft judo shudaand, inchunin

maydonhoi joyivazkunanda yo omekhta. Hamai khatho dar gafsii 3,8 sm ka-

shida shuda, ba chenakhoi maydon dokhil meshavand.

Baroi bozii oddii badminton joi hamvor az rui imkon az shamol

himoyayofta, maydonchai qarib 7 kh 15 m muvofiq ast.

R a s m i 90

Maydoncha baroi bozi ba badminton dar razryadhoi yakka va juft. M khatti

mobayni; SD – khatti pahlugi baroi razryadi juftona; S-E – khatti pahlugi baroi raz-

ryadi yakka; VA khatti peshi partoft; HAD khatti aqibi (okhiri) partoft baroi

razryadi juft; VFE khatti okhiri (aqibi) partoft baroi razryadi yakka (rasmi 90).

Hangomi guzaronidani musobiqaho maydoncharo ba du qismi baro-

bar bo turi sabz bo khonachahoi (yacheyka)-ho bo 2 sm judo mekunand. Daro-

zii setka 6,10 m, bar 76 sm. Gushai boloii tur bar balandii 1,524 sm

joygir ast.

Parahoi tur az matoi safed bo gafsii 7sm magzi dorad.

Ba gushahoi boloi va poyonii tur resmonhoi mustahkamro

mepushonand, ki ba dar balandii 1,55 m mahkam karda meshavad.

Tubcha. Baroi bozii badminton dar binohoi pushida tubhoi 4,7 to

5,5 g vazndoshtai parhoi tabi doshta ba tedodi 14-16 adad va saraki sa-

buk istifoda megardand.

Inchunin tubchahoi pardori plasmassi niz mavridi istifoda qaror

megirand. Hangomi zarba bo quvvai muqarrari az poyon tubchai pardor

boyad qarib 13 m parad. Baroi bozii oddi dar vaqti istirohat tubchahoi

vaznashon qarib 10g istifoda meshavand.

Raketka baroi badminton az rui tarzi beruni raketkai tennisi

oddiro ba khotir meovarad, ammo khelo ham sabuk va muloimtar az okhiri

ast. Vazni raketka qarib 130 g. Ba qolabi raketka torhoi sintetikii

86

qutrashon 0,6 – 0,8 mm-ro mekashand (rasmi 91).

R a s m i 91. Do sh t a n i r a k e t k a

Omodagii makhsusi umumi va varzishi. Mashqhoi qatori. Rohravi,

dav: bo nuk va panjai poy, bo qadamhoi qaychishakl, takroran – 5 kh 30 m,

az rui hushdori binoi, ogoz az holathoi gunogun. Mashqhoi

inkishofdihandai umumi be ashyoho: baroi mushakhoi dast, poy, badan.

Mashqho baroi inkishofi durusti nishast, holathoi on.

Mashqhoi inkishofdihandai umumi bo ashyoho: bo chubi gimnastiki,

argunchaki kutoh, tubhoi basketboli va purkardashuda, raketkaho, tubhoi

tennisi.

Jahishho: az joy, ba darozi va ba bolo bo davi tez ba darozi va

balandi. Paridan ba bolo va baraks. Partofti tubi tennis ba hadaf

va ba duri. Firebi zarbahoi mukhtalif. Bozi bo tubho.

Boziho «Dav bo raketkaho», «Dasti ki baquvvat?», «Ki teztar»,

«Tubcharo qap», estafetaho.

Tekhnikai bozi. Tarzi doshtani raketkaho. Holati asosii bozingar

hangomi partoftan, qabuli tub, hangomi zarbaho ba rost, ba chap, ba bo-

lo, ba poyon. Zarbahoi kutoh ba rost va ba chap. Zarbahoi fosilador ba

rost, ba chap, az boloi resmon, zarbahoi kaj ba rost va ba chap. Zarbahoi

pahn ba rost, ba chap va az boloi sar. Zarbahoi kutoh.

Partoftho: kutoh, baland – dur, pahn – dur. SHinosshavi bo hisob

hangomi bozihoi yakka. Guzoshtan va hujum. Zarbai hamlavi, bozihoi yak-

ka, juft va omekhta bo hisob.

Taktikai bozi. Intikhobi jo va nazorati joyivazkunii durust dar

maydoncha. Bozi az khathoi pahlui, az khati aqib ba tur. Intikhobi tarzi

partoft, zarbahoi javobi. Taktikai bozihoi yakka va juft.

Joygirshavii bozingaroni bozihoi juft: paralleli, peshu – aqib, ozod.

SHinovari. Paydoishi shinovari ba davrahoi qadim marbut buda,

ba zarurati az jonibi odam azkhud kardani muhiti ob va muboriza baroi

mavjudiyat vobasta ast.

YUnonihoi qadim in mahoratu malakai zaruriro baland arzyobi na-

87

muda, onro ba tavonistani khondanu navishtan barobar meshumoridand.

SHinovari baroi odamon khursandii ziyod, qanoatmandi meovard, chun va-

silai olii istirohat khizmat mekard, salomatiro mustahkam, ba

obutobdihi musoidat menamud. Vay baroi insoni baquvvat, cholok,

purtoqat, chobuk shudan, khudro bo itminonu bovari dar holathoi gunogu-

ni hayoti ehsos namudan khizmat menamoyad.

Mashqhoi shinovari ba salomatii jismi odam musoidat namuda,

uzvhoi shikam va nafasro inkishof medihad; mushakhoro purquvvat na-

muda, tashakkuli mutavozini badan va qomati rostro tamin mesozad;

organizmro ba tasiri khunuki mutobiq megardonad; bo pastu balandsha-

vii yakborai harorat va gayra.

SHinovari dar bozihoi Olimpi bo barnomahoi kalon muarrifi

gardidaast.

SHinovaroni sobiq SHuravi (SSSR) dar tarikhi ishtirok dar

musobiqahoi kalon 22 medali tillo, 26 nuqra va 31 birinjiro sohib

gardidaand.

Komyobihoi beshtarro G. Prozumenshikova, V. Salnikov, A. Popov

va digaron sohib shudaand.

Varzishgaroni jumhurii mo omodagii kompleksii qavi va intikhob

ba ishtirok ba bozihoi Olimpiro meguzarand.

Vazifai har yak maktabkhon shinovariro omukhtan meboshand. Baroi

ogohii holathoi nokhush va osebbini zarur ast, ki talabot va qoidahoi

zerin rioya gardand:

  1. Faqat dar joyhoi oshno va ijozat dodashuda baroi shinovari, az

hududi sarhadi nishon dodashuda berun obbozi nakardan.

  1. Dr havzhoi shinovari rioya kardan ba intizom.
  2. SHinovariro tanho be kalonsolon omukhtan mamnu ast. In kor

khatarnok ast, hatto vaqte ki khudro dar ob nigoh doshta metavoned.

  1. Agar shumo chuqurii havzro nadoned va ba nabudani ashyohoi digar

dar on bovari nadoshta boshed ba ob jahidan man ast.

  1. Ba ob guta khurda nafas nakashida onro dar vaqti ziyod nigoh dosh-

tan mumkin nest.

  1. Hangomi paydoshavii nishonahoi khunukkhuri, kabudshavii labho

lozim ast, ki az ob baromada garm shaved.

  1. Tanho badi 40-60 daqiqai badi khurokkhuri ba mashguliyathoi

shinovari mashgul shaved.

  1. Az vositahoi nigahdoranda istifoda burdanro yod gired, hissi

88

khudidorakuni va masuliyatro az dast nadihed.

  1. Agar dar jismi khud bemorihoi guludard, shamolkhuri, sulfa va

gayraro ehsos kuned, ba shinovari mashgul nashaved.

Baroi mashguliyati shinovari zarur ast, ki anjomhoi zerini

infirodi doshta boshed: libosi shinovari, kulohi rezini, sobun, lif,

sachoq, shona; qabl az har mashguliyat dar havzhoi shinovarii pushida za-

rur ast, ki khudro bo sobun purra shued yo dush kuned; pas az mashguliyat

sar, makhsusan gushhoro purra pok kuned; pas az obbozi bo liboshoi tar

istodan mumkin nest.

Obbozi dar havzhoi tabii hangomi harorati na kamtar az +18° 20°

budani ob, dar joi shamolpanoh, havoi oftobi, harorati havo (shamol)

dar on boyad +24…25° boshad, mumkin ast.

Muhlati dar ob budan az 5-10 to 30-40

daqiqa tadrijan afzoish meyobad (bo nazardosh-

ti sinnu sol, holati salomati, sharoitu obu

havo).

Vaqti behtarin baroi mashguliyatho nimai

avvali ruz az soati 10 to soati 13 meboshad.

Dar havoi garm mumkin ast 2 marotiba dar yak ruz, Rasmi 92.

dar nimai duyumi ruz az soati 16 to soati18 obbozi kard.

R a s m i 93

R a s m i 94

R a s m i 95

Onhoe, ki shinovariro nametavonand zarur ast, ki durust khudro dar

ob nigoh doshtan, be tars ba ob daromadan, harakathoi odditarini dastu

89

poyhoro ijro namoed, hamzamon bo tarzhoi varzishii gunogun –

elementhoi tekhnikai shinovari oshno shaved.

Doir ba azkhudkunii mashqho dar ob, ki shumo dar sinfhoi poyoni

omukhta buded: «obbozi» (rasmi 92), «meduza», «sitoracha» (rasmi 93),

lagzish ba sina, ruy ba sohil istodanro (rasmi 95) takror namoed.

Tekhnikai navhoi asosii shinovari takhtacha dar qafasi sina (rasmi

96) – tarzi az hama zud va mashhuri varzishi obbozi ast. On bo

harakathoi bo tanaffusi simmetrii dastonu poyho manidod megardad.

Nafasbarori dar ob ijro meshavad. In tarzi shinovari baroi guzashtan

az moneahoi obi, hangomi najoti garqshudagon istifoda burda meshavad.

Mashqho baroi omuzishi tekhnikai shinovari dar qafasi sina

Dar khushki:

  1. HM – ba qafasi sina khobida, dast ba pesh, sarro kham kardan. Ba

zonu (orinj) bolo shuda va ba panjahoi dast nigoh

karda, harakathoi botanaffusi poyhoro zud ijro

menamoyand.

  1. Aynan hamon, ammo yak dast ba pesh, digar

dar barobari badan.

  1. Aynan hamon, vale bo muvofiqat kunonida-

ni harakati poy bo nafas sarro ba yak taraf tob

doda, bo dasti ba pesh darozkardashuda ba gush ra-

sidan.

  1. HM – rost istoda, yak dast ba bolo, diga-

rash az kamar, harakati davrii dastho ba pesh

(«Osiyob ba pesh»).

R a s m i 96

R a s m i 97

Dar ob:

  1. HM – bo qafasi sina khobida, bo dastho ba chuquri, ba pahlui havz

takya karda, harakati poyhoro ijro menamoyand.

Nafaskashii muqarrari (oddi).

  1. Aynan hamon, ammo sarro dar ob furovardan, nafasro nigoh

doshtan.

  1. Aynan hamon, ammo nafasbarori dar ob ijro meshavad. Baroi

nafasgiri sarro ba bolo bardoshtan yo tob dodan.

90

Mashqho baroi omuzishi tekhnikai jahidan az balandi

Dar khushki:

HM – ogozi shinovari (poyhoro dar barobari kafho paralleli gu-

zoshta, dar zonuho va qismathoi miyon kham shuda, dasthoro ba aqib par-

tofta, ba pesh nigoh mekunand. Jahish ba bolo bo alvonji dastho ba bo-

lo, sar dar bayni onho.

Dar ob:

  1. HM – dar pahlui havz nishasta, daromadan ba obro (avvalan ba ob

dastho va sar medaroyand) ijro menamoyand.

  1. Aynan hamon amal, vale tadrijan takyaro ziyod namuda.
  2. Aynan hamon amal, ammo holati ogozi shinovariro qabul karda.

SHinovari bo pusht – yake az tarzhoi khele qulayi (baroi nafaskashi)

harakatkuni dar ob ast. Agar shumo monda shuded, az shino bo qafasi si-

na, on goh mumkin ast ba pusht garde dva istirohat namoed.

Obbozi ba pusht, khobravi (rasmi 97) chun harakathoi botanaffusu

payvastai dastho va poyho manidod meshavad.

SHinovar ba pusht khobidaast, az in ru nafasbarori dar boloi ob

amali megardad. In tarz hangomi hamlu naqli osebdida, burdani borhoi

mukhtalif istifoda burda meshavad.

Mashqho baroi omukhtani tekhnikai shinovari

ba tarzi pushtnoki.

Dar khushki:

  1. HM – nishasti kunji (dar farsh, dar kursi, dar sohil); harakati

payvastai poyho.

  1. HM. Istoda, yak dast ba bolo, digar dar barobari badan,

harakathoi davrii bofosila ba aqib.

Dar ob:

  1. HM – ba pusht khobida, bo daston az pahlui havz qapida, harakati

poyhoro ijro menamoyand. Poyhoro az zonuho kham nakarda, nuki poyro

yozonidan va ba dokhil tob dodan.

  1. HM – ba pusht khobida, takhtaro dar zeri sar, ba zonu, ba shikam

guzoshtan.

SHino karda, harakathoi poyhoro anjom dod.

Takmili tekhnikai shinovari

Obbozi bo pusht:

  1. SHinovari ba pusht bo kumaki harakathoi payvastai poyho

91

(dastho metavonand dar barobari badan, yake ba bolo, hardu ba bolo bo-

shand).

  1. Aynan hamon amal, ammo to orinj ijro shuda, qulochi daroz du-

dasta dar yak vaqt.

SHinovari ba qafasi sina:

  1. SHinovari bo qafasi sina, bo yorii harakati poyho va yak dast,

digari ba pesh, ba gardishhoi sar baroi nafasgiri ba tarafi dasti kor-

kunanda nazorat kardan.

  1. Bo har dast shumorai dodashudai qulochhoro zam yo ilova kardan.

Boziho: «Ommavi», «Obkhezi», «Mohigir», «Mohi dar tur», «Obka-

shak».

Agar shumo allakay shinovariro khub yod girifta boshed va ba

seksiyahoi shinovari raved, on goh metavoned baroi khud testhoi

sanjishie, ki peshkashaton menamoem, ijro sozed.

Az testhoi sanjishi istifoda burda, shumo metavoned na tanho

natijahoi khub nishon dihed, balki nishondodhoi khudro behtar sozed.

Testhoi sanjishii namunavi

Jadvali 3

B ah o

Mash q h o

A lo

Hu b

Q an oat b akh sh

SHino karda guzashtan az

masofai 50m, daq., s:

pisaron

dukhtaron

1.20

1.30

Bo yake az tarzhoi

varzishi be hisobi

vaqt

Be hisobi vaqt

bo usuli ozod

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