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VAKSINAHO

VAKSINAHO (Vaccina), moyaho, doruhoe, ki az mikroorganizmhoi kushta yo kamquvvati bemorizo, inchunin az toksin (zahr)-hoi bezarar tayyor shudaand. Hangomi ba badan guzaronidani V., dar organizm nisbat ba in yo on bemorii siroyati masuniyat (immunitet) inkishof meyobad. CHunin immunitet faol buda, ba tavri suni hosil gashtaast.
Qoidahoi vaksinatsiyaro bori avval dukhturi anglis E. Jenner peshnihod kardaast. Vay s. 1796 onro ba muqobili bemorii nagzak taklif karda bud. Ba aqidai Jenner govdushone, ki kasalii khele sabuki nagzaki govro az sar guzaronidaand, ba nagzaki haqiqi, yane bemorii khavfnoku vaznin giriftor nameshavand. Vaksinai nakhustin az nagzaki gov hosil shuda bud. Okh. a. 19 olimi fransavi L. Paster dar tayyor kardani V. asosi ilmi guzosht. Vay bar ziddi sukhtani (1881) va hori (1895) moyakubiro peshnihod kard. Dar kori tahiyai V. olimoni rus I.I. Mechnikov, D.K. Zabolotniy, N.F. Gamaleya, L.A. Tarasevich va dig. sahmi arzanda dorand.
Ilmi tib bar ziddi bisyor bemorihoi khavfnoki bakteriyavi va virusi (toun, vabo, sil, khunok, kuzoz, poliomelit, ensefalitho va g.) V. dorad.
V.-i bejon, zinda, khimiyavi, hamchunin anatoksinho istehsol karda meshavand. V.-i bejonro dar asnoi korkardi bakteriya va virusho bo formalin, spirt va garm kardan ba dast meorand. V.-i zinda az mikroorganizmhoi makhsus kamquvvatkarda, ki qobiliyati bemoriovari nadorand, vale khosiyathoi immunogeni (masuniyat)-ro gum nakardaand, tayyor karda meshavand. Dar muhiti suni (bakteriyaho) yo organizmi chorvo (virusho) durudaroz parvaridani mikroorganizmho usuli mamuli sust namudani khosiyati bemoriovarii onho meboshad. Mas., L.Paster bo rohi parvarishi chandkaratai virusho dar magzi sari zargushho V.-i ziddi bemorii horiro tahiya kard; A. Kalmett va SH. Geren (1921) boshand, badi ba muhiti iborat az kartoshka solhoi daroz kuchat kardani batsillahoi sil bar ziddi in bemori vaksina (BSJ) hosil namudand. V.-i khimiyavi qismat (antigen)-hoi faoli makhsus judokardai mikrooganizmho yo mahsuli mubodilai onho meboshand. Bo yorii formalin khosiyati zahroginii ekzotoksinhoi bakteriyahoro bezarar gardonida, anatoksin hosil mekunand. V. boyad samarabakhsh va baroi organizm bekhatar boshand.
Dar amaliyai tib barobari vaksinahoe, ki az qismathoi yak namudi mikroorganizmho (monovaksinaho) iboratand, hamchunin vaksinahoero istifoda mebarand, ki onho az qismathoi du (divaksina) yo chand mikroorganizm (polivaksina)-ho tarkib yoftaand.
V. bo rohhoi gunogun guzaronida meshavand: ba daruni mushakho (surkhcha), zeri pust (paratifho, domana, isholi khunin, vabo, toun va g.), qabati boloi pust (nagzak, sil, tulyaremiya, sukhtani va g.), ba bini (gripp), dahon (poliomelit). Baroi hosil namudani immunitet yak marotiba istifoda burdani V. kifoya ast. On badi chand haftai vaksinatsiya inkishof meyobad va muddati daroz (chandin sol) boqi memonad.
Baroi peshgirii chunin bemorihoi siroyati, monandi sil va guluzindonak V. az rui naqsha (ba tariqi hatmi) guzaronida meshavad; dar digar mavridho onro az rui zarurat ba kor mebarand. Mas., odamone, ki dar manbahoi tabiii toun, brutselyoz, tulyaremiya, ensefaliti yaponi va kanagi sukunat dorand, hatman vaksinatsiya karda meshavand.
V.-i hatmiro bo tartibi muayyan meguzaronand. Mas., ba kudakoni navzod avval bar ziddi sil (BSJ), sipas badi chand vaqt bar ziddi khunoq, kuzoz va sulfakabutak vaksina guzaronda meshavad. Hamin tavr, onhoro az chand bemorihoi siroyatii khavfnok muhofizat mekunand. Istifodai ilman asosnoki V. imkon dod, ki bemorihoi siroyatii nagzak, toun, tulyaremiya barham doda shavand. Ba tufayli vaksinatsiya darajai ba bemorihoi bakteriyavi va virusi duchor gashtani aholi sadho marotiba kam shudaast.

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