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Ushnai torfi va hosil shudani torf

Ushnai torfi yo sfagnum chun digar namudi ushnaho boshandagoni botloqzorho meboshad. On taqriban 300 khelro darbar megirad.

Ushnai torfiro bo iborai digar ushnai safed ham meguyand, chunki dar holati khushk budanash rangi zardu safed yo bo purragi safedro dorad. Dar botloqzorhoi sernam sfagnum pushishi qolinmonandi yaklukhtro paydo mekunad. Dar on joyhoe, ki ushnahoi torfy mesabzand, digar rastanihoi darakhti bad sabzida, pajmurda meshavand.

ushnai-torfiUshnahoi torfi giyohhoi bisyorsola buda, poyai darozi shokhronda dorand. Poyai onho bo barghoi boriki khurd faro girifta shudaast. Dar ushnahoi torfi resha va rizoid dida nameshavad. Sabzishi poya dar natijai taqsimshavii hujayrahoi nugii poya va shokhchahoyash ba amal omada, dar davomi sol taqriban 2-3 sm daroz meshavad. Dar barobari in qismi poyonii poya tadrijan khushk megardad.

Bargi ushnahoi torfi az du khel hujayraho iborat ast, ki onho az rui sokhtashon az yakdigar farq mekunand. YAke az in hujayrahoi zinda khlorofilldor buda, digarash hujayrahoi murdai obiigohdoranda meboshand. Hujayrahoi khlorofilldor boriku daroz buda, bo ishtiroki donachahoi khlorofillashon ravandi fotosintez amali megardad. Dar bayni hujayrahoi boriki khlorofilldor hujay

Sfagnum rastanii dujinsa meboshad. YAne, hujayrahoi jinsii zanona (arkhegoniya) va mardona (anteridiya)-ash dar yak rastani, vale dar shokhchahoi gunogun joygir shudaand.rahoi bayzashakli (tukhmshakli) obnigohdoranda, ki bo jildi gafs pushida buda, surokhichahoi kalon dorand. joygir shudaand. Tavassuti in surokhichaho ba in hujayraho ob vorid shuda, onho bo ob pur megardand. Dar vaqti khushk shudani rastani in hujayraho obro bukhor karda, bo havo pur meshavand va ushna rangi safedro megirad. Hangomi dar ob tar shudani rastanii khushk in hujayraho chun isfanj bo tezi obi ziyodero ba khud jabbida megirand. Qismi ziyodi barg va poyaro hujayrahoi obnigohdoranda tashkil medihand. Sfagnum ba tufayli hujayrahoi ziyodi obnigohdorandaash 30-40 marotiba ziyodtar az vazni khushkash obro jabbida megirad.

Bordorshavi odatan bahoron ba amal meoyad. Nutfa dar ob shi- nokunon to arkhegoniya omada, bo on yakjoya meshavad. Az hujayra- tukhmi bordorshuda poyachai bebarg va guzacha bo sarpushchaash inkishof meyobad. Sipas, sporahoi pukhtarasida az guzachaho ba berun posh mekhurand. Dar sharoiti qulay az onho lavhachai sabzi (sabzaki) rizoidsor paydo meshavad.

Hamin tavr, navishtahoi boloi nishon medikhand, ki ushnai torfi az rui bisyor khususiyathoyash ba ushnai fokhtazagirak monandi dorad. Vale az rui chunin alomatkho, az qabili nadoshtani rangi sabzi baland, dujinsa budan va nadoshtani rizoid az ushnai fokhtazagirak farq mekunad.

Agar ushnai torfi dar sathi obanbor ba sabzishu inkishof shuru kunad (vase pahn shavad), obanbor metavonad dar yak muddati kutoh obashro gum karda, ba botloq tabdil yobad.

Hosilshavii torf dar muhiti bagoyat ziyodi sernam va be ishtiroki oksigen ba amal meoyad. Az in ru, dar qabathoi gunoguni torf dar baze mavridho boqimondai darakhton, gard va guli rastanihoe, ki hazorho sol muqaddam sabzidaand, boki mondaand. CHunki onho bo purragi namepusand. Nabudani oksigen, past budani harorat va kislotahoi organikie, ki ushnaho az khud khorij mekunand, ba in- kishofi bakteriyaho va zanburughoi pusonanda mone meshavand.

Botloqhoi torfi beshtar dar Jumhurii Belorussiya, Federatsiyai Rusiya vase pahn gardidaand va qarib 60%-i zakhirai torfi umumijahoniro tashkil medihand.

Torf sarvati purqimati tabii meboshad. Onro khamchun nuri ba zamin meandozand. Inchunin torfro ba sifati suzishvori, ashyoi sokhtmonie, ki qobiliyati balandi garmi va khunukinaguzaroni do- rand, vase istifoda mebarand. Az torf zift, spirti chub, parafin, kislotai karbonat, kogazi gafs (karton) va digar mavodi zaruri megirand.

  1. Ushnai torfi chi guna sokht dorad?
  2. Ushnai torfi az fokhtazagirak bo chi farq mekunad?
  3. Ushnai torfi obro tavassuti kadom hujayrahoyash mejabbad?
  4. Ushnai torfi chi tavr afzoish mekunad?
  5. Torf chi tavr paydo meshavad?
  6. Torf dar khojagii khalq chi ahamiyat dorad?
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