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Uslub va khususiyathoi badeii ashori Bedil

Osori nasri va manzumi har yak adib dar kadom asre, ki boshad, az sabki umumii adabi berun nest. Vale istedodho dar tarikhi adabiyot tavonistaand, ki dar juziyot tozajuiho kunand. Masalan, Rudaki dar asri X, Nosiri Husrav, Sanoi, Nizomi, Jaloluddini Balkhi, Husravi Dehlavi, Sadi , Hofizu Kamol , Jomi va gayra.

Az in nuqtai nazar, osori Bedil niz dar zaminai sabki umumii davr – sabki hindi ejod shudaast va khususiyathoi in sabkro komilan faro giriftaast. Az tarafi digar, ejodiyoti Bedil, ki onro istedodi baso hayratovar rui kor ovardaast, dar juziyot tozakorihoi khele sershumor dorad, ki hatto sabki umumii davrro sarchashmaho sabki bedili nom nihodaand. Ba in mani, to andozae adabiyoti besh az 700-sola janbai jambasti megirad, ki in padidaro khudi Bedil, pesh az hama, his kardaast. CHunonchi, meguyad:

Zi badi mo na gazal, ne qasida memonad,

Zi khomaho du-se harfi chakida memonad.

Zero hadafi shoir janri judogona nabuda, umuman, sher, yane adabiyot ast.

U shoirest, ki hangomi sarrofii sukhan hunari khosa zohir mekunad. Hatto ashyohoi muqarrarii tabiat: kuh, sang, khok, ob, sabza, darakht, abru boron va gayra mohiyati makhsusi estetiki megirand va ba tavri hayratovar jazzobu jolib va zebovu nazarrabo meshavand. Ba in mani Bedil meguyad:

Har sangporae, ki fitad chashmi mo bar u,

Az yak nazar aqiqi YAman[1] mekunem mo.

Albatta, in yak khususiyati umuman adabiyot ast, vale adiboni sohibistedod tavonistaand, dar hunari ejod az yakdigar bartari doshta boshand. In ast, ki Bedil holati ejodro ba dami teg monand mekunad, ki maqsudi u guzashtan az hastii khesh ast. YAne ejodkor mesuzad, to bisozad:

Dami tegest, Bedil, rohi boriki sukhansanji,

Zaboni khoma ham shaq[2] dorad az harfofariniho.

YAke az jihathoi muhimi sabki Bedil dar on ast, ki kalimaho, iboravu tabirho dar alohidagi fahmo, sodda, ravonand, vale dar matn khele pechida meoyand, manii onho baroi khonanda dastnoras meshavad. CHunonchi, dar in bayt:

Gul ba dastu po ki bast imshab, ki chun rangi hino

Busamushtoqon chamanho zeri lab khun kardaand.

«Mashuqa» – menavisad ustod S.Ayni mavridi tahlili bayti mazkur, – ba dastu poi khud gul bastaast, ba in sabab busamushtoqon – oshiqone, ki dastu poi uro busidan mekhostand, chamanhoro dar zeri lab girifta – busida khun karda ba rangi hino gardondaand, to ki mashuqa dar vaqti ba poyu dasti khud gul bastan, shoyad gulhoi ba rangi hinogardidai in chamanhoro bandand va ba in vosita busishi in busamushtoqon ham ba dastu poi u birasad». In albatta, az pechidagii mano guvohi medihad.

YO khud dar in bayt:

Hok shud fitrat ba pasti, lek mijgon bar nadosht,

V-ar na az mo to ba bomi osmon yak zina bud.

Dar in bayt shoir falsafai khalloqiyati insonro dar nazar dorad, ki Hudo odamro dar bihisht ofarid va az sababi on ki jismi u az olami sifli bud, tob ovarda natavonist va agar tob meovard, to olami taqaddus andake bud.

Muhim on ast, ki sanathoi badei niz dar shakli nisbatan murakkab ba kor girifta meshavand; tashbehoti murakkab, mukanno, kinoyavu majozhoi khele vahmi, khayoli, ihomu ramzhoi nisbatan dastnoras mavridi istifoda qaror doda meshavand, ki mohiyati onho na ba har kas fahmost.

Digar az khususiyathoi ullubii ashori Bedil az on iborat as, ki u bazan kalimahoi navi murakkab mesozad: silamushtoq, busamushtoq, gadotab, ramzoshno, khirasar, iqtidorohang, chamankuloh, tarabsaro, khorijohang, hayratogoz, tufonjushi, asarparvard, tarahumkhirman, sadnargisistonibrat va gayra, ki az hissahoi gunoguni nutq sokhta shudaand, hatto manii lugaviashon na ba har kas fahmost.

Zaboni ashori lirikii Bedil yakson nest, gazalu qasidahoi u nisbatan murakkab va shevai qitahovu ruboiyotash khele soddaand.

Baroi namuna chand bayt az yak qitai shoirro zikr menamoem:

Ay baso ilme, ki az beiltifotihoi khalq

Dar mijozi maniogohon hamon mastur mond.

Bedimogihoi maston chashmi shavqe vo nakard,

Mavji may dar jom mahvi reshai angur mond.

Nargisistonho ba hayrat khuftai bedonishist,

Olame afrukht shamu hamchunon benur mond.

Gar kase mahram nashud andeshai gaflat kirost? Husn az bas beniyozi dosht, nomanzur mond.

Dar in qita kalimai dushvorfahm nest va khatto khonandai oddi ham manii onro ba osoni daryofta metavonad.

YO khud ifodai manii ijtimoi dar in ruboi, ki khele ommafahmu soda ast, daleli qazovati bolost:

Ay gofili imtihon, zi kas qarz magir,

Harchand rasi ba jon, zi kas qarz magir.

Anduhi ado sakht garoni dorad,

Az foqa bimiru non zi kas qarz magir.

Vale zaboni qasidahovu gazaliyot va masnavihoi Bedil nisbatan murakkabu pechida ast va khudi shoir, «Sayri fikrai oson nest, kuhamu kutal doram»- meguyad, shoyad ba hamin qismati talifoti mutafakkir beshtar taalluq doshta boshad.

Albatta, bazan gazalhoi ravonu fahmo niz duchor meshavad va makhsusan, ashori vasfiash, ki ba tasviri bahor, juziyoti tabiat, sitoishi mahbuba, bayoni hasbi hol va gayra bakhshida shudaast, ziyodand. CHunonchi, in gazali bahoriyaro chun namuna metavon zikr namud:

CHashm vo kun, rangi asrori digar dorad bahor,

On chi dar vahmat nagunjad, jilvagar dorad bahor.

Soate chun bui gul az qaydi pirohan baro,

Az tu chashmi oshnoi on qadar dorad bahor.

Kahkashon ham poymoli mavji tufon gashtaast,

Sabzaro az khobi gaflat chand bardorad bahor.

CHashm to vokardai, rang az nazarho raftaast,

Az nasimi subh doman bar kamar dorad bahor.

Az khazon oina dorad subh, to gul mekunad,

CHuz shikastan nest rangi mo, agar dorad bahor.

Abr menolad, k-az asbobi nishoti ajuman,

Har chi dorad dar fishori chashmi tar dorad bahor.

Az gulu sunbul ba nazmu nasri Sadi qoneam,

In maoni dar «Guliston» beshtar dorad bahor.

Mu ba muyam hasrati zahmat tabassum mekunad,

Har ki gardad bismilat, bar man nazar dorad bahor.

Z-in chaman, Bedil, na sarve jastu na shamshod rast,

Az khayoli qomatash dude ba sar dorad bahor.

[1]     Aqiqi YAmin – sangi qimatbahoi mashhure, ki dar YAman hosil karda meshavad.

[2]     SHaq(q) – shikof; chok, shikofta.

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