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Uqyonusi Jahon

Uqyonusi Olam (Jahon). Ba kharita va globus nazar andozem, ba osoni mefahmem, ki khamai uqyonusho, bahrho bo yakdigar payvast meboshand. Onho dar sathi Zamin qabati yaklukhti obro tashkil medihand, ki onro Uqyonusi Olam menomand. Obi on taqriban 71 foizi sathi kurai Zaminro ishgol namudaast. Boqimondai on (29 foiz) ba khushki rost meoyad. Hushki masohati yagonaro (yaklukhgro) tashkil namekunad. On az materikho va jazirahoi alohida iborat ast. Materikho porahoi kaloni khushki buda.

Uqyonusi Olamro ba uqyonushoi alohida judo kardaand (Materikho va uqyonushoro az kharitai nimkuraho nishon dihed). Dar hududi  onho  jazira va galajazirahoi ziyod voqe gardidaand. Porai khurdi khushkie, ki az hama taraf obi uqyonus va bahrho ihota kardaand, jazira nom dorad. Onho  hajman gunogunand. Jazirai az hama kalon Grenlandiya meboshad. Baze jaziraho dar uqyonus guruh-guruh vomekhurand. Onhoro galajazira menomand. Galajazirahoi Arktikii Kanada va Gavayya az on qabiland. Ammo miqdori jazirahoi alohidai khurd nihoyat ziyodand. Onho  dar Uqyonusi Orom beshtar vomekhurand.

uqyonus

Jaziraho na faqat bo miqyos (andoza) va tarzi joygirshavi inchunin az jikhati paydoish az yakdigar farq mekunand. Onho materiki, vulqony va marjony meshavand. Jazirahoi materik dar natijai furu raftaii qismi  materikho az onho  chudo shudaand. Madagaskar, Gvineyai Nav, guruhi jazirahoi Zamini Nav ba in misol shuda metavonand.

Jazirakhoi vulqoni dar natijai otashfishonii vulqonho dar kari uqyonus paydo shudaand. SHakli onho ba makhrut monand meboshad, joygirshavii onho  bazan ba silsilai kuhho shabohat dorad. Masalan, galajazirahoi Kuril.

Paydoishi jazirahoi marjony ba faoliyati poliphoi marjoni vobasta meboshad. Onho dar sharoite, ki obi uqyonus az past nameshavad, dar chuqurii 30-40 metr nagz afzoish mekunand. Az hamin sabab poliphoi marjoni dar bahrhoi mintaqai garm, ki dar bayni 30° arzi shimoli va januby voqe gardidaand, bisyorand. Bo mururi zamon az boqimondai onho  jazirahoi marjoni paydo shudaand. CHunin jaziraho beshtar dar Uqyonusi Orom ba nazar merasand. Saddi buzurgi Marjonii sohilhoi Avstraliya az qabili onho buda, dar masofai 2320 kilometr tul kashidaast.

Bar khilofi jaziraho, nimjaziraho bevosita qismi materikho hisob meshavand. Onho hamchun qismi nisbatan kaloni khushki ba masofai-ziyod ba fazoi obi bahrho dokhil shudaand. Kalontarin nimjazirakhoi rui Zamin nimjazirakhoi Arabiston, Hinduston, Skandinaviya, Somali va gayra meboshand.

Ukyonusho. Uqyonusi Olam ba chor uqyonusi alohida judo meshavad (Onhoro az kharitai nimkuraho nishon dihed). Onho qismi yagonai Uqyonusi Olam hisob meshavand.

Dar bayni onho  Uqyonusi Orom kalontarin va chuqurtarin ast. Masohati Uqyonusi Orom az masohati yakjoyai uqyonushoi Atlantika va Hind kalon meboshad. Obi on sohilhoi materikhoi Amerikai SHimoli» Amerikai Janubi, Evrosiyo, Avstraliya va Antarktidaro ihota kardaast.

Uqyonusn Atlantika az jihati buzurgii masohat va chuquriash pas az Uqyonusi Orom dar joi duyum meistad. Ba on sohilhoi magerikhoi Amerikai SHimoly, Amerikai Januby, Evrosiyo. Afrika va Antarktida hamshafat meboshand. Joi az hama tangbary on dar khati istivo voqe gardidaast. Sohilhoi on dar Nimkurai SHimoly nihoyat kaju kileb meboshand.

Uqyonusi Hnnd asosan dar Nimkurai Januby dar bayni Uqyonushoi Atlantika va Orom voqe gardidaast. Dar on jaziraho nisbatan kamand. Nimjazirahoi Hinduston va Arabiston ba masofai ziyod ba fazoi obi uqyonus dokhil shudaand.

Uqyonusi YAkhbastai SHimoli dar atrofi Qutbi SHimoli voqe gardndaast va on qadar chuqur nest. Hususan bahrhoi sohilii on tunukobai vasero hosil namudaand. Bari on dar baze joyho az 1000 kilometr ziyod ast.

Uqyonusho bo hamdigar payvast meboshand. Sarhadi onho  ba vositai sohili materikho, nimjaziraho, jazirakho va fazoi vasei obi uqyonus (shartan) meguzarad. Az chumla hududi bayni uqyonushoi Atlantika. Hind va Oromro dar Nimkurai Janubi az meridiani nuqtahoi kanorii janubii Amerikai Janubi. Afrika va Jazirai Tasmaniya guzarondaand. Bayni khud uqyonusho ba vositai gulugohho va bahrho robita dorand.

Qismkhon tarkibni uqyonusho. Ba qismi tarkibii uqyonusho bahrho, khalijkho va gulugohho dokhil meshavand. Bahrho az uyonus bo jaziraho yo ostonahoi zerioby judo shudaand. Onho ba uqyonusho bo shuri, harorat. YAkhbandi, harakati jarayoni ob farq mekunand. Bahrho nisbat ba materikho mavqei gunogunro ishgol menamoyand. Inro asos namuda onhoro ba du guruh judo kardaand: bahrhoi dokhili va kanory (az kharita nishon dikhed). Bahrhoero, ki ba daruni khushki dokhil shud, bo gulugohho ba uqyonus robita dorand, baroi dokhili meguyand. Masalan, bahrhoi Siyoh va Miyonazamin (Onho  bo uqyonusi Aglantika bo kadom gulugoh payvastand, az kharita nishon dihed). Baraks, on bahrhoero, ki ba khushki ba andozai zied dokhil nashudaand, bahrhoi kanori menomand. Bahrhoi sohili janubii Uqyonusi YAkhbastai SHimoli (az kharita nishon dihed) va qisman bahrho digar uqyonusho ba bahrhoi kanori mansuband.

Halich gufta fazoi obiro meguyand, ki ba dokhili khushki daromadaast. Onho  na faqat dar sohili uqyonusho, inchunin dar sohili bahru kulho niz voqe gardidaand. Hosiyati harakati ob, nabotot va hayvonoti khalijho az uqyonusu bahrho kam farq mekunad. Onho bemamoniat bo obi uqyonus va bahrho payvast meboshand (Halijhoro az kharita nishon dihed). Halijkhoi Meksika, Biskay, Bangola az kabili onho  meboshand.

Gulugoh masohati nisbatan tangbari obisst, ki qitaa khushkiro az hamdigar judo mekunad va havzahoi ob yo qismhoy onhoro ba ham payvast menamoyad. Masalan, gulugohloi Bosfor  va Dardanell, ki avvaly bahrhoi Siyoh va Marmarro mepayvandad va duyumy bayni Evropa va Osiyoi Hurd voqe gardida, bahri Marmarro bo bahri Egey mepayvandad, gulugohi Hurmuz, ki bayni nimjazirai Arabiston va qismi materikii Osiyo voqe gardida, khalijhoi Fors va Ummonro bo ham payvast mekunad, gulugohi Gibraltar, ki bayni intihoi janubii nimjazirai Pireney (Evropa) va qismi shimoli garbii Afrika voqe ast. Gulugohi Kerch, ki bahrhoi Siyoh va Azovro ba ham payvastaast.

SAVOL SUPORISH

  1. Uqyonusi Olam chist?
  2. Hushki az kadom qismho iborat ast?
  3. A Uqyonushoro az kharita nishon doda, mavqei geografii onhoro muayyan kuned.
  4. Uqyonus az kadom qismhoi tarkibi iborat ast?
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