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UZVHOI DARUNI VA AFZOISHU INKISHOFI OBHOKIHO

 DAR MISOLI QURBOQQA

Tumae, ki qurbokqa medorad, az kovokii dahon ba guluyu surkhruda rafta, az on jo ba rudai darozi borik dokhil meshavad va pas ba rudai kutohi gafs meguzarad. Gadudhoi talkhadon va zeri meda ba hazmi khurok yori merasonand.

Azoi nafaskashii kurboqqa shush ast, ki on sust inkishof yofta, yak qismi mubodilai gazho bo yorii pustashon ba amal meoyad.

Dar gului qurboqqa sadopardaho joy giriftaand, ki az larzishi onho ovozi qur-quri kurboqqa ba vujud meoyad. Qurboqqa beshtar bo biniash nafas megirad. Gayr az in oksigeni atmosfsra yo ob az pusti nafis ba kapillyarhoi khun meguzarad. Az khamin sabab qurbokqa dar ob va ham dar khushki muddati duru daroz istoda metavonad.

Rasmi 15. Uzvhoi darunii qurboqqa. 1 - meda; 2 - rudai borik; 3 - rudai gafs; 4 - jigar; 5 - puffaki zahra; 6 - gadudi zeri meda; 7 - medacha: 8 - dahpezi dil; 9 - ispurch; 10 - shush; 11 - gurdaho; 12 - shoshadon; 13 - nasldon; 14 • maqad.
Rasmi 15. Uzvhoi darunii qurboqqa.
1 – meda; 2 – rudai borik; 3 – rudai gafs; 4 – jigar; 5 – puffaki zahra; 6 – gadudi zeri meda; 7 – medacha: 8 – dahpezi dil; 9 – ispurch; 10 – shush; 11 – gurdaho; 12 – shoshadon; 13 – nasldon; 14 • maqad.

Bo paydo shudani shush sokhti azoi gardishi khuni qurboqka nazar ba Mohi murakkabtar shudaast. Dili qurboqqa az yak medachayu du dakhlez iborat buda, du doirai gardishi khun dorad. Hun dar doiran kalon az medachai dil baromada, ba vositai raghoi khun ba khama uzvhoi badan meravad. Hun dar in jo oksigenro az shushu pust va shirai gizoro az devorai rudayu meda girifta ba tamomi huchayraho mebarad va dar bozgasht az gazi karbon ser shuda, ba vositai ragho ba dahlezi rosti dil barmegardad. Dar doirai gidgadishi khurd khun az medachai dil ba suyi shushu pust jory shuda, seroksigen meshavad va ba dahlezi chapi dil barmegardad. Dar medachai dil khun omekhta shuda, az on ba tamomi azoi badan taqsim meshavad.

Uzvi ikhroji qurboqqa du gurdai darozruya ast, ki dar kovokii tarafi sutunmuhra joy giriftaand. Az har yak gurda yaktoi nayi peshob baromada ba peshobdon meoyad. Naychahoi shosha va azom tanosul hama ba makad roh dorand.

Mubodilai moddaho dar qurboqqa misli mohiyon sust meguzarad va harorat ham dar badani vay kam paydo msshavad misli on, ki khezumi tar dar otashdon sust sukhta, kam garmi medihad, harorati badani qurboqqa ham doimi nabuda, ba kharorati muhiti vay

vobasta ast. Hususan, bo cap shudani khunuki, ki qurboqqa ba khobi zimistoni meravad va dar in vaqt khurok namekhurad, mubodilai moddakho boz ham susttar shuda, sust nafas megirad va harorati badanash past shuda, az sifr bolotar meistad.

SHabhoi garmi okhiri zimiston va avvali bahor az havzu juyho ovozhoi balandu gunoguni qurboqqahoro meshunavem, ki on ovozi qurboqqahoi narina meboshad. Qurboqqaho dar ayyomi «konsertashon» juft meshavand. Qurboqqahoi modina ba ob tukhmak mepartoyand, ki zohiran ba tukhmaki mohiyon monand ast.

Qurboqqahoi narina ba boloi tukhmakhoi modina az khud moddai moei nasli (spermatozoid) merezand. Dar ob bordorshavi ba amal meoyad. Tukhmi bordorshuda dar daruni parda ba kvadrati adadho kasr shuda, tadrijan janini serhujayra inkishof meyobad. Taqriban pas az 8-10 ruz az daruni pardai tukhm kaflesak mebaroyad, ki ba mohichai khurd monand ast. U ruzhoi avval ba rastanihoi zeriobi chaspida meistadu hanuz dahon nadorad. Dere naguzashta kaflesak dahon kushoda, ba hayoti mustaqilona meguzarad. Kaflesak obsabzhoi yakkhujayra, bakteriya va rastanihoi pusidaro khurda, bo tarqishhoi galsama nafas megirad. Bad az yak mokh kaflesak avval poyi aqib va pas poyi pesh barovarda, ba ruyi ob mebaroyadu bo shush nafas megirad. Dili qurboqqa dar ayyomi kaflesaki dukhonagi buda, bo paydo shudani shush sekhonagi meshavad. Dumi kaflesak ohista-okhista khurd shuda, zohiran badanash ba qurboqqacha monand meshavad. Qurboqqacha ba labi ob baromada, khuroki rastaniro tark karda, ba khurdani hasharotu kirmak meguzarad. Qurboqqacha pas az 3-4 sol bolig shuda, qobiliyati nasl dodan paydo mekunad.

Obkhokii az hama kalon, ki dar daryokhoi Hitoy va YAponiya zindagi mekunad, salamandra nom dorad, ki to 1.5 m daroz meshavad. Huroki on mohi va qurboqqana, khasharoti obi, kirminai onho meboshad. Halqhoi Hitoyu YAponiya salamandraro shikor karda, gushtashro baroi khurok istifoda mebarand. Holo yak miqdori on dar bogi hayvonoti Moskva parvarish meyobad, ki bori avval soli 1950 az Hitoy ovarda budand.

Dar bayni gukho (qurboqqai khoki) az hama kalonash guk-aga nom dorad, ki dar qismi janubiyu markazii Amerika zindagi mekunad. In namudi guk hasharoti zararrasonro khurda, ba khojagii kishovarzii tropika yorii kalon merasonad. Binobar on guk-agaro 100 sol pesh az jazirai Martinika ba Hinduston ovarda, pahn karda budand. Soli 1930 boshad 150 dona (fardi) chunin guki foidarasonro baroi az hasharot muhofizat kardani kishtzori nayshakar bosamolyot ba jazirahoi Gavay ovarda pahn kardaand. Dertar shumorai onho ziyod shuda, yak miqdorashro ba jazirai Filippin, Gvineyai Nav, Avstraliya ovarda, pahn namudand.

Hususiyati khosi gukho on ast, ki dar joyhoi iqlimash khunuk parvarish nameyobad. Vay du gadudi makhsus dorad, ki az onho moddai zahrnok judo namuda, bo on khudro az dushman (hayvonotu parrandahoi gushtkhur) muhofizat mekunad. Ovozash ba ovozi gulugiri cag monand ast, ki inro khangomi juftshaviash shunidan mumkin ast.

Dar bayni qurboqqaho az hama kalonash goliaf nom dorad, ki soli 1926 onro az Kamerun (Afrika) doshta budand. Darozii badanash 32 sm ast. Gayr az in, dar qismi shimolii Amerika govqurboqqa hast, ki daroziash 20 sm meboshad. In namudi qurboqqaro dar qismi sharqii Avrupo baroi gushtash shikor mekunand. Masalan, dar Amerika har sol to 100 mln. dona govqurboqqaro bo tur, changak yo tir shikor mekunand. Holo az chazirahon Gavay bo maqsadi khuroki ba San-Fransisko sodir mekunand.

Govqurboqqa har guna hasharot, mollyusk, mohicha va chujai parrandahoi obiro mekhurad. In qurboqqa baroi on nomi govro dorad, ki ovozash ba dod zadani gov monand buda, az masofai 2-3 km shunida meshavad.

Rasmi 16. Guk va qurbokhai kuli
Rasmi 16. Guk va qurbokhai kuli

Namudi digari chunin obkhoki qurboqqai kuli meboshad, ki to 17 sm darozi dorad. In namudi qurboqqa dar khududi sobiq Ittihodi SHuravi bisyor buda, ahamiyatash on ast, ki hasharotro mekhurad, vale zararash on ast, ki tukhmi mohiyu mohichahoro ham istemol mekunad.

Dar dunyo az hama qurbokqan khurd filobatus nom dorad, ki onro bori avval dar soli 1910 dar jazirai Kuba yoftaand. Andozai in kurboqqa dar holati bolig budanash ba nugi angushti ishoravi barobar meboshad.

Boyad qayd kard, ki nasli khurdi Obkhokiho dar ob inkishof yofta, bazeashon bad ba khushki meguzarand, kirminai onho odatan bo galsama va nasli kalonashon dar kujoe, ki boshand, bo shush nafas megirand. Poyhoi Obkhokiho ba bugumkho judo shuda, panja dorand. Pusti Obkhokihoi qadima ruypushi pulakchagi doshta, namoyandahoi hoziraashon pulakcha nadorand.

Mikdori umumii Namudhoi Obkhokiho qarib ba 2 hazor merasad, ki aksariyati onho dar mamlakatkhoi tropiki pakhn shudaand.

Dar gorhoi rutubatnoki Amerikai SHimoli Obkhokihoi dumdor zindagi mekunand, ki dar vaqti bolig shudan na tanho galsama, balki shush kham nadorand. In guna hayvonho tanho tavassuti pust nafas mekashand. Onhoro «salamandrahoi beshush» menomand.

Dar kuhhoi Karpat obkhokii dumdori digar — salamandrai alo zindagi mekunad, kirminai on beshtar dar badani modar inkishof yofta, bad ba ob meravad.

Dar khududi sobiq Ittihodi SHuravi az Namudhoi obkhokiho qurbokqakhoi sabz, aloguk, khokrang, tritoi beshtar pahn shudaand.

Qatori obkhoknhoi bedum. Namoyandai on qurboqqai darakhtgard ast, ki vayro kvaksha menomand. Vay dar nohiyahoi janubi, dar boloi bargi darakhtu buttaho zindagy mekunad. Nugi angushtonash vase shuda, ba yakdigar chaspidaand va baroi rost istodanash yori merasonand. Rangi kvaksha, muvofiqi joyi zistash, beshtar sabz meshavad. Kvaksha baroi afzoish ba zamin furomada, bad ba ob medaroyad. Gayr az in  kvakshahoi tropiki niz hastand, ki nasli avvalai onho dar chuqurchahoi takhtapushti modar ynkishof meyobad.

Qurboqqai shikamsurkh ham az qatori dubahrahoi bedum buda dar obanborhoi khurd vomekhurad. On bo pusti donachadorash ba guk monand ast, vale dar ruyi shikamash dogkhoi surkhi baland dorad. Guk ham namoyandai dubahrai bedum buda, vase pahn shudaast. Onro bo gushti durushti qunokakdorash (donachadorash) az qurbokqa fark kardan oson ast va beshtar rangi khoki dorad. Pusti guk moei tundi shirmonand mebarorad, ki vay agar ba chashm yo dahon rasad, ozurda mekunad. Masalan, laklak qurboqqare mekhurad, vale az guk hazar mekunad. Binobar on pas az gukro ba dast giriftan dastro ba tezi bo ob toza shustan lozim ast.

Poyhoi aqibi guk az poyhoi aqibi qurboqqa kutokhtar ast, binobar in guk nagz khallos zada metavonad va bazan dar ruyi zamin mekhazad. Guk hayvoni shabgard buda, vayro beshtar begohiyu shabona dar bog yo poliz didan mumkin ast. Ruzona vay dar chuqurikhoi namnok dar zeri devorho pinhon meshavad. Vay tukhmashro dar ob ba shakli zanjirai resmon meguzorad. Bahor dar havzu juyho, kulmakkho bo in «resmon»-i daroz duchor meshavem, ki darunash tukhmhoi guk dorand.

Inkishofi janinii Obkhokiho faqat dar obi shirin meguzarad. Binobar in guk dar vaqti afzoish dar justujui obanborho bazan az 3 to 5 km masofaro tay mekunad. Aksar vaqt onho nochor dar obi ravoni chuy tukhm meguzorand. Baroi on ki jarayoni ob tukhmakhoro nabarad, guk onhoro ba shakli resmoni daroz guzoshta, yak nugashro ba yagon jismi oby mechasponad. Onhoro, ki rangi siyohchayu pardai shaffofi luhoby dorand, mohhoi may-iyun dar obhoi domanai kukhu adirkho duchor shudan mumkin ast.

Hususiyati guk ba tarzi zindagiash vobasta ast. Vay balgamshulluk, kirmi loykhurak, khasharotu kirminai onhoro, ki shabona mebaroyand, mekhurad. Hususan mollyusk, kharak va hazorporo bepggar istemol mekunad. Gayr az in, guki sabz khast, ki on dar dashthoi domanakuhi kamtar buda, dar mintaqai zaminhoi oby ziyod ast.

Qurboqqakhoi sabz hamesha dar halkai daryoho, havzu kulho, botloqu juyborho va kanalho zindagi mekunand. Qurboqqaho az in joyho bo hamrohii obe, ki ba kishtzor meravad, dar zaminhoi obyorishavanda paydo meshavand. Vay har guna hasharot, az jumla hasharoti zararovari rastanihoi dastparvarro mekhurad.

Baze odamon az nodoni qurboqqaro jonvari zahrdori zararnok va hatto khavfnok meshumorand. Ammo vay baroi odamon tamoman bezarar buda, baroi kishtzoru bogot foidanok meboshad.

Nasli az tukhm baromadai qurboqqa, ki kaflesak nom dorad, dar ob yakchand Vaqt zindagi karda, kharguna kirmaku zochai pashshahoro khurda, nestu nobud mekunad.

Dar mavridi paydo shudani khatar qurboqqa ba masofai kalon jahida, khudro ba ob mepartoyadu zud pinhon meshavad. Pas az andak fursat qurboqqa chashmu biniashro, ki dar boloi cap qadre barjasta joy giriftaand, az ob sakhl berun mekunad. Bad az andak fursat, agar hama jo orom boshad, boz ba labi ob mebaroyad.

Tiramoh, Vaqte ki khunuki cap meshavad, qurboqqai sabz ba qari ob mefuroyad va ba qabati loyqa joy girifta, zimistonro dar khob meguzaronad. Badani serbar va kutohi qurboqqa dum nadorad. Farqi poyhoyashon dar on ast, ki poyhoi aqibi kurboqqa ba qismhoi ron, sok va panjai panjanguigga, poyhoi peshash ba qismhoi kitf, bozu, panjai chorangushta judo meshavand. Ba bugumho judo shudani poyho, ki badanro ba harakat kardan dar ruyi khushki mutobiq mekunad, baroi hamai hayvonoti khushkigard khos ast. Hususan poyhoi aqibi qurboqqa baquvvat buda, baroi jahidan ahamiyati kalon dorand. Vaqte ki jonvar hallos mezanad, poyhoi aqib bo sari zonu zaminro tela doda, az joyash mejahad. Poyhoi peshash balanashro dar Vaqti furomalan ba zamin az zarb khurdan muhofizat mekunad. Jahidani kurboqka. kayk, malakh, kenguru va khargushro ba khotir ored.

Pusti barahnai qurboqqa pulakcha nadorad va bo gadudhoi luhobchudokuni pushida shudaast. Badani kurboqkai sabz az bolo va az du pahlu har guna tobishi sabzu jigari doshta, kamu besh kholhoi siyoh ham dorad. Qismi poyonash safedtob ast. Qurboqka az sababi in khel rag doshtanash chi dar daruni ob va chi dar labi ob az bayni sabzaho bazur ayon meshavad.

Qurboqqai ba nazar tanbali lavand hasharotro khele mohirona doshta megirad. Vay inchunin tukumshulluku lesakhoro ham mekhurad. Vaqge ki tuma nazdik meshavad, qurbokqa khallos zada, zaboni chaspaki darozashro berun mebarorad va tuma ba zabonash mechaspad. Zaboni serbar va chaspaki kurboqqa dar dahon ba jogi poyoni payvand shudaast, binobar in qurboqqa nugi qafoi choki
zabonashro berun mebarorad .

Dandonhoi bisyor khurdi qurboqqa tanho dar ruyi komi jogi bolo inkishof meyoband. Agar kafi angushtamonro ba kanori jogi qurbokqa molem, onhoro pay burdan mumkin ast. Dandonchahoi qurboqqa tanho baroi doshtani tuma yori merasonad, vale u tumaro nakhoida furu msbarad.

Qurboqqa bo muhiti berunn bo yorin uzvhoi hissash aloqamand ast. Dar qismi boloi sari qurboqqa yak juft chashmoni kaloni barjasta hastand, ki pilki boloyash kamharakat buda, pilki shaffofi poyoniash serharakat ast.

Dar boloi dahonash yak juft surokhii bini joy giriftaast. Ba vositai surokhiho havo ba kovokii bini dokhil meshavad, ki dar devorhoi vay asabi shomma shokhchahoi bisyore dorad. Kovokii binii qurboqqa ba vositai surokhii kom ba dahon roh dorad. Havo az on jo guzashta, bad ba guluyu shush meravad.

Dar aqibi chashmonash pardai doirashakli gush hast, ki mavjhoi sadopardai gushro melarzonad va in larzish bo yorii ustukhonchai makhsus ba gushi daruni, ki dar kosai cap joy giriftaast, meguzarad. Dar in jo nughoi asabi somea hastand, ki ovozhoro farq mekunand.

Ba gayr az qurboqqai sabz va Namudhoi digari onho qurboqqahoi alafi niz vomekhurand. Rangi onho asosan jigari meshavad. Onhoro az kurboqqahoi sabz az ruyi dogi siyohi pushti chashmonash farq kardan mumkin ast. Tobiston qurboqqahoi alafiro dar bogotu jangalu polizi sersoyai salqin didan mumkin ast,

Tritonho az namoyandagoni Obkhokihoi dumdor buda zohiran az qurboqqa va guk farqi kalon dorand. Tani darozruyai onho bo dumi daroz tamom meshavad. Dumashon az du taraf pachaq buda, girdogirdash hoshiyai pardai shinovari dorad, ki bo yorii on shino mekunad. Poyhoi triton khele kutohand va faqat baroi khazidan dar khushki ba kor meoyand.

Bahoron va dar nimai avvali tobiston tritonro az havzhoe, ki dar onho rastanihoi obi bisyor meruyand, yoftan mumkin ast. Vay bo shush nafas megirad va har 2-3 daqiqa baroi nafas giriftan ba ruyi ob mebaroyad. Dar okhirhoi tobiston pinhon meshavad. Vay zimistonro ham dar hamin jo meguzaronad. Avvali bahor in jonvar boz ba ob meravad.

Savol va suporishho:

  1. Dar borai mushak, ustukhonbandi, sokhti asab, azohoi daruni va afzoishu inkishofi obkhokiho dar misoli qurboqqai sabz malumot dihed.
  2. Dar borai qatori obkhokihoi bedum dar misoli qurboqqai darakhtgard va guk naql kuned.
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