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Tunis dar asri XIX

Tunis lavlati avvalini arab bud, ki dar davrai imperializm ba mustamlika tabdil yoftaast. Baroi ishgoli in davlat Faronsa va Angliya bo hamdigar raqobat mekardand. Dar solhoi 70-umi asri XIX ba in raqobat Italiya niz hamroh meshavad. Soli 1871 kushishi Italiya baroi bo rohi osoishta ba dast darovardani ijozatnomai ijora benatija baromad.

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Sarmoyadoroni Faronsa, ki kayho boz ba iqtisodi Tunis sarmoyai khudro vorid sokhta, zaminhoi ziyodro kashida girifta va ijorahoi foidanok ba dast darovarda budand, boisror jiddu jahd mekardand, ki in mamlakatro ba nimmustamlikai Faronsa tabdil dihand. Masalai Tunis dar Kongressi baynalkhalqii Berlin guzoshta shud. Dar in kongress dar amal taqsimi imperiyai Usmoniyon surat girift. Ba Faronsa bo taklifi Germaniya gayrirasmi ijozat doda shud, ki Tunisro zabt namoyad. Bo in kor  Germaniya rakibi evropavii khud Faronsaro to darajae dar muqobili Italiya guzosht. Az tarafi digar, guzashtkunii Tunis ba Faronsa baroi Angliya foidanok bud. Dar arafai ishgoli Misr Angliya namekhost, ki Faronsa bo vay raqobat kunad. Raqiboni Faronsa dar ishgoli Tunis imperiyai Usmoniyon va Italiya budand. Lekin Faronsa, ki ba zurii khud bovari dosht, ba mavqei in du davlat ahamiyate ham namedod.

Hamin tariq, soli 1881 Faronsa Tunisro ishgol mekunad. Mohi mayi soli 1881 bey az khavfi mahrum shudan az toju takht majbur shud, ki ba matni shartnomai peshaki tayyor kardashudai faronsaviho imzo guzorad. Harchand dar in shartnoma iboran “pushtiboni” istifoda shuda boshad ham, sanadi mazkur shartnomai ba mustamlikai Faronsa tabdil yoftani Tunisro ifoda mekard. Tunis huquqi siyosati mustaqilonai baynalkhalqiro az dast dod. Beyi Tunis uhdador shud, ki be rozigii Faronsa ba yagon soziishomae, ki mohiyati baynalkhalqi dorad, imzo nameguzorad.

Mohi iyuni soli 1881 bey dar borai on, ki Faronsa dar munosibati Tunis bo davlathoi digar “miyonaravi yagona ast”, amri khudro intishor kard.

Taslimshavii beyi Tunis dar mamlakat qahru gazabi ommaro ba vujud ovard. Dar natija shurishi kalone ba amal omad, ki on tamomi Tunisro faro girift. Aksariyati askaru afsarho be jang ba tarafi shurishchiyon meguzashtand. Dar in shurish namoyandagoni jamoai dinii marabutho, ki shiori “jangi muqaddas”-i ziddi Faronsaro elon karda budand, sahmi kalon giriftand. Muborizai artishi Faronsa bar ziddi shurishchiyon yakchand moh davom kard. Badi on ki markazi shurish Qayravon girifta shud, nuqtahoi muqovimat dar SHimol va Markazi Tunis shikast khurdand. Bo vujudi in dar janubi Tunis muboriza bar ziddi faronsaviho to okhiri hamon sol davom kard.

Badi pakhshi shurish faronsaviho ba tashkil namudani sokhtori davlatii mustamlikavie shuru kardand, ki dar Tunis hukmronii sarmoyai Faronsaro tamin namoyad. Mohi iyuni soli 1883 Sozishnomai navi Faronsayu Tunis ba imzo rasid, ki dar on bori avval dar munosibati Faronsa bo in davlat kalimahoi “Faronsa hokimiyatro dar Tunis purra ba ikhtiyori khud megirad” istifoda burda shudand. Soli 1884 Komissiyai baynalkhalqii moliya barham doda shuda, korhoi marbut ba moliyai Tunis ba ikhtiyori rezidenti kulli Faronsa doda shud. Bo hamin dar amal dar Tunis tamomi hokimiyag ba ikhtiyori namoyandai kulli Faronsa guzasht.

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