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Translyatsiya – Davrai digari sintezi biologi

Translyatsiya (az lotini translatio – dodan). Davrai digari sintezi biologi – guzaronidani akhbore, ki dar paydarhamii nukleotidho (paydarhamii kodonho)-i molekulai KRN-a joy dorad, dar paydarhamii aminokislotahoi zanj-iri polipeptidi meboshad.

Dar prokariotho (bakteriyaho), ki yadroi tashakkulyofta nadorand, ribosomaho ba molekulai az nav sintezshudai KRN-a zud badi judoshavii on az KDN, yo hatto, to anjom yoftani sintezi purrai on, payvast shuda metavonand. Dar eukariotho KRN-a dar ibtido boyad tavassuti pardai yadro ba sitoplazma rasonda shavad. Guzaronish bo safedahoi makhsus ba amal ovarda meshavad, ki bo molekulai KRN komp leks hosil menamoyand. In safedaho KRN-a-ro az tasiri zararnoki fermenthoi sitoplazmagi muhofizat mekunand.

4-3

Dar sitoplazma dar yake az nughoi KRN-a ribosoma faoliyat namuda, sintezi polipeptid ogoz meyobad. Ribosoma dar molekulai KRN-a nomuntazzam (nomurattab), triplet az pasi triplet joygir meshavad (rasmi 4.2).

Ba andozai joygirshavii ribosoma dar molekulai KRN-a, dar zanjiri polipeptidi pai hamdigar aminokislotaho joy megirand, ki ba tripleti KRN-a muvofiqand. Muvofiqshavii durusti aminokislotahoro ba kodi tripleti

KRN-a KRN-n tamin menamoyad. Har yak aminokislota KRN-n khudro dorad. YAke az tripletho-antikodon ba tripleti muayyani KRN-a jiddan komplementar meboshad. Hamchunin, ba har kadom aminokislota fermenti muayyan muvofiqat menamoyad, ki onro ba KRN-n payvast mekunad.

Prinsipi umumii dodani akhbori irsi oid ba strukturai molekulahoi safedagi dar ravandi sintezi biologii zanjiri polipeptidi dar rasmi 4.3 nishon doda shudaast.

Badi anjom yoftani sintez zanjiri polipeptidi az matritsa – molekulai KRN-a judo shuda, sipas strukturai seyuminro sohib meshavad, ki ba safedai mazkur khos ast.

Molekulai KRN-a baroi sintezi polipeptidho misliribosoma, mumkin takroran istifoda shavad. Dar in jo, mafhumhoi transkripsiya va translyatsiya ba tavri khele oddi va mukhtasar tavsif karda shudand. Dar khotir boyad dosht, ki sintezi biologii safedaho – ravandi khele murakkab buda, ba ishtiroki bisyor fermentho va sarfi miqdori ziyodi energiya vobasta ast.

Sintezi biologii molekulahoi gayrisafedagi dar hujayraho dar se davra ba amal meoyad. Dar ibtido oid ba strukturai safeda – fermenti makhsus akhbor ba vujud meoyad, bad bo yorii in ferment molekulai muayyani angishtob yo lipid  hosil meshavad. Ba hamin roh, dar organizm digar moleku lahoi gayrisafedagi vitaminho, gormonho va gayra niz hosil meshavand.

Savolho baroi sanjish:

  1. Sintezi biologi az chi iborat ast? Misolho biyored.
  2. Ravandi assimilyatsiyaro tarif dihed.
  3. Kodi genetiki chist?
  4. Hosiyathoi asosii kodi genetikiro gufta dihed.
  5. Kislotahoi ribonukleinat dar kujo sintez meshavand?
  6. Sintezi safeda dar kujo ba amal meoyad? SHumo ba khosiyat va roli safedaho, inchunin kislotahoi nukleinat dar organizm chi tavr baho doda metavoned?
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