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Tijorat dar Amorati Bukhoro (asri 19)

Tijorat dar shahrho asosan dar bozorho surat megirift.

Bozor masohati kalonero ishgol menamud. Bozorhoi Uroteppa va Hujand qarib bolopushida budand (kappon doshtand). Hususiyati khosi shahrho az in iborat bud, ki dar chorsu va khiyobonhoi asosi markazhoi savdo voqe gardida, dar on timi darozi gunbazdor sokhta meshud. Az bayni tim kucha meguzasht va dar tarafi on qatori dukonho sokhta shuda budand. Markazi savdoi Samarqand va SHahrisabz hamin guna tim dosht. Dar Bukhoro panj tim mavchud bud. CHunin imorathoi bozorro dar Samarqand va SHahrisabz «chorsu», dar Bukhoro «tok» meguyand. Markazi shahri Bukhororo tamoman bozorho ishgol karda budand. Dar maydoni Registon va digar maydonho niz dukonho vujud doshtand. Odatan dar nazdi darvozai shahr bozor mavjud bud.

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Dukonho na on qadar kalon buda, ba ham zich jo megiriftand, rastahoi bozor har yake moli muayyan doshtand. Ilova bar in, korvonsaroyho bisyor budand. Dar korvonsaroyho asosan tojironi musofir va bazan mahalli iqomat mekardand. Ba Bukhoro har sol iborat az 12-15 hazor shutur korvon meomad va on hama borho, odamon, aspu arobaho asosan dar korvonsaroyho joy megiriftand.

Hujand markazi kaloni savdo va tijorat bud, ki ba vositai on tojiron moli khudro ba bozorhoi khonii Huqand va az on joyho ba amorati Bukhoro meburdand. Bozori Uroteppa ham serodam va kalon bud. Ba in jo mardumi Mastchoh, Falgar, Hisoru khatto Qarotegin meomadand. Onho mahsuloti kishovarzi va chorvodorii khudro mefurukhtandu az on jo molhoi zarurii ruzgor va oloti kishovarzi mekharidand.

Dar Hujandu Uroteppa dukonhoi savdo asosan dar bozorhoi shahr joy girifta budand. Du bozori Hujand 790 dukon doshtand. Az 854 dukon va ustokhonahoi hunarmandii Uroteppa 642-toash dar bozor va 212-toash dar guzarhoi shahr joygir budand. Az in dukonho mahsuli kosiboni mahalli va kosiboni shahru viloyathoi durdast va mamlakathoi digarro paydo kardan mumkin bud.

Bisyor shahru viloyatho bo navi muayyani mahsuloti hunarmandi va molhoi furushii khud shuhrat doshtand.

Masalan, Hisor bo matoi abr, khanjar va gusfandoni khud, Uroteppa bo kord, matohoi pashmin va kashidaduzihoyash, Hujand bo adrasu shohi, Qarshi bo alocha va gayra.

Dar qariya va dehkadahoi kalon ba istiloh «davri bozor» vujud dosht (yane «bozornavbat» bud). Masalan, dar Bukhoro bozori Kogon ruzi seshanbe, bozori Bahovaddin ruzi chorshanbe va gayra. Dar Qaratog seshanbe va shanbe, dar Dushanbe – chorshanbe va yakshanbe, dar YAngi Bozor va Hisor Dushanbe, dar Fayzobod seshanbe va dar Regar shanbe ruzi bozor bud. Tawsimoti ruzhoi bozor bayni shahru deoot az on sabab bud, ki kosibon va tosiron az yak bozor ba bozori digar rafta rasida, moli khudro furukhta tavonand. Dar bozori shahrho va nohiyahoi Osiyoi Miyona pulhoi tillo, nuqra va misi dar gardish budand. Tojiron baroi az yak mulk ba mulki digar guzaronidani moli khud boj va dar bozorho zakot medodand.

Honigarihoi Osiyoi Miyona bo digar mamlakatho robitai mustahkami tijorati doshtand. Savdogaroni bukhoroi va fargonagi bo Eron, Hinduston, Hitoy (makhsusan Qoshgar) savdo mekardand. Az Eron ba Bukhoro shohi, gazvorhoi pakhtagi meovardand. Az Hinduston ba gayr az chunin molho choy, nil, marvorid, digar sanghoi qimatbakho, doruvor, zarfho vorid meshudand.

Dar nimai avvali asri XIX robitai savdo bo Rusiya nisbatan inkishof yoft. Az Osiyoi Miyona ba in mamlakat mevai khushk, pust, gazvori pakhtagi, pakhta, pusti qarokuli va gayra sodir meshud. Az Rusiya ba Osiyoi Miyona puli tillo, mis, ohan, pulod, chuyan, movut, qand va gayra meovardand.

Vale hukmronii sokhti feodali ba rivoji savdoi dokhili va khoriji mone bud. Harobii rokhho va nabudani amniyat chi dar rohu chi dar shahrho peshi taraqqiyoti tijoratro megirift. Dar rokhho az dasti goratgaron molu joni savdogaron hamesha dar khatar bud. Inchunin dar bozorho boju khiroj va ijorapuli hadu andoza nadosht.

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