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Tekhnika dar nimai duyumi asri XIX — avvali asri XX

Dar IMA solhoi 60-70-um dar korkardi gusht, ordkunii galla va madanistehsolkuni konveyer istifoda burda shud. In tarzi istehsol dar zavodhoi Ford dar solhoi 1912 – 1913 takmil doda shud. Konveyer sifati mahsulotro behtar, miqdori onro ziyod va protsessi istehsolotro qulay gardonid.

Nerui barq sol to sol dar sanoat va naqliyot beshtar istifoda burda meshud. Guzarishi istehsoloti sohibkoriyu korchalloni ba avtomati va khathoi paydarpay taqozo kard, ki generator sokhta shavad. Dar sohai barq E. G. Gramm. F. Hefner, Al gemek. M. Depre va digaron kor kardand. Dar asosi tadqiqoti onho barqgohi avvalin sokhta shud.

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Dar miyonai solhoi 80-um ikhtirokoroni nemis G. Daymler va K. Bente tipi navi harakatdihandai darunsuzro kor karda baromadand, ki on bo benzin kor mekard. In harakatdihanda dar naqliyoti berels istifoda burda meshud. Olimi nemis R. Daval harakatdihandai navi darunsuzro sot, ki on ba suzishvorii vaznini moe kor mekard. Sanoati bo surati tez taraqqikunanda va makhsusan sokhtmoni rohhoi ohan madani ziyodro talab mekardand. Baroi hamin korkardi madanro takmil dodan lozim meomad. Dar barobari takmili istehsoli marteni va bessemerni madan usuli navi konvertorii onro ikhtirokoroni anglis S. CH. Tomas va P. J. Ilkrist kor karda baromadand. Madangudozon bo in usul az madan sulfur va fosforro judo mekardand. In kor imkoniyat medod, ki madani ziyodtar istehsol karla shavad.

Dar dahsodahoi okhiri asri XIX olimi rus I. L. Kondakov bo rohi makhsus moddai kauchukro ba vujud ovard.

Dar IMA dar naqliyoti rohi ohan “Sistemai SBS” (signalizatsiya, blokirovka, sentralizatsiya ba zaboni tojiki: khabardihi, markazonidan va bozdori) sokhta ba istifoda doda shud, ki on harakati poezdhoro bekhavftar gardonid. Dar naqliyoti rohi ohan va kupruksozi pulod ohanro tang karda barovard.

Soli 1891 dar London radiusi avvalini metroi dar sathi chuqur sokhtashuda ba kor daromad. In namudi navi naqliyot ruz to ruz ziyodtar meshud.

Dar solhoi 90-um dar IMA, SHveysariya, Germaniya, Italiya, Angliya rohhoi ohani barqii nazdishahri va baynishahri sokhta ba istifoda doda shudand. Teplovozi avvaline, ki bo suzishvorii dizeli kor mekard va surati harakatash dar yak soat 100 km bud, ba roh baromad.

Ba vujud omadani naqliyoti avtomobili niz ba hamin davra rost omad. Dar solhoi 80-um G. Daymler motosikli ducharkha va K. Bens avtomobili secharkha sokhtand. Bo hamin namudi navi naqliyot tavlid yoft.

Dar solhoi 90-um padaru pisar Damlonhoi shveysari dar avtomobil charkhhoi reziniro istifoda burdand. Ba istehsoli ommavii avtomobil boshad, sanoatchii amerikoi G. Ford asos guzoshtaast. To ogozi Jangi yakumi jahoni, dar zarfi 30 sol, dar jahon 2 million avtomashina istehsol karda shuda bud.

Naqliyoti obi va havopaymo ham taraqqi kard. Ba kishtisozon muyassar gardid kishtihoe sozand, ki gunjoishashon kalon boshad va bori ziyodero az yak joy ba joy digar kashonida tavonand, baroi zarurati harbi ham kishtihoi buzurghajm sokhta meshudand. Dar sohai havopaymoi tadqiqoti olimoni rus. K. E. Siolkovskiy, N. E. Jukovskiy va digaron ahamiyati kalon doshtand. Soli 1884 A. F. Mojayskiy bo samolyote, ki harakatdihandai bugi dosht, parvoz kard. Samolyotero, ki bo harakatdihandai benzini kor mekard, amerikaviho barodaron Raytho sokhtand.

Avvali soli 1876 du nafar ikhtirokori amerikavi A. G. Bell va I. Grey telefonro sokhtand. Bad az on ki soli 1878 az tarafi T. A. Edison mikrofon ikhtiro karda shud, telefon dar tamomi jahon pahn gardid.

Radioaloqa ba kor daromad. Ba sokhtani asbobhoi avvalini barqi niz ibtido guzoshta shud. Nerui barq baroi ravshan kardani khonaho ham istifoda burda meshud. Dastgohi fonografi va kinematografi ikhtiro karda shud. Dar kishovarzi istifodai traktorho ogoz yoft.

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