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Tavlidi harakati burjuaziyu inqilobi

Hukmronii irtijo ba peshrafti neruhoi peshqadami mamlakat khalal rasonida natavonist. Muboriza baroi konstitutsiyai soli 1876 va ishtirok dar parlamenti avval baroi onho maktabi haqiqii muborizai siyosi gardid. Goyahoi “Usmonhoi nav”-ro vobasta ba sharoit ishtirokchiyoni harakati javonturkho qabul karda, rivoj dodand. Rejimi zulmu istibdod onhoro alayhi mutlaqiyati sulton ba justujui usulhoi inqilobii muboriza tela dod.

Soli 1899 guruhi khonandagoni talimgohi harbiyu tibbii shahri Istambul bo tashabbusi donishju Ibrohim Temo sozmonhoi avvalini jamiyati makhfii “Ittihod va taraqqi”-ro tashkil namudand, to ki bar ziddi zulmi Abdulhamid muboriza barand. Hudi hamon vaqt bo rohbarii Ahmad Rizobey markazi oppozitsiyai muhojirin tashkil meyobad. Ishtirokchiyoni in sozmonro dar Evropa “javonturkho” menomidand.

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Javonturkho az nav barqaror kardani rejimi konstitutsioni va ba amal barovardani islohoti demokratii evropaviro maqsadi asosii khud meshumoridand. Dar Kongressi yakumi javonturkho, ki soli 1902 dar Parij barguzor gardid, baroi muttahid kardani jiddu jahdi hamai hizbhoi siyosi, guruhho va mahfilhoe, ki bar ziddi rejimi istibdod muboriza meburdand, kushish ba kharj doda shud. Vale oid ba rohu usulhoi tagyiri sokhti mavjudai Turkiya dar bayni ishtirokchiyoni in kongress mukholifat va judoi ba amal omada, ba tashkil yoftani du sozmoni mustaqil ovarda rasonid. Asosi yake az onhoro guruhi Ahmad Rizo tashkil kard. Goyahoi u, ki qablan dar sahifahoi ruznomai “Mashvarat” chop shuda budand, asosi barnomai in ittihodiyai siyosiro tashkil medodand. Guruhi Sabohiddin dar “Jamiyati tashabbusi khususi va gayrimarkazoni” muttahid shud. On ba jonibdorii federatsiyai Usmoniyon baromad mekard. Muvofiqi didi guruhi Sabohiddin dar in federatsiya boyad hamai khalqiyatho huquqi avtonomi doshta boshand. In sozmon jonibdori bo davlathoi khoriji barpo namudani khamkorii faolona bud, hamkorie, ki ba mamlakat sarmoya dokhil namuda, “tashabbusi shakhsi”-ro rivoj medihad. Fikrhoi har du guruhi javonturkho asosan peshqadam budand. Az tarafi digar, raqobati baynihamdigarii du markazi javonturkho muborizai onhoro bar ziddi istibdodi Abdulhamid yak qadar sust mekard.

Boloravii vaziyati inqilobi dar imperiya solhoi 1906 – 1907 ba boloravii navi harakati javonturkho musoidat kard. Dar in marhalai muboriza dar strategiya va taktikai faoliyati javonturkho tagyiroti kulli ba amal omad. Onho khub fahmidand, ki bar ziddi rejimi Abdulhamid muttahidkunii Neruhoi demokratiyu vatanparvar va vahdati hamai kuvvahoi inqilobi zarur ast. Soli 1907 bo tashabbusi javonturkho dar Parij anjumane barpo gardid, ki dar on gayr az javonturkho sozmonhoi digari burjuaziyu inqilobi va vatanparvaru ozodikhohi imperiyai Usmoniyon ishtirok kardand. Anjuman barnomai barham dodani rejimi istibdod va az nav barqaror kardani idorai konstitutsioniro qabul kard.

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