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Tasavvuroti umumi dar borai tasnifot nabotot

Tasavvuroti umumi dar borai tasnifot (namud, avlod, oila, tartib, sinf, shuba)

Olami nabotot bisyor ham gunogunkhel va rangorang ast. Az rui malumothoi olimoni nabototshinss barmeoyad, ki olami rastaniho ziyoda az 350 hazor namud yo khelro darbar megirand. Lekin in haddi okhirin nabuda, nabototshinoson dar natijai justujuhoi ilmii sershumorashon bisyor namudhoi navu baroi ilm nomalum- ro daryoft mekunand.

Az rui alomatu khususiyathoi ba yakdigar monand yo farqkunandaashon ba tartibi muayyani ilmi darovardani rastanihoi gunogunro ilmi tasnifoti nabotot ba ukhda dorad. Tasnifoti nabotot ba khelu guruhho judo namudani rastaniho va onkhoro nomguzori karda, omukhtan ast. CHunin guruhbandi kardani rastaniho imkon medihad, to muayyan kunem, ki chi andoza onho tavassuti alomathoi zohiriashon bayni yakdigar monandi yo farq dorand.

Hamin tavr, fardhoi az jihati sokht va faoliyati hayotiashon ba hamdigar nazdik yo kheshro khel yonamudi rastaniho menomand. Dar navbati khud khelhoi ba yakdigar nazdikro ba a v l o d, avlod — ba oila, oila – ba tartib, tartib — ba sinf, sinf ba shuba guruhbandi yo muttahid karda meshavand. Boyad qayd kard, ki khel yo namud vohidi asosii tasnifoty ba shumor meravad. Onho dar hama gushayu kanori sayyoraamon vomekhurand. Mo onhoro mebinem va his mekunem. Vaqte ki sukhan dar borai rasta- nii muayyan, masalan, kartoshka, seb, archa, pista va gayraho meravad, mo dar ayni zamon kheli onhoro dar nazar dorem. Vale hangome, ki oidi gunogunkhelii rastanihoi yagon mahal yo muhiti jugrofi, masalan, nabototi darai Varzob yo Romit sukhan meravad, mo gunogunkhelii nabototi on mahalhoro dar nazar dorem. Rastanihoi yak namud metavonand, ki yakdigarro gardolud kunand, bordor shavand va nasl dihand (tukhm hosil kunand). Namudhoi gunoguni dar tabi- at zindagikunanda, ki nisbati yakdigar nomuvofiqaty dorand, bayni khud duraga shuda nametavonanad. Zero onho bo yak qator alomat- hoyashon az hamdigar farq mekunand.

Har yak namud dar sharoiti muayyani makoni zist vomekhurad va doroi mintaqai muayyani pahnshavi meboshad. Baze namudi rastaniho agar mintaqai vasei pahnshaviro doro boshand (masalan, nay yo qamish dar tamomi mamlakathoi kurai Zamin, khususan dar muhigi sohili daryovu juyborho va obanborho vomekhurad), baze namudi digari rastaniho mintaqai pahnshaviashon nihoyat makhdud meboshad. Dar tabiat namudhoe vomekhurand, ki faqat dar yak jazirai khurd yo dar qullai yagon kukh ba tavri mahdud sukunat dorand.

Nomgui har yak namudi rastani az du kalima iborat ast. Agar kalimai avval nomi avlodro ifoda kunad, kalimai duyum nomi aslii khelro nishon medihad. CHunonchi, zardolui mukarrari, sebi khonagi, archai zarafshoni va gayraho.

Dar miqyosi umumijahoni tasnif yo nomguzorii nabotot bo zabon va hurufoti lotini surat megirad, ki in tarzi ifodakuni baroi tamomi nabototshinosoni jahon ba hukmi qonun daromadaast va baroi hamai onho fahmost. CHunonchi: nastarani muqarrari bo zaboni lotini Koza sagnpa yo noki tojikistoni ast.

Dar sohai kishovarzi dar dokhili har yak namudi rastanihoi mazru metavonad boz navhoi ziyode mavjud boshand. Masalan, agar dar tabiat khamagi 20 namudi gandum vokhurad ham, dar ayni zamon ziyoda az 4000 navi gandum malum ast, ki onho harchand ba baze alomathoi muhimashon ba yakdigar monand boshand ham, az rui digar alomathoyashon az yakdigar farq mekunand. Zero dar tabiat tashakkulyobii namud dar davomi solhoi duru darozi tarikhi amali megardad, vale navi rastanihoi mazru az rui maqsad va peshbinii muayyan hamchun dastranji faoliyati sozandagii inson ba vujud ovarda meshavad. Hamin tavr, nav mahsuli dastovardi samaranoki inson ba hisob meravad. Har yak nav doroi khosiyati khud buda, az khel bo on farq mekunad, ki navhoi gunoguni dokhili yak namud metavonand bo yakdigar bo osoni duraga shavand.

Nastarani samarqandi, nastarani muqarrari, nastarani Ovchinnikov khelhoi gunoguni yak avlod — avlodi nastaran meboshand. Dar navbati khud avlodi nastaran, avlodi dulona, avlodi seb, avlodi shaftolu va gayraho ba yak oila — ba oilai nastarankho mansuband. Oilai nastaran, oilai sangshikanak ba tartibi nastarangulho sarjam ovarda shudaast. Tartibi nastarangulho, tartibi chinorakgulon bo yak qator digar tartibho sinfi rastanihoi dupallagiro tashkil medihand. Heshigi dar dokhili rastanihoi ba yak oila taalluqdoshta nisbati rastanhoi ba yak tartib muttahid kardashuda khele nazdik va nazarras ast. Munosibati kheshigi dar dokhili yak avlod nisbat ba oilai taalluqdoshtaash boz ham nazdiktar ast. Sinfhoi ba yakdigar nazdikbudaro ba shuba muttahid mekunand.

Hamin tavr, tamomi rastanihoi guldor (sinfi rastanihoi yakpalla va dupalla) shubai rastanihoi guldor yo pushidatukhmhoro ba vujud meorand.

SHuba vohidi kaloni tasnifoti ba hisob meravad. Tamomi Olami nabotot, ki 350 hazor namudhoi gunogunro darbar megirad, ba 15 — 18 shuba sarjam ovarda shudaast. Rastanihoi har yak shuba sokhtor va alomathoi muhimi umumi dorand. Masalan, kulli namoyandagoni shubai pushidatukhmon gul dorand, bordorshavii onho duchanda buda, tukhmmugjaashon dar dokhili gura joygir meboshad.

  1. Tasnifoti nabotot chi ahamiyat dorad?
  2. Kadom vohidhoi tasnifotiro medoned va onho baroi chi khizmat mekunand?
  3. Namud chist? Bo misolho sharh dihed.
  4. Baroi chi rastanihoro bo zabon va hurufoti lotini nomguzori mekunand?
  5. Nav chist? Vay az namud bo chi farq mekunad?
  6. Hususiyathoi umumii shubai pushidatukhmonro nombar kuned.
  7. Olami nabotot chi qadar namudhoro dar bar megirad va onhoro dar chand shuba muttahid mekunand?
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