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Tarkib va vazifahoi khun va plazmai on

Ahamiyat va vazifahoi khun. Hun hamchun moei dokhilii organizm dar sistemai makhsusi khud harakat karda, vazifahoi zerinro ijro mekunad: naqliyoti, nafaskashi, kimiyovi, humorali, va gayraho.

Tarkibi khun. Dar organizmi odami kalonsol qarib 5 litr khun mavjud ast. Hun hamchun boftai payvastkunanda az du qism iborat meboshad. Hangomi khunro ba probirka girifta ba asbobi charkhzananda (sentrifuga) davr zanondan, ba du qism judo shudani khunro didan mumkin ast. Qismi boloii onro plazma va qismi poyonashro hujayrahoi khun:eritrositho, leykositho

va trombositho tashkil mekunand. Tarkibi plazmai khunro qarib 90-92% ob va 8-10% moddahoi uzvi, safedaho, charbho, glyukoza, tashkil mekunand. Az moddahoi gayriuzvi namakhoi minerali, ba monandi natriy, kaliy, kalsiy, magniy va gayraho ba tarkibi khun dokhil meshavand. Tarkibi plazmai khun doimi buda, dar holati tagyiryobii on organizm ba halokat duchor meshavad. Moddahoi ziyodatie, ki dar organizm hosil meshavand, tavassuti uzvhoi ikhroj az organizm dur karda meshavad: khun dar shush az gazi karbonat va dar gurda az obi ziyodati va namaki mineralii dar on halshuda ozod meshavad.

tarkibi-xun-768x298

Lakhtashavii khun. Dar vaqti oseb didani ragho khun lakhta shuda, organizmro az khunravii ziyod emin medorad. Hun ohista-ohista lakhta shuda, joi zarardidai ragro mebandad va bo hamin khunraviro boz medorad. Bo guzashtani vaqt devori ragi khun sihat shuda, lakhtahoi khun nest meshavand.

Safedai halnashavandai nakhhoi fibrin asosi lakhtashavii khunro tashkil medihad, ki vay az safedai dar plazma halshudai fibrinogen tarkib yoftaast. Baroi hosilshavii nakhhoi fibrini omilhoi uzvi, safedaho va moddahoi gayriuzvi, khususan ionhoi kaliy roli muayyanro ijro mekunand. Muhlati lakhtashavii khun az harorati muhit vobasta ast. Masalan, dar harorati garmi khun dar davomi 3-5 daqiqa lakhta meshavad. Dar tarkibi limfa fibrinogen niz hast.

Baze odamon bemorii modarzodi dorand, ki khunashon umuman qobiliyati lakhtashavi nadorad, ki onro gemofiliya menomand. CHunin odamon hangomi kame zakhmdor shudan az sababi khunravii ziyod ba halokat giriftor meshavand. Baroi barqaror kardani holati muqarrari mahlulhoi fiziologi – NaCl, CaCl va gayra intiqol karda meshavand.

Savolho:

  1. Hun kadom vazifaro ijro mekunad?
  2. Vazifai naqliyotii khun dar chist?
  3. Tarkibi khun az kadom qismho iborat ast?
  4. Dar tarkibi plazmai khun kadom moddaho mavjudand?
  5. Kadom hujayrahoi khunro medoned?
  6. Lakhtashavii khun chist va kadom omilho onro ba amal meorand?
  7. Oyo lakhtashavii khunro peshgiri kardan mumkin ast?
  8. Gemofiliya chist?
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