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Tahlili umumii khun

Tahlili umumii khun ki onro bo zaboni russi “Obshiy analiz krovi” meguyand. In tahlilhoe meboshand, ki dukhturon moro vodor mekunand to suporem, baroi chi zarur hastand? Huni vena az khuni nugi angusht chi farqiyate dorad? Raqamhoe, ki dar kogazchai natijahoi tahlil nishon doda shudaand, chi mani dorand? Hun  ba kamtarin tagyirotho dar salomati  khele zud vokunish nishon medihad. Mana baroi chi avvalin tahqiqe, ki dukhtur tain mekunad – tahlili umumii khun ast. Tarzi ijrokuni (prosedura) khele oddi ast: bo suzani yakdafaina—skarifikator dar bolishtaki angusht surokh yo rakhnai sabuki 2- millimetra mekunand, ba zudi qatrai khun paydo meshavad. Agar on nokifoya boshad, hamshirai tibbi angushtro sabuk zer mekunad va khunro bo makak (pipetka) jam mekunad. Badan boshad tajhizoti (apparati) az khorija voridotshuda yo chashmi tezbini khudi dukhtur-laboranti sohibtajriba hisob mekunand, ki  dar on chi va ba kadom miqdor mavjud ast.

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Nishondihanda Nomi kutohshuda. Meyor miqdor Ramzkushoi Gemoglobin Hb

120–160 g/l  baroi mardho 
120–140 g/l  baroi zanho

Safedae, ki dar takibi eritrositho mavjud ast, baroi intiqol dodani molekulahoi kislorod az shushho ba organho va hujayraho —  va baraks intiqol dodani gazi angidridi karbon ba shushho masul ast. Agar miqdori gemoglobin kam shavad, hujayraho kislorodro kamtar megirand. Hangomi anemiya (kamkhuni), pas az khunravi, hangomi baze bemorihoi irsi  hamin tavr ruy medihad. Gematokrit Nt

40–45% baroi marho
36–42% baroi zanho

Nishon medihad, ki dar khun chand foizro hujayrahoi  — erotrisitho, leykositho va trombositho tashkil medihand,  dar muqoisa bo qismati moegii on   – plazma,  Agar gematokrit kam shavad, pas odam yo khunraviro  az sar guzaronidaast yo dar vay sistemai tashakkulyobii hujayrahoi khun yaku yakbora zarar didaast. In holat hangomi bemorihoi siroyati va autoimmuni ruy medihad. Balandshavii gematokrit dar borai gafsshavii khun shahodat medihad, masalan

Hangomi beobshavii organizm. Eritrositho RBC

4–5*1012 dar yak litr baroi mardho
3–4*1012 dar yak litr baroi zanho

Hujayrahoe, ki gemoglobinro intiqol medihand. Tagyiryobii miqdori eritrositho ba tavri zich bo gemoglobin aloqamand ast: eritrositho kam boshand – gemoglobinho niz kam hastand (va baraks). Nishondihandai rangi (Svetovoy pokazatel/SP)
0,85–1,05 Munosibati (barobarii) darajai gemoglobin ba miqdori eritrositho. Nishondihandai rangi (SP) dar holati anemiyahoi gunogun tagyir meyobad: hangomi norasoii V 12 – foliy, anemiyai aplasti va autoimmuni — ziyod meshavad va hangomi anemiyai norasoii ohan — kam meshavad. Leykosithoi WBC

3–8*109 dar yak litr baroi muqovimat ba infeksiyaho masul hastand. Hangomi infeksiyaho va leykozho miqdori leykositho ziyod meshavad. Hangomi infeksiyahoi vaznin, bemorihoi onkologi va autoimmuni az sababi zararbinii tashakkulyobii leykositho dar magzi ustukhon kam meshavand. Neytrofilho NEU to 70% miqdori umumii leykositho Hujayrahoi gayrimuqarrarii javobi immuni bo miqdori khele ziyod dar qabati zeri luobi va pardahoi luobi mavjud hastand. Vazifai asosii onho – furu burdani mikroorganizmhoi begona meboshad. Ziyodshavii miqdori onho oidi ravandi (prosessi) iltihobi fasodnok (gazaki fasoddor) khabar medihad. Agar ravandi (prosessi) fasodnok mavjud boshadu, ammo dar tahlili khun ziyodshavii neytrofilho ba nazar narasad, shumo boyad beshtar khavotir shaved,

Eozinofilho EOS 1–5% miqdori umumii leykositho

Ba misli neytrofilho ba masuniyati (immuniteti) gayrimuqarrari dokhil meshavand. Ziyodshavii miqdori onho baroi allergiyaho  va bemorihoi paraziti , makhsusan invaziyai kirmho khos ast. Limfositho LYM 19–30% Hujayrahoi immuniteti khossa. Agar hangomi iltihobi nazarras, nishondihanda az 15% pasttar shavad, muhim ast, ki miqdori umumii  limfositho ba 1 mikrolitr bahodihi karda shavad. On boyad az 1200 – 1500 hujayra kam naboshad.

Trombositho PLT
170–320*109   ba yak litr. In hujayraho baroi man kardani khunravi – gemostaz masul (javobgar) hastand. Inho ba monandi partovjamkunho  niz hastand va boqimondahoi barkhurdhoi iltihobi – komplekshoi masuniyatii gardishkunandaro dar membrana jam mekunand. Miqdori az meyor kamshudai trombositho metavonad oidi bemorii masuniyati (immunologi) yo iltihobi vaznin shahodat dihad. Surati tahshinshavii eritrositho (STE/SOE)

10 mm/ch (mm/s) baroi mardho
15 mm/ch (mm/s) baroi zanho.

Balandshavii STE (SOE) oidi ravandi (protsessi) iltihobi yo digar ravandi patologi khabar medihad. Be sababi uzrnok baland shudani STE (SOE) naboyad az maddi nazar dur monad!

Dar omadi gap (zimnan)

Bazeho pesh az tahlil, az begohi sar karda gurusnashini mekunand (ruza megirand) – chunin mehisoband, ki boyad khun dar pagohi va hatman bo shikami gurusna suporida shavad. In tavr nest: baroi tahlili umumii khun  in ahamiyate nadorad.  Durust ast, ki kartoshkaro bo charbui khuk (salo) shabona khurdan lozim nest, vagarna az aftash dar pagohi miqdori leykositho az muqarrari ziyodtar khohad bud! Lekin badi istemoli nushokihoi spirti, oftobkhuri va fizioproseduraho, inchunin pas az tahqiqi rentgeni behtar ast yakchand ruz muntazir shaved, vagarna natijaho «nuqsdor» shuda memonand.

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