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Tarikhi taraqqiyoti kompyuter

Kalimai «kompyuter» manoi «hisobbaror»-ro dorad, yane asbob baroi hisob namudani yagon amal.

Talabot baroi korkardi avtomatii malumotho va hisobkuni nihoyat barvaqt ba vujud omada bud. Soli 1642 riyozii fransavi Blez Paskal asbobero ikhtiro kard, ki amali jamro ba tavri mekhaniki ijro mekard va soli 1673 Vilgelm Leybnis charkhi hisobbarorro ikhtiro namud, ki vay faqat chor amali arifmetikiro ijro mekardu khalos. Soli 1812 in charkh az tarafi mekhaniki peterburgi Odner mukammal karda shuda, nomi arifmometrro girift. Arifmometri Odner to solhoi 60-umi asri XX yake az hisobbarorhoi behtarin ba shumor meraft.

Dar nimai avvali asri XIX matematiki anglis CHarlz Bebbij ideyai sokhtani moshinai tajziyavii (analitiki) universaliro peshnihod namud,  ki in moshin hisobbaroriro boyad be huzuri inson ijro mekard.

Ba in iqdom vay boyad barnomahoero ijro mekard, ki in kor bo yorii perfokartaho dokhil karda meshudand. CHarlz Bebbij in korro to okhir ba somon rasonida natavonist, chunki dastovardhoi tekhnikii on zamona ba in imkon namedodand. Vale in ideyai CHarlz Bebbij nihoyat buzurg bud va rohnamoi digar mutakhassison gardid.

Soli 1943 yake az olimoni amrikoi Govard Eyken asosi ideyai Bebbij va dastovardhoi tekhnikii asri XX-ro istifoda burda, dar yake az shirkathoi IBM moshini “Mark-1”-ro sokht. Aynan hamin guna moshinro muhandisi olmoni Konrad Suz soli 1941 dar asosi ideyai Bebbij sokhta bud. Kormandoni harbi ba in moshinho maroqi ziyod zohir namudavu va guruhi olimonro ba sokhtani chunin moshinho rohnamoi kardand.

Az soli 1943 cap karda, guruhi mutakhassisoni amrikoi dar

zeri rohbarii Mouchli va Ekkert moshini elektronii   hisobbarori ENIAC-po dar asosi lampahoi elektroni sokhtand. In MEH hazor marotiba az Mark-1 teztar kor mekard. Soli ikhtiroi MEH,  1946 buda, bo nomi muhandisoni nomburda taalluq dorad. Soli 1945 matematiki mashhur Jon Fon Neyman maruza tayyor kard va onro ba mutakhassison peshnihod namud.

Kompyuteri avvaline, ki dar on prinsipi Neyman tatbiq gasht soli 1949 az tarafi muhaqqiqi anglis Moris Uilks sokhta shuda bud.

Kompyuterhoe, ki dar asosi prinsipi Neyman kor mekardand, boyad universali va samaranok mebudand. Pesh az hama kompyuter az dastgohhoi zerin boyad iborat boshad; “dastgohi mantiqi-arifmetiki (amalhoi mantiqi va arifmetikiro ijro mekunad) «dastgohi idorakunanda» (in asbob rafti ijroi barnomaro idora mekunad), «dasttohi dar khotir nigohdoranda yo khotira» (baroi nigohdorii barnoma va malumotho), «dastgohi beruna» (baroi dokhil va khorij namudani akhbor). Hotirai kompyuter az yakchand havzai (yacheyka) raqamguzori shuda iborat ast, ki dar har kadomi onho malumotho va dasturamal baroi barnoma mavjud ast.

Ba kori kompyuter chunin baho dodan mumkin ast. Pesh az hama bo yorii yagon khel barnoma yo tajhizot akhbor ba khotirai kompyuter dokhil karda meshavad. Tajhizoti idorakunanda mavjudoti havzai khotiraro mekhonad va ijroi onro tamin menamoyad. Tajhizoti arifmetiki, amalhoi arifmetiki va mantiqiro ba jo meorad. CHun qoida, badi ijro shudani yagon farmon, farmoni navbati ijro meshavad. In tartib bo yorii farmonhoi idorakunanda tagyir doda meshavad. Hamin tavr, tajhizoti idorakunanda dasturulamali barnomaro avtomati ijro mekunad, ki inson bo vay dakholat namekunad. Hususiyati khosi kompyuterhoi hozirazamon az on iborat ast, ki tajhizoti arifmetiki-mantiqi va idorakunandaro bo nomi protsessor muttahid mekunad. Kompyuterhoi fardii bisyorprotsessora niz mavjudand.

 

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