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Tarikhi Parchami Tojikiston

Tarikhi paydoishi parcham hamchun ramzi milli va davlatdori ba davrahoi bostonii tarikh rafta merasad. Makhsusan, dar hayoti mardumi Eronzamin paydoishi parcham ba zamonhoi khele qadim ishora mekunad. Masalan, dar zaminai justujuho bostonshinoson dar sharqii qadimai Eron livoi khurdi filiziero paydo namudand, ki tarikhi on ba hazorai sei pesh az milod rost meoyad. In bozyoft, ki dar on rasmi sher va tului oftob aks yoftaast, yake az qadimatrin livo dar tarikhi bashari hisobida meshavad.

Parchami Tojikiston - bayrak
Surati parcham – bayraq

Darvoqe, to zamoni bavujudoii parcham dar shakli imruzaash, dar ogoz livo hamchun ramz yo nishonai davat ba muttahidi va muboriza istifoda meshud. Vale on na dar shakli imruzaash, ki az mato va alomathoi tasvirshuda iborat ast, balki ashyoi gunogunro dar bar girifta, munosibati odamonro ba in va yo on jamiyat, maslan ba qabila, qushun, raviyahoi dini va gayra ifoda mekard.

Livo dar shaklhoi mukhtalif zohir meshudand: magzi sari peshvoi tavono, ki dar chubi daroz nasb shudaast, chube, ki dar on pusti hayvoni vahshi nasb shudaast, khoda bo shakhahoi gunogune, ki dar on ashyoi gunogun oveza shudaast, tumor, tasviri «khudo»-ho, ruhho va gayra.

Hanuz dar guzashta rushdi ramzhoi livo va takmilyobii unsurhoi on ba taqviyatyobii korhoi jangi musoidat menamudand. Livo chun qoida, dar muborizaho markazi lashkar va yo makoni joygirshavii peshvoi jangro ifoda mekard. Ba dast darovardani livoi dushman odatan raqibro az lihozi manavi shikast medod, zero az dast raftani livo ifodagari on bud, ki peshvo murdaast va yo u asir girifta shudaast. Hamchunin, livo naqshi darknamoiro ijro mekard: hangomi jang az ruyi on jangovaron yo muttahid meshudand va yo aqibnishini mekardand. Ba dast ovardani livo chun odat manoi galaba bar boloi raqibro dosht. Jihati mazkur, yane taqdirsoz budani livo bo mururi zamon onro ba yak unsuri muqaddase tabdil dod, ki ehtirom va ehtiyotash khislati hatmi dorad.

Bo mururi zamon livo tagyir yofta, shakli yagona va muqarrarshudaro ba khud girift. Ba on aknun tasma va yo porai lattaro nasb mekardand. Ilova shudani mato ba in ramzi qadima jihati digarero khususiyati hatmi bakhshid: aknun on boyad hatman dar havo alvonj mekhurd va in khususiyatro tanho mato metavonist doshta boshad. Tibqi sarchashmahoi tarikhi avvalin livoi matoi (to in vaqt pusti, pashminador, filizi va gayra istifoda meshudand) dar CHin ba vujud omadand. Ba ehtimoli golib in ba on vobasta bud, ki CHin markazi istehsoli masolehi abreshimie ba shumor meraft, ki ba tamomi jahon sodirot meshud. Hamin tavr, dastrasii davlatho ba in ashyoi khom va farhangi boyi khitoyi ideyai tashakkuli livoro ba qullai nihoi ovarda rasonid.

Livo aknun matoero tashkil medod, ki ba chub nasb shuda, bo ramzho va alomathoi gunogun oroish meyoft. Matoro yo az tasmahoi rangai mukhtalif omoda mekardand va yo onro rang mekardand. Har yak livo ba ramze tabdil meyoft, ki naziri khudro nadosht va dar khud ittiloi muayyanro ifoda mekard.

Dar «SHohnoma»-i Firdavsi niz dar joe livo dar shakli charminai muqarrari (Dirafshi Koviyon) va dar joi digar dar shakli charminae, ki dar on surati govazn aks yoftaast (Dirafshi Siyovush), zikr meshavad. Mutaasifona oid ba on ki dirafsh chi guna rang, tarkib va andoza dosht, dar «SHohnoma» malumot doda nashudaast.

Dar Avrupo chunin livoho kame badtar ba vujud omadand va ba yakchand namudho judo shudand: davlati, harbi, dini va gayra.

Livoi davlati baroi hama umumi mahsub yofta, az ramzi hokimiyati davlati iborat bud. Bazan dar on malumot oid ba rohbari davlat niz darj karda meshud.

Livoi harbi boshad, khos baroi har yak vohidi harbi buda, dar on ramz va nomi juzu tom inikos meyoft. Zarurat ba chunin livo dar holate ba vujud meomadand, ki sarhadi davlati va yo maydonii harb vase meshud. Mufid budani istifodai livo niz ba on vobasta bud, ki hangomi muhoriba sarlashkar metavonist dar kujo qaror doshtan va ba kadom samt harakat kardani juzu tomro nazora namoyad. Az tarafi digar, vaseshavii sarhadi davlati talabotro baroi tashkili qushuni sershumor va doimi ba vujud ovarda bud, ki himoyai sarhadi davlati be on imkonnopazir megardid. Az in ru, baroi munosibii idorai qushuni beshumor dar barobari guzoshtani nomi makhsus, zarurat baroi dodani ramzi muayn niz ba miyon omad, ki yake az on ramzho livo mahsub meyoft.

Livoi dini dar marosimho va ham dar korhoi harbi istifoda meshud. Misoli in dar yurishhoi salibi zohir meshavad. Ritsarho bahri zabti Baytulmuqaddas tahti livoi kalisoi katoliki va livoi davlatho va knyazigariho hamla ovardand.

Boyad zikr namud, ki amaliyoti harbi bayni davlatho na tanho dar khushki, balki dar bahrho niz rushd kardand va vositai asosii harakati qushunhoi bahri qaiqhoi bodbondor ba hisob meraftand. Istifodabarii livo, ki on baroi dar dast giriftan peshbini meshud, aknun dar dokhili in qaiqho nomuvofiq ba shumor meraft. Ilova bar in, dar natijai junbish va yo harkati ziyodi dastoni sarbozon livo dar tuli du – se hafta kornoshoyam shuda, zarurati sokhtani livoi nav ba vujud meomad. Holati mazkur kushishi istifodai livoro dar tarzi nisbatan muvofiq ba miyon ovard. In kushishho boshand, avvalin marotiba dar tarikh fahmi parchamro ba vujud ovardand.

Parcham asosan az jonibi flothoi bahri baroi az masofi dur didani kishtiho sokhta shuda, dar nuktai az hama balandi sutuni kishti nasb meshud va andozai khele kalon dosht. Metavon guft, ki parcham farzand va yo tavlidshudai livo ast.

Parcham vobasta ba on ki chi «khizmat»-ro ado mekunad, metavonist andozai kullan gunogun doshta boshad. YAne on aknun andozai vase doshta, dar nuktai baland nasb karda meshud. Bar zammi in, juz vazifai darknamoi va judokuni, parcham akun baroi ifodai mavqei siyosi, varzishi va shakhsi istifoda meshud.

Dar parcham metavonad hadafhoi inqilobi (soli 1789 dar Faronsa), sozandagi va rushd (dosu bolga dar parchami davlathoi Ittihodi SHuravi) va sokhtoriyu ideologi (kalimai shahodat dar parchamhoi davlathoi islomi) istifoda shavad. Ba juz hamchun ramzi davlati, dini va harbi istifoda shudanash, istifodai parcham ba sifati ramzi milli, tijorati (firmavi), chun ramzi ifodakunandai munosibat ba in yo on tashkilot: mahalgaroi, guruhi varzishi, hizbhoi siyosi va inchunin ba sifati ramzi muborizai khalqho baroi istiqloliyati milli mamul gardid.

Parcham dar hayoti imruza

Dar zamoni mo nishon ba juzi asosii faoliyati tashkilotho tabdil yoftaast. YAgon girdihamoi, musobiqahoi varzishi, boziho, intikhobot va marakahoi tabligotiyu tashviqoti be istifodai in unsuri dastras, ibtidoi va dar ayni zamon malumotdihanda surat namegirad.

Besh az hama, parchamho ba sifati juzi zeboi istifoda shuda, kuchayu khiyobonho va gulgashtho bo ranghoi parcham oro doda meshavand. Hamchun ifodai qurbonii rohi vatan sarbozoni favtida bo parcham dafn karda meshavand.

Parchamho dar shaklho va navhoi gunogun zohir meshavand:

Vobasta ba makhsusiyathoi vazifaviashon onho ba parchamhoi kuchagi (khiyoboni), parchami hujravi, parchami ruyimizi, parchamhoi oroishi (parchamhoe, ki baroi oroish istifoda meshavand), parchamhoi dasti (baroi chorabinihoi ommavi) Vobasta ba mansubiyati sokhtoriashon boshand, parchamho ba chunin navho : parchami davlati (umumi), parchami vazoratho va muassisaho, parchami tashkilothoi jamiyati, parchami hizbho va harakathoi siyosi, parchami firmavi (parcham bo logotipi shirkat) judo karda meshavand.

Parchami Tojikiston

14 oktyabri soli 1924 Jumhurii Mukhtori SHuravii Sotsialistii Tojikiston tasis yoft va bo qarori Prezidiumi kumitai markazii ijroiyai on az 23 fevrali soli 1924 parchami davlati qabul karda shud, ki az matoi surkh iborat buda, dar kunji on nishoni davlati bo navishtajoti «Proletariathoi hamai davlatho yak shaved» aks yofta bud.

16 oktyabri soli 1924 Jumhurii Mukhtori SHuravii Sotsialistii Tojikiston ba Jumhurii SHuravii Sotsialistii Tojikiston tabdil va 5 dekabri soli 1929 bevosita ba hayati IJSHS shomil karda shuda. Mohi apreli hamon sol parcham dar tahriri nav qabul shud. Badi qabuli parcham az soli 1929 to soli soli 1953 ba on haft marotiba tahrir vorid karda shud az soli 1953 be tahrir to soli 1991 arzi vujud kard.

Jumhurii Tojikiston 9 sentyabri soli 1991 Istiqloliyati davlatii khudro elon namud va badi panj moh hamchun jumhurii mustaqil uzvi komilhuquqi SMM gardid. Uzviyat ba SMM dar hole surat girift, ki parchami navi Jumhurii jumhuri tahiya va tasdiqi khudro nayofta bud. Vaqte marosimi botantanai uzviyat ba SMM 2 marti soli 1992 bo bardoshtani parchami kishvarhoi Ozarboyjon, Armaniston, Qazoqiston, Qirgiziston, Moldaviya, San-Marino, Tojikiston, Turkmaniston va Uzbeksiton dar binoi sozmon ogoz shud, baroi Qazoqiston, Qirgiziston Tojikiston, Turkmaniston bo daleli qabul nashudani parchami nav, parchami JSHS Qazoqiston, JSHS Qirgiziston, JSHS Tojikiston va JSHS Tojikiston bardoshta shud.

To sanai qabuli nishon va parchami davlati chand moh qabl ozmun elon karda shud, ki on ba tavri pushida jarayon meyoft . Dar ozmun ziyoda az 200 loiha peshkash karda shud, ki har yak loiharo komissiyai makhsus tahti rohbarii akademik Muhammmad Osimi mavridi omuzish va khulosabarori qaror medod. Hamai barandagoni ozmuni behtarin parchami milli matoi serangaro (mato bo se tasmai rangaro) peshnihod namudand, ki har yak rang ifodakunandai muhtavoi tarikhi guzashta va imruzai khalqi tojik bud. YAne rangi surkh – ozodi, safed – oromi, sabz – obodii davlat va millatro bozgu mekard.

Hamin tavr, komissiya kori khudro bo intikhobi loihai parcham va nishoni davlatie, ki az jonibi Habibullaev Z., Zanevskiy A., Dodkhudoeva L., Ignatushina N va Saydaliev M peshnihod shuda bud, nuqta guzosht. Avj giriftani jangi shahrvandi ba tahiya va qabuli ramzhoi navi davlati monea ejod kard va tanho sanai 24 noyabri soli 1992 dar Qasri Arbob dar Ijlosiyai XVI – umi SHuroi Olii Jumhurii Tojikiston Nishon va Parchami navi davlati qabul gardid. Dar Ijlosiya “Qaror oid ba Parchami Jumhurii Tojikiston» va “Qaror oid ba Nishoni Jumhurii Tojikiston» qabul gardid, ki dar asosi on ba moddai 169 va170 Konstitutsiyai Jumhurii Tojikiston tagyirot vorid karda shud. Muvofiqi on «Parchami davlatii Jumhurii Tojikiston ramzi Istiqloliyati davlati ittifoqi vayronnashavandai korgaron, dehqonon va ziyoiyon, dusti va barodarii hamai khalqhoi maskuni jumhuri meboshad».

Ba in jihat boyad arj guzosht, ki bori avval dar tuli ziyoda az 70 soli mavjudiyati Tojikiston hamchun jumhuri, bori avval parchami in kishvar hamchun ramzi istiqloliyati davlati tavzeh doda meshavad va yo avvalin marotiba kalimai «ISTIQLOLIYAT» dar tafsir va yo sharhi parcham vorid shud. To in dam parchamhoi qabli tanho ramzi farqkunadagii davlatiro ijro mekardand, ki Tojikistonro hamchun jumhurii tobe az 14 jumhurii digar Ittifoq dar farqiyat qaror medod. Parchami nav boshad, aknun Tojikistonro na chun davlati tobe, balki hamchun jumhurii mustaqil miyoni ziyoda az 200 davlati dunyo dar tafovut mebakhshid.

Bo parchami navi davlati orzuhoi nav va intizorihoi khalqi tojik ba vujud omad. Mutaasifona jangi shahrvandi intizorihoi tojikistoniyonro yak muddat zeri shubha burd, ammo on dururdaroz davom nakard va badi istiqrori sulh va rizoyati milli umedi mardum ba davlat va etiqodi onho ba oyandai sozanda duchand ehyo shud.

Mohi sentyabri soli 2011 bo munosibati 20 solagii Istiqloliyati davlati balandatarin parcham dar jahon (165 m) bunyod shud, ki on ba kitobi Rekordhoi Ginnes vorid karda shud. Dar chunin shakl va andoza bunyodi parcham ifodai gururi sathii davlatdori va yo khudnamoi nabuda, on ifodai davlatdorii qadimii khalqi tojik meboshad, ki ba har yak metri on yak davrai tarikhii nashunamoi milliyu siyosii tojikon rost meoyad. Qullai parcham qullai balandi tashkili davlatdori, davlatdorii mustaqil meboshad, ki onro tojikon ba bahoi talafoti benaziri moddiyu manavi az tuli tarikh ba dast ovardaand.

Dar tarikhi tojikon «Dirafshi Koviyon» maqomi makhsus dorad. Dirafshi Koviyon» dar rafti shurishi ironiyon, ki bar ziddi Zahhok nigaronida shuda bud, tavlid shudaast. SHurishro Kovai Ohangar sardori namuda, tahti dirafshe, ki onro az miyonbandi charminai khud sokhta bud, idora menamud. Tahti in parcham Faridun hamchun merosbari qonunii shohoni Peshdodi ba takht ovarda shud, to zulmro barkanor va adolatro poydor kunad. Zeri in maqsad Kova tavonist Faridunro baroi sohib shudan ba takht rahnamoi sozad. Faridun chun ba takht nishast, «Dirafshi Koviyon»-ro muqaddas shumorid va onro bo tillo oro dod. Ilova bar in, dar chor kunji on aksi sitoraro guzosht. CHor sitorai durakhshon livoi mazkurro nomi digar bakhshid va on «Akhtari Kaviyon» nomguzori shud. «Dirafshi Koviyon» chun anana va ramzi asosii davlatdori ba naslhoi minbaadai shohoni eroni intiqol yofta, to zamoni Sosoniyon (224 – 651 ) ahamiyati khudro hifz namud.

Boyad zikr namud, ki «Dirafshi Kaviyon» to zamoni mo ahamiyati tarikhii khudro hifz karda omadaast va on dar markazi Livoi Prezidenti Jumhurii Tojikiston darj yoftaast, ki ramzi abadi, bardavomii tarikhii davlatdorii millii tojikon meboshad.

Az in ru, buzurgdoshti Parchami davlati – arjguzori ba tajribai davlatdorii guzushtagoni forsu tojik mahsub yofta, himoya va qadrdonii on ba kushishhoi har yak fardi jomea tavam meboshad.

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