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TOJIKON DAR HAYATI DAVLATI JONIYON

Nizohoi baynikhudii feodalon dar asri HVII

Honi SHayboniyon — Abdullokhoni II soli 1598 vafot kard va ba joi u pisarash — Abdulmumin ba takht nishast. Lekin azbaski u monandi padarash dar mamlakatdori tajribai kofi nadosht, guruhhoi khusumatparvari ayon va ashrofi feodaliro natavonist na ba tarafi khud kashad va na dasti onhoro kutoh namoyad. Dere naguzashta, khudi hamon sol, vay az tarafi nukari zarkharidi yak guruh feodaloni ziddi hukumati markazi kushta shud. Okhirin namoyandai sulolai SHayboniyon — Pirmuhammadkhoni II faqat ba yak qismati nochizi davlat sohib bud. U ham ba zudi dar jangu nizohoi baynikhudi halok gardid.

Safaviyon, sulolai davlati khonii Heva va qazoqho az zadukhurdhoi miyoni SHayboniyon favran istifoda namudand. Podshohi safavi — shoh Abbosi I qismati ziyodi Huroson va hatto hirotro zabt kard. Balkhro avval barodarzodai Abdullokhoni II — Abdulamin ishgol namuda, yak muddat az nomi khud sikka barovard. Vale ba zudi in shahr az tarafi dastnishondai shoh Abbosi Safavi — Muhammad Ibrohim tasarruf karda shud va, hamin tariqa, in mahalli aslii SHayboniyon zamone dar doirai tasiri davlati Safaviyon qaror girift. Qazoqho chand shahr, az jumla kalontarin mulki SHayboniyon — Toshkandro ba dast darovardand. Az in jo khoni qazoqho — Tavakkalkhon ba qismathoi markazii Movarounnahr harakat karda, hatto Samarqandro ham ishgol namud. Faqat shikasti nazdi Bukhoro, sakht majruh shudan va oqibat halok gardidani Tavakkalkhon futuhoti qazoqhoro bozdosht[1]. Horazm, ki Abdullokhoni  II  bo sad mashaqqat ba zeri itoati khud darovarda bud, dubora istiqloliyat yoft. Ki budani avvalin podshohi sulolai navi Joniyon on qadar malum nest. Ayon va ashrofi feodali masnadi khoniro ba Jonimuhammadsulton (Jonibeksulton) peshnihod namudand. U khohari Abdullokhoni SHayboniro ba zani girifta bud. Hudash az avlodi hamon CHingiziyone bud, ki pas az parokanda shudani davlati Oltinurda dar Ashtarkhon hukumati khoni tashkil doda budand.[2]

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Davlati Ashtarkhoniyon

Vaqte ki Ashtarkhon ba Rossiya hamroh karda shud, Jonibek gurekhta ba nazdi SHayboniyon omad. Muvofiqi malumoti sarchashmahoi khatti, Jonibeksulton peshnihodi ayonu ashrofro rad karda, ba masnadi saltanat pisari kaloni khud — Dinmuhammadro tavsiya namud. Ammo Dinmuhammad, ki on vaqt dar Abevard hukmroni mekard, hanuz fursati ba Bukhoro omadanro nayofta, ba hujumi lashkari Eron duchor gardid va dar jang kushta shud. Binobar in ba joi u barodarash — Boqimuhammad (1599–1605) ba takht nishast. Ba hamin sabab dar asarhoi ilmi hamin Boqimuhammadkhon, yaqinan, avvalin podshohi sulolai Joniyon donista shudaast.[3] Lekin madrakhoi sikkashinosi haqiqati holro qadre digar nishon medihand, zero ba dasti mutakhassisoni in soha khele bisyor sikkahoi dar Bukhoro, Samarqand va Toshkand zarbshudai Jonibeksulton rasidaand.[4] Az in chunin barmeoyad, ki amalan yo isman podshohi avval khudi Jonimuhammad (Jonibek) budaast.

YAgona muvaffaqiyati dar hayoti siyosii mamlakat ba dast ovardai Joniyoni avval in bud, ki onho hokimiyati khudro dar Balkh niz dubora barqaror namudand. Digar hamai kushishhoi onon dar bobati barham dodani nizohoi dokhili va muborizai ziddi bodiyanishinho natijai muhimme nabakhshid.

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Surati Valimukhammadkhon

Dar soli 1605 Boqimuhammadkhon vafot karda, ba joi u barodarash — Valimuhammad (1605–1611) hukmron gardid. CHun u ba maishat doda shuda bud, az uhdai idorai mamlakat baromada natavonist. Ayonu ashrof ba zudi az vay ru gardonidand va ruze hangomi dar dashti Qarshi mashguli shikor budanash takhti khoniro ba pisari Dinmuhammadkhon — Imomqulikhon (1611–1642) munosib didand. Vaqte ki Valimuhammadkhon az voqea khabardor gardid, az Movarounnahr firor karda, ba nazdi podshohi safavi panoh burd. SHoh Abbos uro khush paziroi namuda, bo quvvai ziyode dubora ba Movarounnahr ravona namud. Ammo dar muhoriba lashkari Eron shikast khurda, khudi Valimuhammadkhon asir aftod va bo fatvoi ulamo kushta shud.

Ba Imomqulikhon muyassar gardid, ki hududi davlati khudro vasetar namoyad: u bar ziddi qazoqho lashkar kashida, Toshkandro bo zur tasarruf namud.[5] U bo bodiyanishinoni digar – qaraqalpoqho va qalmoqho, ki toraft ba sarhaddi davlati Joniyon nazdik meshudand, niz bomuvaffaqiyat muboriza burd. Imomqulikhon hamchunin tavonist, ki muvaqqatan boshad ham jangu nizohoi baynikhudii feodalonro bozdorad. Muarrikhoni on zamon ahdi hukm-ronii Imomqulikhonro hamchun davrai guyo pur az rafohiyat va osoishi mamlakat tavsif kardaand. Agarchi in tavsifot muboligaomez namoyad ham, dar on asosi haqiqat vujud dorad. Agar hukumatdorii tulonii u bo davrahoi peshina va badina muqoisa shavad ba in metavon bovari hosil kard. Sarchashmaho dalolat mekunand, ki dar zamoni Imomqulikhon hatto baze korhoi obyori anjom doda shudaast.[6]

Az hamon ruze, ki Imomqulikhon az mamlakatdori dast kashida, barodari u — Nadirmuhammadkhon (1642–1645) ba takht nishast, vaziyat tagyir yoft. Nadirmuhammadkhon ayon va ashrofi feodalii qabilaviro ba khud jalb karda natavonist. Ruz az ruz munosibati bayni u va namoyandagoni bonufuzi tabaqai hokim badtar gardid. Ba in sabab hukmronii Nadirmuhammadkhon der davom nakard. Ayon va ashrofi feodali, ki az siyosati peshgiriftai u norozi budand, ba muqobili vay suiqasd karda, ba takhti saltanat pisarash — Abdulazizkhonro (1645–1680) nishondand. Nadirmuhammad majbur shud, ki bo mansabi hokimi Balkh qanoat kunad. Ammo dar in jo ham mavqei khudro ustuvor karda natavonist. Digar pisaroni Nadirmuhammad, ki goh tarafi padar va goh tarafi barodarro megiriftand, khudashon niz ba taloshi hokimiyat va mulk hamroh shudand. Dar natijai janghoi paydarpay Balkh, ki az obodtarin viloyathoi mamlakat ba shumor meraft, ba kharobi ru ovard. Nadirmuhammadkhon chun did, ki bo quvvai khud kore karda nametavonad, baroi kumak ba hukmroni sulolai Temuriyoni hind — SHohijahon  murojiat  namud.  SHohijahon,  ki  misli  guzashtagonash hamesha fikri ba dast darovardani sarzamini pursarvati hamsoyaro dar cap meparvarid, in fursatro baroi rasidan ba qasdu niyati derinai khud ganimat donista, khohishi Nadirmuhammadro darhol qabul kard va bo sardorii pisaronash — Avrangzeb va Murodbakhsh askari ziyodero ba Balkh firistod. Nadirmuhammad az haqiqati masala khabardor shuda, favran firor namud. Istilogaron Balkhro ishgol namuda, muddati du sol tamomi sarvati in viloyatro toroj kardand. Aholii mahalli az jabru sitam va qatlu gorat ba tang omada, ru ba gurez nihodand. Sarosari Balkh va atrofi onro qahti va gurusnagi faro girift. Nihoyat Abdulazizkhon bo tayyorii ziyod ba muqobili lashkari hind barkhosta, dar natijai muhoribahoi shadid galaba ba dast ovard. Vale holi mardum az in hama torojgari va jangu jidolhoi purdavom ba nihoyati tabohi rasida bud.

Dere naguzashta Balkh boz ba dasti Nadirmuhammad daromad, ammo in dar viloyati kharobgardida yagon oromi va osoish ba vujud nayovard. Abdulaziz avval barodarash Subhonqulikhonro hukmroni Balkh tayin karda, ba muqobili padarash firistod, ki u shahrro ba zudi ishgol namud. Sipas qushuni navro bar ziddi Subhonqulikhon ravona sokht, to ki Balkhro ba tasarrufi khud darovarad. Vale in ba u muyassar nagardid. Subhonqulikhon muqobilati sakht nishon doda, Balkhro dar dasti khud nigah dosht. Faqat har on chi, ki dar atrofu aknofi on boqi monda bud, hama ba gorat raft va khoku turob gardid.

hokimoni Heva az hamai in jangu jidolhoi dokhilii sulolai Joniyon ba manfiati khud istifoda namudand, onho chandin dafa ba nohiyahoi markazii Movarounnahr hujum ovarda, hamaro gorat kardand. hatto to Bukhoro rasida, bore yak qismati shahrro giriftand. Faqat mardonagi va dalerii aholi imkon dod, ki shahr az dushman toza karda shavad.

Subhonqulikhon chunin vaziyatro fursati musoid daryofta, hokimiyatro ba dast darovard. Dar ahdi saltanati Subhonqulikhon (1680-1702) vaziyati dushvori mavjuda na faqat az bayn naraft, balki dar bisyor sohaho badtar gardid. Tokhtutozi khevagiho hamono davom mekard. Onho hatto Samarqandro zabt kardand va ayonu ashrofi shahr khoni Hevaro ba rasmiyat shinokhtand, ki ba ivazi in Subhonqulikhon bo garomati ziyode aholii Samarqandro khonakharob namud. Nihoyat, Subhonqulikhon fahmid, ki to dar Heva qoimmaqomi khudro nanishonad, tokhtutozi khevagiho tamom nakhohad shud. Binobar in bo har roh ayonu ashrofi mahalliro ba tarafi khud kashida, oqibat muvaffaq gardid, ki Heva hukmronii uro etirof namoyad. In dar tamomi davrai hukmronii Subhonqulikhon yagona muvaffaqiyati ba nazar namoyoni siyosatmadorii u mahcyb meyobad. Vay dar digar hamai korhoi boqimondai mamlakatdori ba chize komyob shuda natavonist.

Nizohoi baynikhudii feodali kayho az doirai khonadoni saltanati berun baromada budand. holo saroni toifahoi uzbek besh az pesh quvvat megiriftand. Hudi Subhonqulikhon ham dar bisyor mavridho nufuzi bazei onhoro baland mebardosht. CHunonchi, vaqte ki pisarash Siddiqmuhammad khudro dar Balkh mustaqil elon karda, ba in vajh bo amri padarash ba qatl rasid, u hukumati Balkhro, ki der boz mulki vorisoni saltanat hisob meshud, ba yake yaz mironi qabilai yuz suporid.

Dar zamoni Subhonqulikhon mavqe va etibori Mahmudbii atoliq[7] az qabilai qatagan favqulodda baland gardid. Subhonqulikhon dar muborizai ziddi khevagiho borho ba kumaki vay ru ovarda va furu nishondani isyoni amironi Balkhro niz ba hamin atoliq suporida, sipas uro hokimi Balkh va Badakhshon tayin  karda bud.[8]

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Honigarii Bukhoro 1605 sol

On vaqtho Badakhshon amalan mulki mustaqil bud va dar on jo asosguzori sulolai amironi badakhshi — YOrbek hukmroni mekard. Az soli 1650 cap karda munosibati bayni Badakhshon va Bukhoro bad shudan girift. Honhoi Bukhoro khususan, pas az ishgol namudani vodii Qunduz ba tokhtutozi khud ba sarzamini Badakhshon vusat dodand. Badakhshoniho YOrbekro miri khud bardoshta, bo sardorii u ba istilokoron muqovimati sakht nishon medodand. Sababi asosii ba Badakhshon lashkar kashidani Mahmudbii atoliq bukhoriyonro ba mahsuli koni lali on jo  roh nadodani YOrbek bud.[9]

In lashkarkashii Mahmudbii atoliq, ki baroi komilan mute kardani tamomi khoki Badakhshon ravona gardida bud, on qadar muvaffaqiyatnok nabaromad. Askaroni u markazi Badakhshon — shahri Fayzobod (Juzgun)-ro chand goh muhosira namuda, vale fath karda natavonistand. Nihoyat Mahmudbi majbur shud, ki dar asosi sharthoi zerin bo YOrbek muohida basta, aqib nishinad: YOrbek meboist mahsuli dusolai koni lali Badakhshonro ba khon suporida, farmonbardorii hukumati khoni Bukhororo qabul menamud. Lekin dar haqiqat u yak hokimi mutlaqi on jo bud va tamoman mustaqilona kor meburd.

hokimi Balkh — Mahmudbii atoliq istiqloliyati nomahdude ba dast ovarda, hatto Subhonqulikhonro ham qarib pisand namekardagi shud. Subhonqulikhon az quvvai favqulodda paydo kardani Mahmudbi dar khavf aftoda, bo tadbire uro az Balkh rond va naberai khud — Muhammadmuqimsultonro hokimi Balkh tayin namud.

Subhonqulikhon muqobilati feodaloni mahalliro bartaraf karda natavonist. Janghoi muttasile, ki u meburd, boisi kholi shudani khazinai davlat va quvvat  giriftani zulmu istismori ommai mehnatkash megardidand. Baroi janghoi dokhilii ziddi feodaloni sarkash sarmoyai ziyode lozim bud va az in ru Subhonqulikhon peshaki az aholi sitonidani andozi haftsolaro talab kard. Dar vaziyati onvaqtai mamlakat jori shudani in usuli andoz baroi aholi nihoyatdaraja vaznin bud. Rishvakhuri va suiistifodahoe, ki amaldoroni hukumati khoni dar vaqti jamovarii andoz mekardand, khalqi mehnatiro boz ham beshtar aftoda mekard.

Afzudani parokandagii feodali.  Siyosati dokhilii Ubaydullokhon

Dar davrai hukmronii kutohmuddati Ubaydullokhon (1702–1711) muborizai bayni hukumati markazi va feodalon khele shiddat yoft. Ubaydullokhon okhirin kas az khonadoni saltanatii Joniyon bud, ki dar rohi mahdud namudani khudsarihoi feodalon va purquvvat kardani hokimiyati markazi sayu kushishi ziyode ba kharj dod. Ammo shakhsiyati Ubaydullokhon va siyosati dokhilii u nohaqqona solhoi daroz az doirai diqqati muhaqqiqon berun monda bud. Dar borai u hatto chunin tavsifote az qabili zayl ba asarhoi tadqiqoti roh yofta, mamul gardida budand, ki bo onho rozi shudan dushvor ast: Ubaydullokhon «baroi hokimiyati mutlaqa say menamud, vale azbaski yak mardi mutakabbir va khudpisande buda bo mardum durust muomila karda nametavonist, dar amal bozichai dasti amiron gardid»[10]. In qabil taassurot az on sar zadaast, ki manbahoi khattii on zamon komilan ba tasviri mufassali nizohoi bayni khudii khonadonhoi saltanati bakhshida shuda, dar onho roje ba digar hodisahoi davron faqat satrhoi judogona va dalelu ishorahoi gayrimustaqim duchor meoyand.

Madrakhoe, ki siyosati dokhilii Ubaydullokhonro beshtar bayon menamoyand, dar «Ubaydullonoma»-i Mirmuhammadamini Bukhori mavjudand.[11] Muqoisai in madrakho bo bozyofthoi sikkashinosi nishon dod, ki jiddu jahdi Ubaydullokhon dar rohi markazonidani davlat az maromnoktarin amaliyot dar tamomi davri saltanati sulolai Joniyon ba shumor meravad, in tamoyul ba fahmishi khele vozehu ravshani khususiyathoi tartibi niruhoi tabaqoti asos yofta, na hamesha paygirona boshad ham, bo azm va qatiyati tamom zuhur mekard. Agar vay muvaffaqiyat paydo nakarda boshad, pas sababi asosi in ast, ki dar on vaqt baroi markazonidani davlat hanuz sharoit va zaminai muvofiq faroham naomada bud.

Ba Ubaydullokhon az Subhonqulikhon vaziyati sakhte ba meros mond. Amiron – sardoroni toifahoi uzbek khudro tamoman sohibikhtiyor his mekardand. Mamulan, onho hokimi hamon shahru nohiyae budand, ki tamini maishati toifaashonro dar zimma dosht. Onho dar qalamravi khud zamin kharida, ba zamindori kalon tabdil meyoftand va hamchun khojagoni sohibikhtiyor amal menamudand. Aksari amiron ba hamqabilahoi khud takya karda, hokimiyati markaziro tamoman ba etibor namegiriftand. Onho bayni khud khusumat meparvaridand, guruhho tashkil medodand, bazan oshkoro hokimiyati khoni Bukhororo etirof namekardand. Ubaydullokhonro na sarmoya bud va na qushuni kofi, ki ba sari khud ziddi judoikhohii in feodalon muboriza barad. Ba in sabab u majbur bud, ki dar muboriza ba muqobili yak amir az pushtibonii amiri digar istifoda namoyad. Ammo, voqean, dar chunin mavridho ba vay na hamesha amali namudani niyathoi khud muyassar megardid. Aksar vaqt amire, ki ba u takya mekard, bo har bahona az jangidan sar mekashid va ba hamin sabab chand dafa quvvai harbii Ubaydullokhon ba shikast duchor shuda bud. Goho chunin hodisa ham ruy medod, ki dar vaqti yurish qisme az amiron bo qushuni khud pas megashtand va yo hatto ba tarafi dushman meguzashtand. Vaziyati Ubaydullokhon bisyor murakkab bud va har goh ba vay lozim meomad, ki baroi halli mushkilot tadbirhoi gunogun andeshad. U kushish mekard, ki bayni amiron mukholifat paydo shavad va onho bo ham jangida, yakdigarro zaif gardonand. Va u dar in kor az khud mahorati balande nishon medod. Vale in yagona va asositarin raviyai harakati u nabud. Madrakhoi judogonai ba ham ovardashuda nishon medihand, ki Ubaydullokhon yak sistemai tomi tadbirotero peshbini karda budaast, ki az yak taraf, ba mustahkam sokhtani poyahoi iqtisodii davlati u va, az tarafi digar, ba rohi az jihati iqtisodi va siyosi zaif gardonidani amiron nigaronida shudaand.

Sinfi feodalon yakson nabud. Dar in vaqt du guruhi asosi: guruhi amiron va, umuman, feodaloni bolonishini toifahoi uzbek va guruhi ashrofi qadimi, mamuron, feodaloni zamindor, tabaqai favqonii tojironu kosibon arzi vujud mekard. Janghoi baynikhudii amiron na faqat ommai khalqro khonabardush mesokhtand, balki ba manfiathoi hamin guruhi duvumi sinfi feodalon niz zarar merasonidand. Az in sabab namoyandagoni in guruh tarafdori quvvat giriftani hokimiyati markazi budand. Feodaloni ruhoni ham ba hamin vajh aksar vaqt hukumati markaziro pushtiboni mekardand. Ammo guruhi duvumi feodalon, ki Ubaydullokhon ba onho takya menamud, yaklukht va muttahid nabud. Namoyandagoni judogonai in guruh khususan dar hamon nohiyahoe, ki amiron iqtidori beshtar doshtand, goho, baraks, amironro himoya mekardand. Mardumi zahmatkashi shahru dehot, ki az jangu nizohoi muttasili baynikhudii feodalon ba holi taboh aftoda budand, ba tarafdorii hokimiyati markazi va ziddi amironi isyonkor sar mebardoshtand.

Ubaydullokhon, agarchi na hamesha amali sobitqadamona dosht, in avzoro khub ba hisob megirift. U besh az hama ba hamon guruhi sinfi feodalon, ki ba mustahkam gardidani hokimiyati markazi va barham khurdani jangu nizohoi baynikhudi manfiatdor budand, takya mekard. Muhimtarin juzi siyosati dokhilii Ubaydullokhon kushishi az hisobi siposguzoroni khud ba vujud ovardani yak dastgohi navi mamuri bud. Muarrikhi vaqt Mirmuhammadamini Bukhori oshkoro shahodat medihad, ki Ubaydullokhon ba umuri idora farzandoni kosibon va tojiron, odamoni «pastnasab» va «bekas»-ro jalb menamud.[12]

Albatta, lavhai zerin yak hodisai tasodufi nest: vaqte ki qushuni Bukhoro ba nazdikii Balkh rasid, Ubaydullokhon farmoni makhsus barovard, ki kisht-zori mardumro poymol nakunand va ba aholi yagon zarare narasonand. U dar yake az dehot qarorgohi khudro sokhta, arzishi kishthoi az tarafi askaronash poymolshudaro pardokht. Az in oshkoro huvaydost, ki Ubaydullokhon baroi ba tarafi khud kashidani aholii oddi sayu kushish menamud. CHunon ki khotirnishon gardid, dar asrhoi HVII–HVIII ommai khalqhoi Osiyoi Miyona khele faol shudand va onhoro dar muborizai ziddi amironi sarkash ba khud muttafiq gardonidani khon baroyash manfiati ziyode meovard.

Tadbiroti Ubaydullokhon chi nav surat megirift? Munosibati u bo amiron dushmanona va muborizahoyash bo onho ruirost va oshkoro bud. Inro sarchashmai nomburda niz tasdiq mekunad. U ba hamon amirone, ki takya mekard, pulu mol va zamin hadya menamud, vale aslan barobari ba sari hokimiyat omadanash ba amiron az jihati iqtisodi fishor rasonid va dar in roh az kamtarin chizho niz hazar nakard. Masalan, bisyor ajib ast, ki vay ba dushmanoni siyosii khud ba arzishi dahchand furukhtani «hadya»-ro jori namud. Sarchashma shahodat medihad, ki «ba uzbekoni bechora tobi nafaskashi ham namond».[13] Vale kori az in ham jidditare, ki u anjom dod, az bayn burdani yak qismi zaminhoi tankhoh bud. Vay amalan nomumkin budani be hej asos kashida giriftani zaminhoi tankhohro dark karda, yak tadbiri makkoronae ba kor burd. U in zaminhoro ba molikiyati komili muqarrabon va mamuronash dod (yane, albatta, furukht). Dar amali namudani in siyosati khud vay az hamon guruhi sinfi feodalon, ki manfiatdori mustahkam shudani hokimiyati u va afzudani nufuzi khud bud, pushtiboni medid. In tarzi musodirai tankhoh hamchunin ziddiyati bayni du guruhi sinfi feodalonro tundu tez mekard.

Ubaydullokhon boz yak manbai afzoishi daromadi khazinai davlatro dar barham dodani masuniyati khiroji zaminhoi mulk did. In tadbiri khele jasurona va shoyad khatarnoke ham bud, zero az bayn burdani masuniyat ba manfiathoi hamon guruhi uro tarafdorikunandai sinfi feodalon zararhoi jiddi vorid mekard. Az ehtimol dur nest, ki Ubaydullokhon in tadbirro nisbat ba in guruh intikhoban tatbiq menamud. Az jumla malum ast, ki u masuniyati khiroji buzurgtarin feodaloni ruhonii Osiyoi Miyona – shaykhoni Juyboriro bekor karda bud.

Ubaydullokhon dar bobati inkishofi tijorati baynalkhalqi niz chorahoe did. Durust ast, ki rivoji tijorati beruna ba manfiati savdogaroni mahalli nabud. Pesh savdogaroni Bukhoro molhoi khorijiro yakbora mekharidand va pulashro badtar, pas az furukhta shudani mol mepardokhtand. In muomila baroi tojironi khoriji bisyor noqulay bud. Ilova bar in, muvofiqi shariat, moli furukhtaro dar davomi se sol bargardondan imkon dosht. Dar ahdi Ubaydullokhon hukumat dar in masalaho ba nafi tojironi khoriji kor kard, zero meboist in tadbir vurudi molhoi khorijiro afzuntar sozad va ba in vasila daromadi khazina niz ziyodtar shavad.

Ubaydullokhon ba islohoti pul umedi kalon basta bud.[14] Mirmuhammadamini Bukhori ba sababi vuqufi komil nadoshtan az haqiqati hol navishtaast, ki sababi guzaronidani islohoti pul tamoman kholi shudani khazinai davlat bud. Honhoi sulolai Joniyon dar zarfi asri HVII sikkazaniro hamchun manbai daromad donista, muttasil pul mebarovardand. Onho iyori pulro goh past va goh baland namuda, dar okhirhoi asri HVII zarbi sikkahoro ba darajae rasonidand, ki dar tangaho hamagi 22,5% nuqra monda budu khalos. Ubaydullokhon boshad, pulhoe barovard, ki iyorashon khele baland bud, yane tangaho 35% nuqra doshtand. U dar davomi haft sol, dar chi vaziyate ki boshad, ba tagyiri pul hamchun manbai daromad roh nadod. Inro bo du sabab tavzeh dodan mumkin ast: az yak taraf, u sikkahoro vayron nakard, chunki in bar zarari hamon guruhi sinfi feodalon mebud, ki ba onho takya mekard; az tarafi digar, chunon ki manii islohoti soli 1708 sobit menamoyad, u in manbai daromadro, biduni ba qismatho judo va parokanda kardan, «ehtiyot menamud», to ki dar yak fursati munosib yakbora daromadi kalonero ba dast ovarad.

Soli 1708 pulhoi dar khazina buda dubora sikka zada shudand: az har tangai kuhna chor tangai nav ba vujud ovarda shud, ki har kadomi on 9% nuqra dosht. Pas az in elon karda shud, ki minbad iqtidori kharidi pulhoi nav (9% nuqra) va pulhoi kuhna (35% nuqra) barobar khohad bud. Agar tavri digar guem, Ubaydullokhon khost doroii khazinaro yakbora chor martaba afzoyad. CHunin hodisa hech vaqt ruy nadoda bud. Odatan iyori nuqraro 5–10% poin mefurovardand. Ubaydullokhon ba chunin tadbiri gayrimuqarrari jurat namuda, zohiran, gumon dosht, ki baroi samaranok muboriza burdan bar ziddi amiron vositahoi kofiro ba dast meorad va az in ru joni khudro ba khatar andokhta, qadam ba in roh guzosht. U boyad mefahmid, ki voqean ham joni khudro ba khatar meandozad, zero tavassuti in islohot, bigzor muvaqqatan va bo niyathoi nek boshad ham, na faqat dushmanonashro, balki muttafiqonash: khalq, tabaqai favqonii feodalonu tojiron, hamai onhoero, ki dar dast pul doshtandu az islohot manfiatdor budand, gorat mekard.

Dar Bukhoro kori savdo qat gardid. Tojiron va kosiboni shahr dukonu korkhonahoyashonro bastand. In voqea vaziyati kambagalon va guruhhoi mehnatii aholiro bisyor tang kard. Dar bozor chize yoft nameshud. In ahvol norozigii umumro ba vujud ovard. Tudahoi mardumi shahr, aksaran odamoni benavo shurish bardoshta, ba tahdid va faryod ba ark hujum kardand va ba holati avvala ovardani vaziyati shahrro talab namudand. SHurishi khalq okhir furu nishonda shud, chand kas ba qatl rasid. Vale in shikasti tamom nabud. Ubaydullokhon ba sozish majbur gardid va manii islohotro tagyir dod. Aknun puli kuhna na ba yak, balki ba du puli nav barobar karda shud (va in qoida solhoi daroz, hatto bad az sari Ubaydullokhon ham boqi mond). Ba in tariqa, doroii khazinai Ubaydullokhon na chor martaba, balki faqat du marotiba afzud. Islohot on daromadero, ki intizor meraft, ovarda natavonist, vale hamai onhoero, ki peshtar Ubaydullokhonro tarafdori mekardand, ba dushmani u mubaddal sokht. In bud, ki dar siyosati dokhili imkoni anjom dodani yagon kori musbati ba nazar namoyone faroham naomad.

Dar in vaqt muboriza, nobovari ba yakdigar, khusumat va adovat parvaridan ba ham khele avj girift. Dushmani to darajae rasid, ki hangomi yake az suiqasdho dar soli 1711 Ubaydullokhon kushta va darbori khoni toroj  karda shud.

Pas az halokati Ubaydullokhon barodarash Abulfayzkhon (1711– 1747) ba takht nishast. Dar zamoni hukmronii in okhirin namoyandai asosii sulolai Joniyon hukumati markazi iqtidori khudro tamoman az dast doda, davlati khoni ba qismhoi mustaqili judogona taqsim megardad. Korhoi mamlakatdori taqriban ba kulli ba ikhtiyori Muhammadhakimbii atoliq meguzarad, ki uro sarkardagoni toifai mangit pushtiboni mekardand.

Badho dar natijai norizoyatii ayonu ashrof Muhammadhakimbi az mansabhoi balandi darbor dur karda, ba Qarshi firistoda meshavad. Safiri davlati Rus Florio Beneveni az kharjumarje, ki on vaqt dar darbori Abulfayzkhon hukmfarmo bud, sukhan meronad. Umuri idorai davlat ba dasti amaldoroni haris va johtalab meguzarad. Onho baroi savdo dar bozorhoi Bukhoro huquqi nomahdudero sohib shuda, muvofiqi tabi khud mardumro gorat menamudand.

In hama zadukhurdhoi baynikhudii khonho va bedodgarihoi beamsoli feodalon az hayoti purmashaqqati khalqhoi Osiyoi Miyona dar ahdi hukmronii Joniyon shahodat medihand.[15]

MUNOSIBAThOI IJTIMOIYU IQTISODI

Vazi khojagi. Daromadi zamin. Andozhoi shahr

CHunon ki az guftahoi bolo malum gardid, hukumati markazi, dar voqe, iqtidori jiddie nadosht. Joniyonro hatto rasman du poytakht bud – Bukhoro va Balkh. Dar Bukhoro khudi khon nishasta, dar Balkh valiahdash va yo atoliq hukmroni mekard. Mamulan, khonhoi in sulola tamoman ba ayonu ashrofi feodalii qabila, ki amalan zimomi hukmronii mamlakat dar dasti onho bud, vobastagi doshtand. Dar in davra huquqi atoliqho va qudratu ikhtiyori ashrofi toifavii uzbek nazar ba davrai SHayboniyon bagoyat afzud. Umuri idora komilan ba dasti onho guzasht, mansabhoi muhimro dar dastgohi davlat onho ishgol namudand.[16]

Quvvat giriftani irtijoi feodali, parokandagii siyosi, janghoi paydarpayi dokhili, kholi mondani shahrho, az moliyoti nihoyat ziyod va boju khiroji doimi khonavayron shudani aholii muqimi, az tokhtutozhoi hokimoni gunogun kharob gardidani vohaho va ba gorat raftani korvonhoi tijorati – in hama khususiyati khosi in davrai mavridi tahqiqi most. Ba hamin sabab ast, ki dar asri HVIII dar sarzamini Osiyoi Miyona, alalkhusus dar viloyathoi markazii on tanazzuli amiqi iqtisodi ruy dod. Hojagii qishloq aqib raft. SHabakai obyori kam shud.[17] Non namerasid. YAke az shohidoni in vaziyat, safiri podshoh Aleksey Mikhaylovich Boris Pazukhin navishtaast: «Dar Bukhoro, dar Balkh va dar Heva gallaro bisyor namekorand, az in ru to okhiri sol gallai onho kam memonad va on ham dar baze khonavodaho»[18]. Tamomi yak nohiya va viloyatro faro giriftani gurusnagi hodisai muqarrari gardida bud.

Meyori rasmii daromadi soliyonai feodal az zamin misli peshtara (0,3 hissai hosil) boqi monda boshad ham, dar amal khele ziyodtar az on sitonida meshud. Feodal metavonist in oidotro chand sol peshtar bigirad va yo khudsarona hajmashro ziyodtar kunad. Masalan, dar zamoni Subhonqulikhon onro haft karat ziyod sitonida budand! Ba zammi in, boz anvoi mukhtalifi boju khirojhoi digar vujud dosht va suiistifodahoi amaldoron az had guzashta bud. Maleho dar khususi peshaki az aholi girifta shudani andozi haftsola sukhan ronda menavisad: «…agar shakhsero yak tanga dodan lozim bud, haft tanga megiriftand. haftodchand ba qalami devoniyon va arbob kharojot mebaromad».[19] Boyad qayd kard, ki andozi daromad (molu jihot, khiroj) na faqat az zaminhoi davlati ziyod meshud, balki muvofiqan hissai davlat az daromadi soliyonai zaminhoi milk, ki in navi khirojro milkona meguftand, niz meafzud. Bar tibqi shahodati yake az sarchashmaho, az zaminhoi milk milkona guyon chandon mesitondand, ki sohibonash in zaminro muft dihand ham, kase namegirift. Zohiran, dar in jo sukhan na on qadar az feodaloni milkdor, balki az on guruhi dehqonone meravad, ki zamini milk dar onho hanuz boqi monda bud. Protsessi kamshavii milkhoi in guruhi nisbatan imtiyoznoki dehqonon dar asri HVI ham ba nazar merasid, vale dar zamoni Joniyon, alalkhusus, dar viloyathoi markazii Osiyoi Miyona in qabil sohiboni milk tamoman khonakharob gardidand.

Dar natijai zulmu istismori berahmona va khiroju moliyotsitonihoi az had afzun dehqonon chunon ham ba faqiri va notavoni aftodand, ki dar ibtidoi asri HVIII hukumat digar ba ziyod kardani andoz va yo jori kardani yagon andozi nav jurat nakard. Dar «Ubaydullonoma» oshkoro gufta meshavad, ki in rohi daromadi khazina burida shud, zero khavfi junbishi kalone tahdid menamud.[20]

Dehqonon, umuman, az har taraf ba hamlavu fishor duchor meshudand. Hojagii onhoro na faqat goratgarihoi hangomi janghoi dokhili ruydoda, na faqat andozhoi miyonshikan kharob mekardand. hamchunin yak protsessi amiqi ijtimoi – barham dodani baqiyahoi obshina, kam kardani guruhi dehqononi dar zamini jamoat korkunanda va ziyod namudani guruhi dehqononi ijoranishin ba amal meomad. CHunon ki dar bolo khotirnishon gardid, zamini jamoatro loaqal chunin yak afzaliyate bud, ki dehqonro dar har 2–3 sol ijora giriftani zamini nav lozim nameomad. U haq dosht dar zamini jamoa tamomi umr kor kunad (va kori khudro ba avlodash boqi guzorad).

Kosibon ham az tarafi feodaloni kalonu khurd har nav zulmu javr medidand. Ba kasbu tijorat khudsarona har guna boj va avorizoti ziyode andokhta meshud va, gayr az in, baroi khonu amir firistodani peshkashhoi garonbaho hatmi bud. Dar natijai bedodgarihoi feodalon va nabudani hej yak zamonat baroi molikiyati khususii kosibon va tojiron ba har taraf pareshon gardidani aholii hatto markazhoi shahrii qadim ba amal meomad.

hukmrononi davlati khoni az tarsi in, ki berun ovardani sarvathoi zerizamini boisi hujumi hamsoyahoi haris khohad shud, kandani konhoro man kardand va ba in sabab sanoati istikhroji madan dar in davra az taraqqiyot bozmond.

Ba dasti feodalon jam shudani molikiyati zamin

Dar ayni zamon ba dasti feodaloni kaloni judogona va shaykhoni bonufuz jam shudani mulk va sarvathoi zamin ba vuqu meomad. Alalkhusus, amironi toifahoi uzbek dar ahdi saltanati Joniyon ba zamindoroni khele davlatmand tabdil yoftand. Inak, chand misol. CHunon ki az sanadhoi rasmi malum megardad, YAlangtushbi khususan dar viloyati Samarqand, ki chandin sol (dar nimai avvali asri HVIII) dar on jo hukmroni kardaast, masohati behaddu kanori zaminhoi kishtro ba dast darovarda bud. Honhoi sulolai Joniyon, ba zammi in, zaminhoi uro az pardokhti hissai davlatii daromadi soliyona «ozod» kardand. Az amironi uzbek Ollohberdibi va pisarash Ollohyorbi ham zaminhoi nihoyat ziyode doshtand. Onho say mekardand, ki zaminhoi dar har jo parokandai khudro ba yak jo jam ovarand, ba in maqsad hatto zaminhoyashonro ivaz menamudand.[21] Buzurgtarin molikoni zamin hamono shaykhoni juybori budand. Dar sharoiti murakkabi zamon, ki hukumati markazi digar az onho pushtiboni karda nametavonist, chunon ki dar davrai SHayboniyon bud va ayonu ashrofi qabila ba doroii onho chashm medukhtand, shaykhi juybori Tojiddin ba in nigoh nakarda ba har hol zaminhoi be in ham behaddu hisobi khudro boz ham meafzud.[22]

Ayonu ashrofi feodali va sarkardahoi harbi misli peshtara ba nomi suyurgol va tankhoh podosh megiriftand. Pazukhin qayd mekunad, ki «tamomi dehaho baroi mavojibi askaron va har guna mansabdoron takhsis yoftaast».[23] Gayr az in, dar ahdi hukmronii Joniyon khele ziyod va ba hajmi kalon na faqat zaminhon davlati, balki hissai davlat az daromadi soliyonai zaminhoi milk niz ba tariqi khizmatona bakhshida meshud. In dar bayni shakhsoni gunogune, ki az daromadi zamin hissahoi gunogun doshtand, chunon munosibathoi murakkab ba vujud ovard, ki dar asrhoi HVII–HVIII, chi nave ki muhaqqiqon durust qayd kardaand, hatto istilohoti sanadhoi rasmi tagyir yoft. Dar vasiqa, vaqfnoma va digar sanadho hangomi tavsifi zaminhoi milk aknun diqqati asosi ba durust muayyan kardani hissai daromade, ki kharidor va yo idorai vaqf boyad megirift, doda meshud[24].

Lekin ba dasti feodaloni kalon jam shudani zamin na faqat az hisobi podoshho, balki bo rohi kharidi zamin niz surat megirift, ki in jihati khosi in davra ba shumor meravad. Baze feodalho zaminhoyashonro ba darajae muttahid mekardand, ki dar nihoyati kor moliki zaminhoi yak nohiyai tamom megardidand. Boisi tavajjuh ast, ki beshtar zaminhoi davlati ba furush merasidand. Ba in sanadhoi rasmi ham guvohi medihand.[25] Holi shudani khazina khonhoi Bukhororo zud-zud ba furukhtani zamin vodor mekard va ilova bar in, yak qismi zaminho ba tariqi podosh taqdim karda meshud. Hamai in amalho, misli asri HVI, dar qozikhonaho ba rasmiyat medaromadand.

Aknun dar bayni davlat va shakhsoni judogona taqsim shudani zaminhoi milk (yane qisman ba zaminhoi davlati va qisman ba milkhoi kholis mubaddal gardidani onho) khele bosurat ba vuqu mepayvast. In, albatta, fahmost. Az tarafi davlat besh az pesh afzudani istismor vaziyati feodali milkdorro khele nomusoid mekard. Binobar in u doshtani miqdori kamtari zamin – milki kholisro, ki khud ikhtiyordori komil boshad, avlotar medonist. Dar chunin holat daromadi u ba on, ki davlat az dehqon chi qadr mesitonad va oyo u az khojagii kharobshuda hissai khudro ruyonida metavonad yo ne, hej aloqae paydo namekard.

Pas, ba dasti feodaloni kalon, khususan ayonu ashrofi toifahoi uzbek jam shudani zaminhoi khususi va inomi, az had guzashtani istismori dehqonon, ba tavri ommavi muflis gardidani dehqononi milkdor, toraft kam shudani dehqononi zamini jamoat, afzudani zamini milki kholis, bosurat «parokandashavii» milkhoi feodali, ba feodalon furukhtani zaminhoi davlati, ba amloki sharti taqsim karda dodani zaminhoi davlati va milki (aslan hissai davlat az daromadi zamini milk), inom kardani zaminhoi davlati va az khususiyathoi makhsusi asrhoi HVII– HVIII ba shumor meravand. Dar natija, baroi khazinai khon doimo pul namerasid, zero manbai asosii daromad, ki andozi madokhili zamin bud, toraft kam shuda, nihoyat bo sababhoi bolo qarib az bayn raft. Dar in khusus sarchashmahoi gunogun goh bavosita va goh bevosita shahodat medihand. Mo dar in jo faqat bo ovardani guftahoi du nafar shohid, ki dar vaqthoi gunogun ba Bukhoro safar karda, vaziyatro bo chashmi khud didaand, iktifo mekunem. B. Pazukhin (1669): «Andukhtahoi pulii davlati onho dar khazinai podshohi kam ast, zero hamai dehkadaho ba tariqi inom dar bayni sarkardaho va mansabdoroni gunogun taqsim shudaand, baroi zaruroti shohon az zarbi sikka va boju khiroj pule dar khazina faroham meoyad; boz bo in hama zarurot to okhiri sol chize boqi namemonad». F. Beneveni: «Az chehrai khon paydost, ki dar umuri idorai mulk maromi olie dar ust, ammo chun khazina kholist, uro iqtidore nest… On chi oidoti khazina khohad bud, niz az bayn raftaast».[26]

In ast asosi iqtisodii toraft zaif gardidani hukumati markazi va besh az pesh quvvat giriftani feodaloni kaloni sohibikhtiyor, alalkhusus amiron – sardoroni qabilahoi uzbek.

Mavqei feodaloni ruhoni ham baland gardid. CHunonchi, dar vaqthoi gunogun shaykhoni tariqati darveshi dar Fargona va Toshkand hokimiyatro ba dasti khud girifta budand.

Junbishhoi khalqi

Zulmu sitami toqatshikan va istismori berahmonai feodali, janghoi dokhili va faqru gurusnagi norozigii ommai khalqro nihoyatdaraja ziyod kard. In bud, ki dar mahalhoi gunogun dam ba dam shuru oshubhoi khalqi sar mezadand.[27] Dar zamoni Abdulazizkhon, ba qavli shoiri hamzamoni u Sayidoi Nasafi, shurishi kalone dar dehai Dahbedi Samarqand ruy dod. SHiddat va vusati in junbishi khalqi ba darajae bud, ki khudi Abdulaziz bo lashkari ziyode omada, shurishro furu nishond va Dahbedro otash doda, ba khok yakson namud. Dar davrai hukmronii Subhonqulikhon va vorisoni u ham muttasil shurishhoi khalqi ba amal meomadand. Goho az in junbishhoi khalqi feodaloni judogona baroi rasidan ba maqsadhoi shakhsii khud istifoda menamudand. Masalan, bore hangomi ba Balkh hujum kardani Subhonqulikhon tamomi aholi dar zarfi 21 ruz qahramonona jangida, shahrro, ki hokimi on Mahmudbii atoliq bud, az bukhoriho hifz namud.[28] Dar in mavrid hamai tabaqahoi jamiyat muttahid gardida budand, zero ba khubi mefahmidand, ki agar khon shahrro ishgol namoyad, ba tavri vahshiyona mardumro qatlu gorat khohad kard. Ammo khalq aksar vaqt hukumati markaziro tarafdori menamud, chunki jangu nizohoi dokhilii feodali aholii ham shahr va ham dehotro khonakharob mesokht.

Qiyomi kalontarin va zafarmandonai khalq soli 1703 dar hisor ba vuqu omad. Sababgori on jangi bayni du feodal gardid: Muhammadrahimbi bo lashkari Bukhoro ba muqobili Utkan nom hokimi yake az qalahoi viloyati hisor jang sar kard. Vale lashkari Bukhoro muvaffaqiyate ba dast naovarda, aqib nishast va mardumi hisor duchori bedodgarihoi Utkan gardid. Az nizohoi khunini bayni feodalon ba tang omada, aholii hisor ba amironi Bukhoro bo etiroz murojiat namudand va himoyati khudro talab kardand. Amiron bo vakiloni khalq dagalona munosibat karda, hatto yake az amiron ba sari onho shamsher kashid, vakilon ham dast ba sangu kaltak burdand. Voqeanigore in hodisaro chunin ba qalam ovardaast:

«Umaroi Bukhoro (bashitob) az qalai hisor berun omadand, sipohiyonashon ham dar hole, ki (az qiyomi mardum) ba vahshat va bimu haros aftoda budand, ba ishon payravi kardand. On goh aholii hisor, yuzhoi qavmi shodi, khudro ba toroji khirgohu shomiyonahoi bukhoroiyoni shitobon firorkunanda darandokhtand va andaruni qala chunon talotube barpo gardid, ki guyo ruzi hashr faro rasida»[29]. Dar in mavrid manfiathoi aholii muqimii viloyati hisor va toifai yuzi uzbek ba ham muvofiqat namud: khalq baroi barham khurdani janghoi feodali dar sarzaminash sar bardosht, yuzho harakati muvaffaqiyatomezi khalqro tarafdori karda, kori torumor namudani bukhoroiyonro ba anjom rasonidand.

SHurishe, ki soli 1714 dar Bukhoro ba amal omada bud, bo maromu khususiyathoi khud az digar junbishhoi khalqi tafovut dosht. YAk guruh feodaloni qabilai kenagas bo sardorii Ibrohim atoliq ba maqsadi ijro kardani tabadduloti darbori khost ba ark dokhil shavad. Halq ba himoyai hukumat barkhos-ta, dar shahr sangarho barpo namud. hamin tariqa, faqat tavassuti kumaki mardum ba khon muyassar gardid, ki dushmanonashro nobud sozad.[30]

Ammo, qabl az in, soli 1708 dar vaqti eloni islohoti pul khalqi Bukhoro, baraks, bar ziddi Ubaydullokhon shurish bardosht. Norozigi tabaqahoi gunoguni jamiyatro faro girifta, avval ba shakli muqobilati gayrifaol zuhur namud: dukonu korkhonaho basta shudand: kori savdo qat gardid, dar bozor chize yoft nameshud. Badho norizoyatii mardum avj girifta, ba yak shurishi oshkoroi mardumi faqiru benavo furu rekht. Ba qavli, yake az muarrikhoni onvaqta – Mirmuhammadamini Bukhori shurish berahmona pakhsh karda shud, chand kasro ba dor kashidand, islohot komilan jori gardid va hama sari itoat furud ovardand.[31] CHand vaqt tarikhshinoson in bahoi garaznoki shurishro gayritanqidi qabul karda budand. Tahqiq va muqobilai manbahoi sanadii on davr nishon dod, ki in junbishi khalqi muvaffaqiyati kalone paydo karda budaast, hukumat az on khele ba haros aftoda, majbur shudaast, ki manii islohotro tagyir dihad.[32]

Dar nimai avvali asri HVIII junbishhoi khalqi chunon bisyor sar mezadand, ki hatto muarrikhoni darbor, bigzor garazolud va rupushida boshad ham, az zikri onho gurez nadoshtand. Gayr az shurishhoi nomburda, boz dar solhoi 1713–1714 dar Bukhoro, soli 1713 dar Samarqand, soli 1719 dar Balkh, soli 1746 dar Toshkand shuru oshubhoi khalqi ba vuqu omadand. harchand muarrikhoni darbor voqeiyati junbishhoi khalqiro tahrif kunand ham, shubhae boqi namemonad, ki dar sharoiti irtijo va istibdodi feodali ommai khalqhoi tojik va uzbek ba muborizai ziddi sokhti behuquqivu sitamkori, ziddi janghoi dokhilii feodali barmekhostand.

Kasbu hunar, tijorat, muomiloti puli

Dar davlati Joniyon sharoit baroi taraqqiyoti kasbu hunar va tijorati dokhiliyu khoriji khele nomusoid bud va ba qadri avj giriftani nizohoi saltanattalabi va janghoi feodali boz ham badtar meshud. Baze shahru viloyathoi tamom chunon duchori toroj va kharobi megardidand, ki pas az in muddati duru daroze ba khud omada nametavonistand. Vale mardum malakai kasbi, peshavari va hunari khudro faromush namekard: be sabab nest, ki dar yak khudi Bukhoro Sayidoi Nasafi besh az dusad navi kasbu hunarro nom burdaast. Harobii iqtisodie, ki janghoi dokhili, tokhtutozi khevagiho, hujumi toifahoi bodiyanishin va qushunhoi ajnabi ba sari mamlakat meovardand, ba inkishofi mutadili istehsoloti moli va tijorat khalal merasonid. Qashshoqi, gurusnagi, khonavayronshavi – hamai in boisi kam shudani kharidoroni muqarrarii kolohoi oddi megardid. Sayidoi Nasafi, ki dar ayyomi piri ba bofandagi mashgul budaast, dar ashori khud ba nabudani kharidor, tamoman az ravnaq bozmondani bozor dar okhirhoi asri HVII ishorat mekunad.[33]

Dar tahi gardi kasodi shud matoam poymol,

Ruzgore shud khijolat az dukon boshad maro,

YO khud:

Gohe matoi khud, ki ba bozor mebaram,

Domonu ostini kharidor mekasham.

Vaziyat dar nimai avvali asri HVIII boz ham badtar gardid. Dar natijai tokhtutozhoi muttasili haftsolai qazoqho (1723– 1730) vodii Zarafshon tamoman ba kharobazor tabdil yoft. Qahti va gurusnagii sakht sar shud, kasoni az changi in falokat rahoyofta ba har taraf firor kardand, Bukhoro va Samarqand beodam mond.[34] Ahvoli faqat on shahru viloyathoe, ki aksaran dar gushavu kanorhoi mamlakat voqe gardida, ba arsai janghoi doimii feodali, tokhtutozhoi khevagiho va hamlai bodiyanishinon mubaddal nashuda budand, nisbatan behtar bud. Ba kharobi ru nihodani nohiyahoi markazii davlat ba taraqqiyoti onho hatto tasiri musoid ham rasonid, zero kosibonu hunarmandon baroi emin mondan az khavfu khatar va paydo namudani imkoni kori osoishta markazhoi buzurgi kasbu hunar va tijoratro tark karda, ba in gushahoi durdast panoh meburdand.

Vazi umumii puldori va siyosati hukumat dar sohai pulbarori va gardishi pul niz baroi kasbu hunar va tijorat nomusoid gardid.[35] Ba boloi dushvorihoi az hilavu nayrangi qurb ba miyon omada, ki hanuz dar asri HVI chun bori garone bar dushi kasbu hunar va tijorat aftoda bud, aknun bosurat vayronshavii sikkahoi nuqra zam shud. Pulro az omezai nuqravu mis zarb mezadand, lekin miqdori mis toraft meafzud. har bor, ki iyori pul past mefuromad, khazina foida meburdu aholi zarar medid. Az in ru, aholi ba muqobili shikastani qurbi pul faolona muboriza meburd va dar in mavrid manfiathoi qarib tamomi tabaqahoi jamiyat ba ham muvofiqat menamud. Aholi «puli asil»–puli mahkamu ustuvor va hamesha yakkhelavu balandiyorro mekhost. In muboriza dar asri HVII goho natijai matlub medod: aholi muvaffaq meshud, ki hukumatro ba balandtar kardani iyori pul vodor namoyad. Ammo dar choryaki okhiri asri HVII zarbi puli balandiyor tamoman qat gardid. Aholi agarchi misli peshtara baroi «puli asil» muborizai khudro davom medod, vale barori on khele kam va nochiz bud: miqdori nuqra digar az 35% baland nabaromad. Badtar, soli  1708, chunon ki dar  bolo ovarda  shud, Ubaydullokhon miqdori nuqraro dar sikkahoi khud ba 9% furovarda, boisi sar zadani shurishi khalq gardid, ki on qisman muvaffaqiyatomez anjom yoft.

Vale hukumat az kori pulbarori na faqat bo chunin rohi bevosita foida ba dast medarovard. Nayranghoe, ki dar bobati tagyiri qurbi pul karda meshud, chun bori boz ham garontar ba dushi aholi meaftod. Dar ahdi Joniyon ham, misli asri HVI, hamai pulhoi nuqraro ba «puli nav» va «puli kuhna» judo mekardand. hukumat har vaqt ki khohad, «puli nav»-ro «kuhna» elon menamud, lekin iqtidori kharidi puli «kuhna» dar bozor komilan ba iyori on vobasta bud. CHunonchi, pulhoe, ki 60% nuqra doshtand, vaqti nav budani khud hamchun puli balandiyor bo narkhi ijbori gardish mekardand. hamin ki in pulhoro «kuhna» elon kardand, favran 40% iqtidori kharidi on az dast meraft, yane aholi darhol 40% zarar medid. Agar tavri digar guem, dar davomi asri HVII meyori istifodai zarbi pul favqulodda afzoish yoft va in hol vaziyati kosibonu tojironro nazar ba on chi, ki Jenkinson dar miyonahoi asri HVI navishta bud, khele vaznintar namud.

Az in hama ba tavri ravshan barmeoyad, ki kosibon dar in davra holo tamomi khususiyathoi peshavu hunari khudro hifz karda budand, vale sharoiti onvaqta ba peshrafti kasbu tijorat imkon namedod. In bud, ki hajmi onho khususan az okhirhoi asri HVII sar karda sakht kohish yoft va in ba anvoi molho niz betasir namond. Albatta, on navi kasbu hunar, ki mahsuloti on ba khorij sodir meshud, yak daraja vazi behtare dosht: talaboti beruna dar chunin sharoiti sakht niz ba peshrafti istehsolot musoidat mekard. Az in jihat munosibathoi tijoratii toraft mustahkamshavanda va vusatyobanda bo Rossiya ahamiyati makhsuse dosht.

Davlati Rus az inkishofi tijorat bo Osiyoi Miyona khele manfiatdor bud va baroi on sharoiti musoid faroham mesokht. Ba savdogaroni osiyoimiyonagi tadrijan ijozat doda shud, ki dar tamomi shahrhoi in mamlakati pahnovar tijorat kunand. Hususan, pesh burdani korhoi savdo ba vositai Sibir imtiyozhoi ziyode dosht – dar in jo az tojironi Osiyoi Miyona khele kam boj megiriftand va hatto az baze molho aslan boj sitonda nameshud. Badi ba vujud omadani istehkomi Orenburg dar soli 1735 ba maqsadi jalb kardani tojironi Osiyoi Miyona chand muddat dar in jo savdoi begumruk elon karda shud.

Savdogaroni Osiyoi Miyona ba tarafi Rossiya beshtar mato va mansujoti pakhtagi meburdand. Az daftarhoi gumrukii tijoratkhonahoi Sibir va Ashtarkhon metavon did, ki ba on mamlakat chi andoza molhoi ziyode sodir megardidaast. Dar ruykhati mufassali in daftarho anvoi mukhtalifi gazvorhoi istehsoli Osiyoi Miyona, az qabili matoi «zandoni»  (sebandi, dubandi, purbeni, burmati), matohoi guldor, khomsuf va amsoli inho zikr yoftaand.

YAk qator madrakho dar in vaqt ba sababi narasidani abreshimi khom (hatto ba khorij barovardani on man gardida bud) ham az jihati hajm va ham az jihati nav kohish yoftani istehsoli shohivoriro nishon medihand. Bad shudani sharoiti zindagi tedodi kasonero, ki ba parvarishi kirmi abreshim shugl doshtand, hamchunin talabgoroni matohoi shohi va shohivorihoi garonbahoro besh az pesh kam menamud.

CHarm, baze navhoi muyina, qolin va g. az molhoi asosii sodiroti ba shumor meraftand. Anvoi molhoi ba istiloh tijorati khoni, yane on molhoe, ki safironi tojir meburdand, khele ziyod va gunogun bud. Azbaski talaboti davlati Rus nisbat ba molhoi Osiyoi Miyona hamono meafzud, hajmi in molhoi sodiroti ham beshtar gardida, tabiatan ba istehsoloti onho sharoiti musoidtare faroham meomad.

Istehsoli aslihajot va, umuman, masnuoti fuluzi nihoyat daraja ravnaq yoft. Onho niz ba kishvarhoi khoriji sodir megardidand. Baze namunahoi oloti safolii onvaqta to zamoni mo rasidaand va chunin ba nazar merasad, ki gayr az zarfhoi oddi va muqarrari, zarfhoi nafisi luobii munaqqash niz istehsol meshudaand. Dar asri HVII kasbu hunari amali niz az ravnaq namonda bud, makhsusan khotamkori, qoshinkori va kandakorihoi rui gaj va chub ba darajai balandi taraqqi rasid. Ammo dar asri HVIII talabot nisbat ba osori hunari amali taqriban qat gardid.

Dar sohai tijorati khoriji mavqei muhimro muomiloti savdo bo davlati Rus ishgol menamud.[36] CHunon ki khotirnishon gardid, ba in mamlakat molhoi khele ziyod va gunogunnavi Osiyoi Miyona burda meshud. Dar in jo boyad ilova kard, ki tojironi Osiyoi Miyona roli miyonaraviro ham bozi mekardand: onho ba Rossiya na faqat molhoi khudro, balki bisyor molhoi khoriji, khususan hindiro niz meburdand. In albatta, dar navbati khud boisi ba Osiyoi Miyona beshtar vorid gardidani molhoi hindi megardid, harchand ki bo sababhoi dar bolo ovardashuda talaboti aholi ba molhoi voridoti khele kam shuda bud.

hodisai nav dar tarikhi tijorati bayni Rossiyavu Osiyoi Miyona na faqat afzudani hajmi sodirotu voridot, balki dar in kor faolona shirkat namudani savdogaroni rus ham bud. Savdogaroni rus va yo dukondoroni onho aknun dar shahrhoi gunoguni Osiyoi Miyona 2–3 sol iqomat namuda, molhoi khudiro meovardand va molhoi injoiro meburdand. Az molhoi rusi dar Osiyoi Miyona na faqat ba ashyoi tajammuli (muina, charm, mohut va digar chizhoi qimatbaho) balki ba asbobhoi gunoguni ruzgor, az qabili zarfho, charchinvori va g. niz talabot ziyod bud.

Dar in davra Osiyoi Miyona hamchunin bo hinduston, Eron, Hitoy robitahoi tijorati dosht, vale hajm va miqyosi in muomilot hanuz ba darajai kofi omukhta nashudaast. Dar in bobat chunin amri voqei diqqatro ba khud jalb menamoyad, ki dar Bukhoroi onvaqta guzari makhsusi savdogaroni hindi mavjud budaast. Ubaydullokhon baroi davlat ziyoda manfiat doshtani inkishofi tijorati khorijiro ba khubi dark namuda, dar rohi behtar gardidani on choraho meandeshid. Ammo in yak hodisai kutohmuddate bud, ki bo quvvat giriftani kharobii khojagii mamlakat ba zudi az bayn raft. Florio Beneveni, ki soli 1722 dar Bukhoro zista, masalahoi tijoratro makhsus omukhta baromadaast, khotirnishon mesozad, ki agarchi molhoi ham baroi Bukhoro va ham baroi Rossiya zaruri mavjudand, ammo sharoit baroi inkishofi tijorat vujud nadorad.[37]

[1] Baroi donistani tafsili havodisi muborizai saltanatkhohoni gunogun nig.: Velyaminov — Zernov V.V., 1864; Abdurahimov M.A., 1966, s. 56–57. Vale boyad dar nazar dosht, ki M.A. Abdurahimov sahvan namoyandai okhirini SHayboniyon — Pirmuhammadi Soniro bo amui Abdullokhoni II–Pirmuhammadi Avval (vaf. s. 1567) yake donistaast. {ol on ki Pirmuhammadi Soni amuzodai Abdullokhoni II meboshad. Ilova bar in, muallifi nomburda Muhammadyusufi Munshiro, ki bayonoti u doir ba tarikhi asri HVI khele nosaheh va pechida ast, ba tavri musbat va uayritanridi tavzeh menamoyad.

[2] Az in ru dar osori ilmi sulolai Joniyon aksar vart Ashtarkhoniyon nom giriftaast.

[3] Abdurahimov M. A.,  1966, s. 64; Istoriya Uzbekskoy SSR, t. 1, 1967, s.550 va u.

[4] Davidovich E. A., 1964, s. 12-14, 243–244.

[5] Dar hakirat, muboriza dar atrofi Toshkand davom mekard va hokimi on farat isman ba  Imomrulikhon itoat menamud. (Abdurahimov M. A., 1966, s. 112–115).

[6] Abdurahimov M. A., 1966, s. 267–268.

[7] Atolir — az jihati mansab ponzdahumin va olitarin rutbai davlati khonii Bukhoro bud, ki pas az khon maromi avvalro ishuol karda, vazifai nakhustvazirro ado menamud.

[8] Muhammadyusufi Munshi, 1956, s. 153.

[9] {amon asar, 1956, s.158-159.

[10] «Istoriya narodov Uzbekistana», t. 2, 1947, s. 90.

[11] In madrakho az tarafi muarrikhon tahlil va tahrir shudaand, harchand ki na hamesha fahmish va arzishdihii onho yakson ast. Nig.: CHekhovich O.D., 1954, s. 68–69; 1959, s. 208 va davomash; Davidovich E.A., 1964, s.148–156; Abdurahimov M.L., 1966, s.136 va davomash.

[12] Mirmuhammadamini Bukhori, 1957, s. 220, 223.

[13] {amon asar, s. 227.

[14] Davidovich E. A., 1964, s. 135–147.

[15] Rasman sulolai Joniyon mavjudiyati khudro to soli 1785 davom dod, vale okhirin namoyandai in khonadon Abuluozi hamchun khon yagon etibore paydo karda natavonist.

[16] Dar borai sokhti idoroti davlati Joniyon nig.:  Bartold V. V., 1964 i, s. 388 va davomash; Semyonov A. A., 1948 a, s. 137 va davomash.

[17] Abdurahimov M. A., 1966, s. 260.

[18] Pazukhin B., 1894, s. 61.

[19] Mirzoev A. M., 1954, s. 17.

[20] Mirmuhammadamini Bukhori, 1957, s. 157.

[21] CHekhovich O. D.,1954, b, s. 1H-HP.

[22] Ivanov P. P. 1954, s. 68–80.

[23] Pazukhin B., 1894, s. 61.

[24] ITN, P, 2, s. 37.

[25] CHekhovich 0. D., 1954 b, s. HV-HUSH.

[26] Pazukhin B., 1894, s. 61; Beneveni F., 1853, s. 373.

[27] CHekhovich 0. D., 1954, s. 63–71; Abdurakhimov M. A., 1956, s. 64–72; CHekhovich O. D., 1959 a, s. 221–223; Davidovich E. A., 1964; s. 135–145; ITN, P, 2, s. 44–47; «Istoriya Uzbekskoy SSR», t. 1, 1967, s. 579–580.

[28] Muhammadyusufi Munshi, 1956, s. 162.

[29] Mirmuhammadamini Bukhoroi, 1957, s. 68.

[30] Abdurrahmoni Tole, 1959, s. 60-63.

[31] Mirmuhammadamini Bukhori, 1957, s. 159.

[32] Davidovich E. A., 1964, s. 140 va davomash.

[33] Mirzoev A. M., 1954, s. 77–78.

[34] CHekhovich 0. D., 1954, s. 72–73.

[35] Davidovich E. A., 1964, s. 100–134.

[36] Richkov P. I., 1949; CHuloshnikov A., 1932; Ziyoev J. Z., 1962; YUldoshev M. YU., 1964; Jamolov R., 1966.

[37] Beneveni F., 153, s. 376, 380–381.

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