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TOJIKISTON: ESSE, TARIH VA IMRUZ

Jumhurii Tojikistoni shuravi kishvari ba tavri suni sokhtai bolshavikon ast. Solhoi pesh az vuqui inqilobi kommunisti qismi sarzaminhoi Osiyoi Miyona allakay az sui Imperotorii Rus zabt shuda budand.

Dar natijai maglubiyathoi paydarpay, amiri Bukhoro majbur shuda bud, ki 23 iyuni soli 1868, muvofiqi ahdnomai Zira- buloq bekigarihoi Samarqand, Panjekat, Katta-Qurgon va Ur- gutro ba Rusiya suporad.

Solhoi 1864-1875 rusho dar natijai janghoi paydarpay shahrhoi Toshkand va Hujandro zabt karda, dar nihoyat soli 1876 bo zabti Quqand, khonigarii onro barham doda, bo zuri sarzaminashro purra ba kishvari khud hamroh karda budand.

esse dar borai tojikiston
Esse dar borai tojikiston

Hukumati Rusiyai podshohi ba zaminhoi hosilkhezi Osiyoi Miyona hamchun ba manbai tamini korkhonahoi kishvarash bo ashyoi khomi kishovarzi nigoh mekard va dar avvalin fursati munosib bo har rohu vosita zaminhoi mintaqaro gasb va ba kishvari khud hamroh mekard.

Jangi Imperatorii Rus bo Turkiya dar solhoi 1877-1878 idomai gasbi sarzaminhoi Osiyoi Miyonaro ba takhir guzoshta boshad ham, qismati boqimondai Amorati Bukhoro va khonigarii Horazm dar holi dastnigar az Imperotorii Rus ba sar mebur- dand. Amiri Bukhoro rasman mustaqil boshad ham, be ijozati imperatori rus qadame bardoshta nametavonist. Muvofiqi hamon ahdnomai «Zirabuloq», amir muvazzaf bud, ki tamomi siyosati khorijiyashro bo davlati rus muvofiqa kunad. Munosi- bati haqironai amiri Bukhoro dar muqobili Imperotorii Rusro Ahmadi Donish dar «Risolai mangitiya»-i khud bo tanzi sazovor khub tasvir kardaast.

Az ruzhoi avvali inqilob bolshavikho dar on qismati buzurgi Osiyoi Markazi, ki juzi Imperotorii Rus bud, Jum- hurii mukhtori Turkistoni shuraviro tasis dodand.

Soli 1920 artishi surkh bo bahonai yori ba inqilobiyoni mahalli, Amorati Bukhoro va khonigarii Horazmro ham zabt karda, Jumhurihoi khalqii shuravii Bukhoro va Horazmro ta- sis dod, ki in voqea dar kitobi «Fitnai inqilobi Bukhoro»-i ustod Muhammadjon SHakuri mufassal ba qalam doda shudaast.

sukhan dar borai tochikiston
Sukhan dar borai Tojikiston

Solhoi 1924-1925 taqsimoti hududi-milli guzaronda, jumhurihoi milli tashkil karda shud, ki badan in hodisa ba no- mi «tabartaqsim» maruf shud. Masulon gohe az ruyi garaz, gohe nodonii jugrofivu etniki, dar taqsimi hudud on qadr ba harju marj roh dodand, ki khalqhoi tuli asrho dar yakjoyagi zindagi doshta, dar du sui marzhoi jumhurihoi navtashkil mondand. Masalan, vodii Zarafshon, ki mardumoni bumii on – tojikon dar tuli hazorsolaho, az sargahi rudi Zarafshon to Samarqandu Bukhoro yakjoya zindagi mekardand, dar du sui marz, nim dar Jumhurii Tojikistonu nim dar Uzbakiston mondand. Hudi tabiat in vodiro tarze ofaridaast, ki qismathoi poyonobu boloobi on faqat dar yakjoyagivu hamohangi metavonand baroi zist muvofiq boshand. Taqsimoti marzi nohiyahoi Panjekat, Ayni va Maschoi imruzaro dar hududi Jumhurii Tojikiston va navohii poyonobi Zarafshonro dar hududi Uzbakiston muqarrar kard.

Vale, bo vujudi in, dar tuli haftod soli hokimiyati shuravi tamomi faoliyati ijtimoi-iqtisodii se nohiyai boloobi in vodi, ki ba Tojikiston dokhil budand, ba Samarqandu Bukho- rovu Marv – markazhoi tabii-tarikhii mintaqa, ki aknun ba jumhurihoi Uzbakistonu Turkmaniston shomil meshudand, vobasta bud, zero az jihati jugrofi osontarin va nazdiktarin rohho ba hamin shahrho vasl budand.

In «tabartaqsim» dar badani hamai khalqhoi mintaqa ja- rohati hamesha khunshor guzosht va gayr az in ki hamzistii tabi- ii mardumro khalaldor kard, zeri munosibati bayni in khalqho bombi zamoni ham guzosht, ki badan mo shohidi tarkishhoyash shudem.

Nazariyai marksizm-leninizm bunyodi ateisti dosht va sa- roni inqilobi surkh bo takya ba ittiloi jamovardai paju- hishgaroni qablii rus tojikonro hamchun mazhabitarin qavmi mahalli va dushmani ideolojii khud meshinokhtand. Az tajribai tarikhi ogoh budand, ki farhangi in millat misli darakhti muqtadirest, ki reshaho va shokhu bargash tamomi sohahoi zin- dagiro pechonda giriftaast va har ki ba in sarzamin omadaast, dar nihoyat dar in farhang hazm va ahli on shudaast. Ba in sabab, behtarin guzinaro baroi khudashon hamkori bo pantur- kizm, ki on zamon dar mintaqa nufuz paydo karda bud, donista, vujudi millati tojikro inkor va markazhoi farhangii onro ba shahrhoi muzofoti dar hayati jumhurihoi digar tabdil do- dand. Bosavodonu nukhbagonashro nobud kardand, khatashro tagyir dodand, to az guzashtai khud ogohi nadoshta boshad. Ommaro ta- vassuti barnomahoi «mahvi besavodi» ba khati nav «savodnok» namuda, payvasta talqin mekardand, ki «shumo dar guzashta hech buded». In barnomaho savodi sathi dihad ham, qobiliyati ande- sha va tahlilro namedod, az in sabab mardum bo uqdai haqorat va khudkambini buzurg meshudand. Binoan tabiist, ki odamon az asli khud khabar nadoshtand, ba hamai in hazyon bovar mekardand va kase savol namedod, ki agar mo hech budem, in hama shoiru navisandavu mutafakkir va in farhangi benazir az kujost?! Az hamin metavon khulosa barovard, ki «tabartaqsim», tagyiri khat va barnomahoi zaifi maktabhoi tojikii SHuravi makhsus va bo hadafhoi garaznok rohandozi shuda budand.

Manfiati turktozonai panturkiston niz dar on marhala bo manfiati islomharosonai bolshavikon muvofiq omad. Pan- turkiston az fursati munosib istifoda karda, nomi millati bumiyonro tagyir dodand va farhangi hazorsolaho ofaridai sohiboni in sarzaminro ba nomi khud navishtand, ki to hol kase az gasbgaroni in sarzamin in nayrangro ba kor naburda bud.

Dar natijai in taqsimoti noinsofona, ba mo tojikon az sarzamini pahnovaru hosilkhezi boboiyamon yak gushai durdastu noobod va kuhistonii on rasid, ki imruz bo nomi JumhuriiTojikiston shinokhta meshavad. Vale hatto hamin kuhporai noobod niz ba osoni ba dast naomad, baroi ba dast ovardani in yak porcha za- min, baroi sokhtani kishvar baroi sohiboni aslii in marzu bum, farzandoni farzonai millati man jonboziho kardand va nihoyat aksaran bo ittihomi millatchigi qurbon shudand.

Ajibash in bud, ki mintaqahoi ba tojikon dodashuda guyo makhsus intikhob shuda budand. YAk porcha az vodii Fargona, por- chai digar az vodii Zarafshon va yak porcha az Bukhoroi sharqi, ki tabiatan ba vositai kuhho az ham judo buda, bayni ham rohi bevosita nadoshtand. Dar tuli solhoi hokimiyati shuravi ham baynashon rohi khub sokhta nashud va in mintaqaho shomili yak kishvar boshand ham, dar asl dar holati az ham gusasta zindagi mekardand, ki yake az sababhoi asosii adami vahdati milli va rushdi marazi mahalgaroi dar Tojikiston shud.

Hadafi asosii dastandarkoron mahalhoro dar inzivo gu- zoshta, az bayn burdani zaboni forsii tojiki bud. Sababi zaboni khudro khub hifz karda tavonistani mardumi boloobi Zarafshon on bud, ki Samarqand va Bukhoro shahrhoi tojikon budand va zabonu farhangi khudro nigoh doshta budand. Vale dar qismati vodii Fargonai Tojikiston, ki az jihati jugrofi ba qismathoi digari Tojikistoni ba tavri suni sokhtashuda roh nadosht va beshtar bo Toshkand va digar shahrhoi Uzbakiston ravuo dosht, tasiri zaboni uzbaki bamarotib beshtar bud va ba zaboni mardum sadama zad.

Az shahrhoi hazorsolaho ba mardumi man taalluqdoshta, az markazhoi siyosiyu ijtimoi va adabiyu farhangii tarikhi- yamon, ki zaminai asosii tashakkuli millati vohidi tojik budand, yake ham ba mo narasid. Dar natija, baroi kishvari ba tavri suni baroi mo tojikon sokhtashuda, yak deharo poytakht intikhob namudand.

Risolathoi poytakht khele muhim buda, on sozandai huviyatu farhang, tafakkuri milli, vahdati sokinoni mahallu muzo- fothoi mukhtalifi kishvar ast. SHahri Dushanbe dar zamoni SHuravi ba manii tomi in sukhan poytakhti millii tojikon nashud, on beshtar yak shahri rusi bud va az in sabab risolathoi mazkuri khudro ba purragi ijro karda natavonist. In bud, ki dar in kishvari ba tavri suni va badtarin nav sokhtashuda, yagonagi va vahdati milli ba vujud naomad va in chiz dar sol- hoi avvali istiqlol yake az sababhoi asosii sar zadani jangi shahrvandii khonumonsuz dar kishvar gardid.

Garchande solhoi 70-80-um nishonahoi umedbakhshi dar Du- shanbe ba ham omadani namoyandagoni mintaqavu mahalhoi gu- noguni Tojikiston ba mushohida merasid, ammo bo kasofati furuposhii Ittihodi SHuravi va jangi shahrvandi dar solhoi 90 in ravand qat gardid va notamom mond.

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