TASHBEH

Tashbeh chist? Tashbeh kalimai arabist. Manoi lugaviash monand kardan ast. Tashbeh ba manoi istilohi nomi yake az sanathoi manavist, ki chize ba chize monand karda meshavad. Hangomi monand kardani chize ba chize hatman sifat yo khususiyati mushtaraki miyoni hardu chiz ba nazar girifta meshavad. SHoir yo navisanda, baroi on ki maqsadi kheshro purra va ravshan bayon kunad, khususiyati yak chizro bo khususiyati chizi digar monand mekunad. Ba tavri digar guem, tashbeh hamesha du tarafi muqoisa dorad. Dar mavridi tashbeh istilohoti mushabbah (monand) va mushabbahbihi (monanda), monandshavanda va monandkunanda khele seristemoland. Ahli qalam on chizro, ki monand kunand, mushabbah va on chizro, ki ba on monand kunand, mushabbahbihi guyand.

kitob-duxtar
YAne agar kase yo chize, ki ba kase yo chize monand karda shavad, monandshavanda yo tashbehshavanda, ammo kase yo chize, ki monandshavandaro ba khud monand kardaast, monandkunanda yo tashbeh kunanda menomand. Aksari muhaqqiqon tarafdori onand, ki shakli osontaru munosibtari in istiloh — monand va monanda qabul karda shavad.

Hangomi ba ham payvastani tashbehshavandayu tashbehkunanda kalima va tabirhoe ba kor meravand, ki onhoro vajhi monandi (vajhi tashbeh) va adoti tashbeh menomand.
Asosi tashbeh az du juz iborat ast: monandii du chiz (qiyos) va sababi in monandi, yane sifati on. Pas vajhi tashbeh hamon sifati mushtaraki du juzi asosii tashbeh meboshad. Ilova bar in, dar monand kardani du chiz kalimahoi ziyode yori merasonand, ki onhoro adoti tashbeh menomand, yane afzol va olati tashbeh. Ahli adab kalimahoi: chunin, monand, tariq, -vor, sheva, gui, pindori, sabil, minvol, -son, oso, misl, chun va gayraro az jumlai kalimahoi adoti tashbeh donistaand.

Misol:
Vatan, mehrat ba dil azbaski jo shud,
Dilam az khurrami chun guncha vo shud.
(Mirzo Tursunzoda)

Dar misrai duyumi in bayt «dilam» monand (tashbehshavanda), «chun» adoti tashbeh, «guncha» monanda (tashbehkunanda), «khurrami» vajhi tashbeh (sababi tashbeh) meboshad.

CHand misol:
Suratat mahzari husn ast, vale in mani
Hamchu husni digaron bar hama kas zohir nest.
(Kamol)

Biyor on may, ki pindori ravoi yoquti nob asti
Va yo chun barkashida teg peshi oftob asti.
(Rudaki)

CHaro chun gul zani dar pust khanda?
Sukhan boyad chu shakkar pustkanda.
(Nizomi)

Pushti zamin chu rui falak gashta az siloh,
Rui falak chu pushti zamin gashta az gubor.
(Rashidi Vatvot)

Zulfro chun joni har oshiq ba bar dorad shikanj,
CHunki az jonbozii oshiq khabar dorad shikanj.
(Rahimi)

Oyinavor shohidi orom nestem,
Simob mechakad zi dili beqarori mo.
(SHavkat)

Paykaram megasht hamchun nabzi bemoron zi jo,
To sahar az mavji simob iztirobe doshtem.
(Sayido)

Gahe chu sham kunam giryahoi sinagudoz,
Gahe chu subh zanam khandahoi khunolud.
(Badri CHochi)

Aksari donishmandoni ilmi adab muhimtarin sharti tashbehro dar on donistaand, ki boyad tashbehkunanda bar tashbehshavanda afzaliyat doshta, sifat va khislathoi tashbehkunanda az tashbehshavanda mukammaltaru olitar boshad, to ki khislathoi chizi tashbehshavanda khubtaru behtar namoyon shavad.

HELHOI TASHBEH

Tashbeh vobasta ba munosibati guyanda ba khelhoi zerin:

tashbehi mutlaq (ravshan, sareh), tashbehi pushida (muzmar, izmor), tashbehi mashrut (sharti), tashbehi bargashta (tafzil), tashbehi aks (makus), tashbehi barobar (tasvit), tashbehi mukanno (kinoyat) judo meshavad.

1. Tashbehi mutlaq (ravshan, sareh). Dar in navi tashbeh mavjudiyati ruknhoi asosii on — tashbehkunanda, tashbehshavanda va adoti tashbeh shart ast.

Misol:
CHaro chun gul zani dar pust khanda?
Sukhan boyad chu shakkar pustkanda.
(Nizomi)

Dar hardu misrai Nizomi tashbeh hast, khandai yor ba gul va sukhan ba shakar monand karda shudaast. Dar in tashbehot khandai yor va sukhan monandshavanda va gulu shakar monandkunanda buda, chun va chu adoti tashbeh meboshad.

Misoli digar:
Ay labat gul, orazat mul, turraat sunbul barin,
Gabgabat dar charbu narmi tukhmi nimdumbul barin.
(SHohin)

2. Tashbehi pushida (muzmar, izmor). In navi tashbeh chunon ast, ki dar on adoti tashbeh ishtirok namekunad va beshtar bo rohi takidu tahkim (hukm) sokhta meshavad.

Misol:

Ruyat — daryoi husnu lalat — marjon,
Zulfat — anbar, sadaf — dahon, durr — dandon.

Abru — kishtivu chini peshoni — mavj,
Girdobi balo — gabgabu chashmat — tufon.
(Rudaki)

In navi tashbehro tarkibi niz menomand, baroi on ki beshtari tashbehho az tarkib va kalimahoi murakkab sokhta meshavand.

Misol:
SHakkarshikan ast yo sukhangui man ast,
Anbarzaqan ast yo sumanbui man ast.
(Musaibi)

Kalimahoi «anbarzaqan» va «sumanbuy» tashbehi pushida meboshand, zero shoir guftanist, ki yori man zaqane (manah, zanakhdon) dorad, ki misli anbar khushbuy ast.

3. Tashbehi bargashta (tafzili). In navi tashbeh chunon ast, ki shoir az tashbehi avvalai khud barmegardad va monandshavandaro az monandkunanda bolo medonad.

Misol:
Sarvro moni, valekin sarvro raftor nest,
Mohro moni, valekin mohro guftor nest.
(Sadi)

Misoli digar:
In jo sukhani sarv naguem, ki past ast,
In jo sukhani moh nakhonem, ki zisht ast.
(Kamol)

In navi tashbehro tashbehulmarju niz guyand, yane az tashbeh (monand) va tarje — bargashtan. SHoiron gohe qadi yorro ba sarv, rui uro ba moh monand mekunand, lekin bad
az guftai khud pushaymon meshavand ba in mani, ki guyo «sarv raftor» nadoradu «moh ayb» dorad. Dar in navi tashbeh afzaliyati monandshavandaro az monandkunanda nishon medihand va bo hamin sabab, onro tafzili niz menomand.

4. Tashbehi makus (aks). In navi tashbeh chunon ast, kishoir du chizro ba ham monand mekunad va boz joi onhoro ivaz menamoyad, misli tashbehi nargis ba chashm va chashm ba nargis, yo hilol ba abru va abru ba hilol.

Misol:
Lola ba rui khubat monand, ki surkhruy ast,
Ruyat ba lola monand, z-on ru, ki khol dorad.

5. Tashbehi barobar (tavsiya, muzdavaj, mustavi). In navi tashbeh chunon ast, ki shoir sifathoi du chizi monandro ba ham barobar mekunad va dar qiyos meorad. YAne shoir sifatero meorad, ki ham ba oshiq va ham ba mashuqa taalluq dorad.

Misol:
Guftam: «Zi dili khesh dahon sozamat, ay dust»,
Gufto: «Natavon sokht zi yak nuqta dahone».
Guftam: «Zi tani khesh miyon sozamat, ay moh»,
Gufto: «Natavon sokht zi yak muy miyone».
Dar bayti yakum shoir dar shakli qiyos «yak nuqta»-ro ba
«tangii dil» va «dahon» va dar bayti duyum «yak muy»-ro ba
«nozukii tan» va «borikii miyon» monand va barobar kardaast.

Misoli digar:
Pushti khamidai man hamnasabi jadi22 vay ast,
Jadi shuridai u hamsifati kholi man ast.
(Abdulvosei Jabali)
6 . Tashbehi sharti (mashrut). In navi tashbeh chunon ast,
ki shoir baroi ifodai matlabi khesh chizero ba chize shartan
monand mekunad. YAne baroi muqoisa kardani du chiz shar-
ti muayyan guzoshta meshavad. Dar beshtari mavridho chunin
tashbehho ba vositai payvandakhoi shartii «agar», «gar»,
«ar» ifoda karda meshavad. Misol:
CHun tu ba bog bigzari, gul narasad ba bui tu,
Lek rasad ba qomatat sarv, agar ravon shavad.
(Husravi Dehlavi)
Misoli digar:
Agar mure sukhan guyad va gar mue ravon dorad,
Man on muri sukhanguyam, man on muyam, ki jon dorad.
(Amaqi Bukhoroi)

Bayni tashbehi sharti va tashbehi bargashta tafovuti khele kam ast, onho faqat zohiran az ham farq mekunand. Agar biguem: «Rui tu gul ast, ammo gul vafo nadorad», tashbehi bargashta va agar biguem, ki «gul ba rui tu on goh monand meshavad, ki agar vafo doshta boshad», tashbehi sharti meshavad.

7. Tashbehi mukanno (kinoyat). In navi tashbeh chunon ast, ki be istifodai adoti tashbeh ba tashbehshavanda az sui tashbehkunanda kinoya karda meshavad.

Misol:
Goh bar mohi duhafta gardi mushk ori padid,
Goh mar khurshedro dar goliya23 pinhon kuni.
(Unsuri)

Misoli digar:
Hamegiristu hame nargison-sh lola gudokht,
Ba bargi lola bigdokhta nuhufta zarir.
(Abulaloi SHushtari)

SAVOL VA SUPORISH:

1. Adoti tashbeh va vajhi tashbehro fahmoned.
2. Tashbeh chand khel meshavad?
3. Baroi chi tashbehro yak juzi ilmi bayon medonand?
4. Kadom navi tashbehro tashbehi mutlaq menomand?
5. Tashbehi pushida chist?
6. Tafovuti tashbehi sharti va tashbehi makus dar chist?

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