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TASAVVUROTI ODAMONI QADIM DAR BORAI ZAMIN

Hayot va faoliyati insoni davrai ibtidoi ba tabiati atrofash zich aloqamand bud. U hamchun mavodi khuroky mevai rastanihoro jam namuda, mohi va hayvonoti vahshiro shikor mekard. Baroi gum nakardani mavzehoi az nemat boy va shikor dar tanai darakhton va sanghoi sari roh nishona va alomatho mekashid. Donishi geografii odamon oid ba Zamin mahdud bud. Gayr az nabotot, hayvonot, manbahoi obu qabilahoi atrofi mahali khud dar borai digar mahalhoi rui Zamin tasavvurot nadoshtand. Ba in nigoh nakarda, unsurhoi avvalini donishi geografi dar bayni khalqhoi gunogun ba vujud omada bud. On khalqhoe. ki sohibi hurufot va khat budand, donishi geografii nisbatan hamatarafa doshtand.

zaminBarobari ba vujud omadani khat, sokhtani kishtikhoi belu bodbondor va kashfi qutbnamo hazorsolaho muqaddam odamon imkoniyat paydo kardand, ki ba masofai dur shino kunand. In doirai donishro dar borai Zamin vase namud. Bahrnavardon va sayyohon mavze va hodisakhoi dida va naqlhoi shunidai khudro navishta, aksi onhoro ba naqsha megiriftand. Dar davrai qadim on naqshahoi qismhoi nachandon kaloni sathi Zamin vazifai kharitai geografiro ijro mekardand. Hazorsolaho kharitai mufassali olam vujud nadosht. Baroi on ki khalkkhoi qadim dar borai shakl va andozai Zamin tasavvuroti amiq nadoshtand. Binobar in shakl va andozai Zaminro khalkkhoi qadim khar khel tasavvur mekardand.

Avvalin shuda olimi YUnoni Qadim Arastu hangomi khusufi (giriftaii) Mokhdar rui on ba tavri kura aftidani soyai Zamin va barobari ba kuh baromadan vase shudani khati ufuqro mushohida namuda, kurashaklii Zaminro isbot kard.

Vaqte ki kurashaklii Zamin isbot gardid, olimi digari YUnoni Qadim Eratosfsn andozai Zaminro hisob karda, kharitai nisbatan mukammali olamro tartib dod (nigared ba atlas).

Ba andukhti donish dar borai Zamin olimoni guzashtai mo Abuzubaydi Balkhi, Ibni Sino, Aburayhoni Beruny niz sahm guzoshtand. Ibni Sino kurashaklni Zaminro etirof mekard. Az sababi on ki Zamin kura ast, sathi obi rui on ham ba kura shabohat dorad, Binobar in meguyad Sino – dar ob (bahri kushod) kishtiro… ibtido sari bodbonash namoyon meshavad. Bad sadri kishti padidor (namoyon) megardad (rasmi 2). Az olimoni asri miyona Aburayhoni Beruni avvalin shuda andozai buzurgii mudavvarii Zaminro chen kard, ki on az natijai chenkunii zamoni mo 110 kilometr farq mekunadu khalos. Aburayhoni Beruny avvalin bor dar SHarq, ehtimol dorad dar jahon niz, globuse sokht, ki kutri (diametr) on besh az 5 metr bud. U baroi tavsifi shakli Zamin istilohi kura, kurai Zaminro istifoda namud. Beruny dar SHarqi Misna roje ba harakati ehtimolii Zamin dar girdi Oftob, yane

sistemai geliosentrii Olam andesha ronda bud. U yaks az avvalin muhaqqnqoni hodisahoi geologi, madanho va sanghoi qimatbaho meboshad. Abuzubaydi Balkhi 20 adad kharita tartib doda bud. Onhoro badtar jambast namuda, khamchun “Atlasi islomy” ba tab rasondand. Dar kharitai olame, ki u ofaridaast, Zamin ba shakli doira tasvir sftaast.

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