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TASHAKKULI ADABIYOTI  FORSII TOJIKI

Asosi adabiyoti navini tojik dar asrhoi IX—X guzoshta shudaast. Dar okhiri asri VSH va ibtidoi asri IX shoironi duzabonae ba kamol rasidand, ki dar barobari sheri arabi goho ba forsii   dari niz qitaho meguftand. Dar on zamon khudshinosii mardumi eroni ba haddi balande rasida, kushishi az nav zinda gardonidani zaboni pahlavi ba nazar merasad. Mahz dar asrhoi 8—9 melodi doir ba ofarinishi dunyo, mavjudoti olam, tarikhu etiqodoti mazhabi, rivoyathoi dini, dostonhoi asotirii «Bundahishn», «Dinkard», ki  qomusi mazhabi zardushtist, «Menoki khirad», oid ba shatranj «Motikoni chatrang» va yak silsila asarhoi digari muhim ba vujud omadand. Ammo, ba sababi khele sodda va ba zindagii navin nomuvofiq budan, oyini zardushti natavonist az nav ehyo gardad.

Malumote mavjudand, ki hanuz dar qarnhoi panju shashi milodi sheri forsi vujud doshtaast. Meguyand, ki az vayronahoi Qasri SHirin, ki yaqinan SHirini zani Husravi Parviz (590—628) ast, yak bayti forsii dari paydo shuda budaast, ki in ast:

Hijabro, ba kayhon anusha bizi,

Jahonro ba didor tusha bizi!

Dar kitobhoi tazkira rivoyat karda meshavad, ki nakhustin kase, ki ba forsi devoni ashor doshtaast, Bahromi Gur (420—437) budaast. Az u pori sheri zerinro meorand, ki murakkab az chahor misra yo du bayt ast:

Manam on sheri gala,

Manam on pili yala.

Nomi man Bahromi Gur,

Kuniyatam Bujabala!

va yo du misra yo yak bayt ast:

Manam on sheri gala, manam on pili yala,

Nomi man Bahromi Gur, kuniyatam Bujabala!

Dar okhiri asri VIII va ibtidoi qarni IX allakay shoironi duzabonae ba kamol rasidand, ki dar barobari sheri arabi ba forsii   dari niz qitahoi manzum meguftand. YAke az avvalin shoirone, ki az u sheri forsi misol ovardaand, YAzid ibni Mufarrig (vaf. 688) bud, ki misrahoi zerin az ust:

Ob astu nabiz ast,

Usoroti zabib ast,

Somiya rusabid ast…

YAke az avvalin  porchahoi manzumi tojiki ba qalami Abulyanbagi (vaf. 824) taalluq dorad, ki dar vazni shashhijoi suruda shudaast:

 Samarqandi kandmand,

Bad-inat ki afkand?!

Az CHoch ta bihi,

Hamesha ta khahi!

YAne:

Samarqandi obodon,

Turo ba in hol ki afkand?

Az SHosh tu behtari,

Hamesha tu khubtari!

Az in ham peshtar aholii Balkh gumoshtai istilogaroni arab dar Huroson Asad ibni Abdulloro, ki soli 726 baroi furu nishondani shurishi mardumi Hatlon rafta budu shikast khurda bargasht, bo sher hajv karda budand, ki bachaho on sheri hajviro dar kuchahoi Balkh mekhondaand:

Az Huttalon omadiye,

Ba ru taboh omadiye,

Ovora boz omadiye,

Hashang nizor omadiye…

YAne:

Az Huttalon omadiyo,

Bo ruyi siyoh omadiyo,

Ovora boz omadiyo,

SHarmandavor omadiyo…

In qita nishon medihad, ki adabiyoti tojik az ibtido bo nabardu muboriza, zindagii ijtimoivu siyosii khalq irtibotu qarobati nogusastani doshta, chun oyinai ruzgor az avvalin lahzahoi mavjudiyatash dar zinda doshtanu royij sokhtani rasmu odathoi khudi, targibi akhloqu odobi volo, tasviri guzashtai puriftikhor, kheshtanshinosi va himoyati obu zamini padaron az ajnabiho khizmati arzandaro ba joy ovardaast.

Albatta, dar nuqoti gunoguni kishvarhoi forsizaboni qarnhoi IX – X namunahoi gunoguni sheri forsii tojiki padid oyand ham, markazi muqtadiru haqiqii sheru adabi zamoni Somoniyon hamon Bukhoro ba shumor meraft. Bukhoro, ki az soli 892 bo sayi Ismoili Somoni poytakhti Somoniyon qaror girifta bud, dar okhiri asri IX – ibtidoi asri X ba markazi buzurgi ilmiyu adabii mamlakat tabdil yoft. Dar darboru berun az on ham mahfilu anjumanhoi adabiyu ilmi vujud doshtand. Oid ba falsafai YUnoni Qadim bahsho barpo meshud. Bazmhoi sozu surud va jamomadhoi tarab marsum budand.

Bo vujudi in, dar on zamon dar qalamravi Somoniyon garmtar az hama konuni adabiyot gardon buda, dar poytakhtu shahru viloyatho adiboni ziyode asar menavishtand. Dar ibtidoi davr ustodi tarbiyatgari shoironu peshvoi tamomi adiboni zamon Abuabdullohi Rudaki va dar okhiri on sukhanvari jahoni Abulqosimi Firdavsi zindagivu ejod mekardand. Abulii Sino niz az nobigahoi parvardai hamin asr bud.

Alhol ziyoda az 70 nafar adiboni muosiri Rudaki malumand. SHahidi Balkhi az dustonu hamkoroni Rudaki buda, ba du zabon-arabiyu tojiki sher meguft. Bo olimi mashhuri sohai falsafa Zakariyoi Rozi (vaf. 925) dar masalahoi gunoguni ilmi bahshovu munoziraho payvasta, fikrhoyashro dar shakli risola menavisht. Hattoti purhunare ham bud. Rudaki ba ustodii Murodi va Farolovi qoil ast. Abushakuri Balkhi, Abulmuayyadi Rabanjoni, Kisoyii Marvazi, Daqiqi, Abushuaybi Haravi, Abuhaysami Gurgoni, Tohiri CHagoni, Munjiki Tirmizi, Ravnaqii Bukhoroi, Sipehrii Movarounnahri, Ammorai Marvazi, Abulfathi Busti, Maysari va digaron namoyandagoni barjastai adabiyoti davrai mavsuf meboshand.

Aksariyati kulli onho dar Bukhoro, Balkh, Marv, Samarqand, CHagoniyon, Tirmiz, Hirot, Sarakhs, Gurgon va Nishopur barin shahrho va muzofoti Movarounnahru Huroson ba kamol rasida, beshtarinashon dar Bukhoro, ki dar ahdi Somoniyon ba markazi buzurgi ilmivu adabi tabdil yoft, jam omada budand. Dar zamonahoi badi kam ba nazar merasad, ki dar yak asr in qadar sukhanvaroni sohibmaqome ba kamol rasida boshand, ki az tamomi osori onho tabi salimu istedodi fitri huvaydo gardad.

Umuman, dar zamoni Somoniho ba ravnaqi adabiyot, khususan ba sabzishi adabiyoti darbori va ehyoi asotiru hamosahoi tarikhiyu qahramonii guzashta, ahamiyati khos doda meshud. Sarvari adibon, ki malikushshuaro, yane podshohi shoiron nomida meshud, ba korhoi adabi rohbari mekard. Nakhustin malikushshuaro Ustod Rudaki bud, ki na amir, balki khalq in unvonro ba u munosib donista bud.

Janrhoi asosii adabiyoti  asri  X   dar qolabi  nazmu  nasr rekhta shuda boshand ham,  nazm  dar  adabiyoti  asr  mavqei shoyistatare dosht. Ayontarash, navhoi asosii sheri tojiki —masnavi, qasida, gazal, ruboi, dubayti, qita, musammat va gayra dar hamin zamon shakl giriftavu inkishof yofta budand. In navhoi sher az ruyi khususiyathoi shakli, yane az jihati hajm, tarzi qofiyabandi va qolabi vazn az hamdigar farq mekardand. Masalan, masnavi bo baythoe, ki har misraash hamqofiya ast, navishta meshavad. Ruboi az chahor misra iborat buda, gohe har chahor misra hamqofiya va gohe misrai seyum az qofiya ozod meboshad. Qasidayu gazal yak khel qofiya dorand: bayti avval hamqofiya buda, badan misrahoi juft bo on dar qofiya muttahid meshavand. Qasida darozu gazal kutoh ast. Dar qita faqat misrahoi juft bo hamdigar yak khel qofiya dorand. Ustodi kulli hamai in navhoi sheri va peshvoi adiboni zamon, beshak, Ustod Rudaki buda, Daqiqi, SHahidi Balkhi va Kisoi niz dar chand navi sheri mahorati tamom doshtaand.

Qissayu dostonho dar qolabi masnavi navishta meshudand. Dostonhoi kahramoni, hamosavi (epiki), ishqi va akhloqi ham dar hamin navi nazm ejod gardidaand. Haft masnavii Rudaki, az jumla «Kalilayu Dimna» va «Sindbodnoma», se masnavii Abushakuri Balkhi, ki yake az onho «Ofarinnoma» (soli tal. 336/947) ast, «SHohnoma»-hoi manzum, «YUsufu Zulaykho»-i Abulmuayyadi Balkhi namunahoi barjastai dostonsaroyi va qissapardozii zamon meboshand. Dar tarkibi nomi aksariyati onho omadani juzi «noma» ba doston budanashon ishorat mekunad.

Mahz dar asri X avvalin dostonhoe, ki mavzuashon ilm ast, ba maydon omadand, ki asosguzori in nav doston niz Ustod Rudaki meboshad. Masnavii u «Davroni Oftob» roje ba ilmi nujum (astronomiya) budaast. Maysari, chunon ki zikrash guzasht, «Donishnoma»-i khudro dar shakli masnavi navishtaast, ki taqriban az panj hazor bayt iborat buda, mavzuash tib ast. Muallif tibro dar radifi sitorashinosi, handasa (geometriya bo matematika) va fiqh (qonunshinosi) az ilmhoi zaruri shumurda, roje ba kasaliho, alomati onho va tabobatashon bash mepayvandad.

Kamoloti ejodii Rudaki chun ustodu sarvari adibon dar Bukhoro dar hamin muhit surat girifta, na tanho dar havzai darbor, balki dar bayni khalqu doirai guruhhoi ravshanfikri ahli shahr niz shuhrati tamom yofta bud. In shuhratu nufuzi shoir khususan dar pironsolish afzun gardid. Dar borai piri va notavonii khud Rudaki, az jumla dar qasidai «Modari may» ishoraho dorad, vale ranju azobhoi u dar in ayyom bo kulfathoi piri mahdud nameshud. Sinfi hukmron dar takibu ozori u rohi ifrotro pesh girift. In sabab dosht, zero khonadoni Somoni, ki  dar avvali hukmroni ba payravoni mazhabho, firqaho, hatto dinho betaraf bud, rafta-rafta dar in jabha siyosati khudro digar kard. Az soli 919 sar karda dar qalamravi Somoniyon tabligoti qarmati chun junbishi siyosi va nahzati ijtimoi purzur gardid. Qarmatiho guruhi purquvvati siyosie budand, ki dar asri IX paydo shuda, dehqonon, bodiyanishinho va ahli hunar, khususan onhoero, ki az tartiboti mavjuda, mazhabi rasmii islom va siyosati najodparastonai khalifahoi abbosi norozi budand, muttahid mekardand. Manoi qarmat kutoh ast. Sababi chunin nom giriftani jarayon dar on ast, ki asosguzori on Hamdon ibn-al-Ashas qadu poyhoi kutoh doshtaast. Dar zamoni Somoniho qarmatiya hamchun harakati khalqi mohiyati ziddifeodali doshta, bo faoliyati rohbari qarmatihoi Bukhoro Muhammadi Nakhshabi, az ruyi baze khususiyathoi ozodikhohi va demokratiash, etibor paydo karda bud. Tasiri nufuzi on ba darajae bud, ki amironu vaziron va shakhsoni digari sohibetibor niz ba on mayl mekardand. Nasr ibni Ahmad ham ba onho tavajjuh dosht. Az tarafi digar, dar okhirhoi saltanati Nasr ibni Ahmad taassubu khurofoti mazhabi avj girift. Bisyor odamoni ravshanfikr bo tuhmati qarmati budan ba jazoho giriftor meshudand. Ruhoniyoni islomu darboriyoni irtijoi hamai mukholifoni khudro qarmati menomidand, ba bedini aybdorashon mekardand. Lashkariyon boshand, onhoro mekushtandu gorat mekardand.

Nizomulmulk, voqean, ba gunohi qarmati az takht mazul gardidani Nasri II va ba joyash amir barguzida shudani pisari Nuh ibni Mansurro mufassal naql karda, takid menamoyad, ki in hodisa ba sababi az rohi sunnat baraftodan va mazhabi bad giriftan, yane talimoti qarmatiro az Muhammadi Nakhshabi paziruftani Nasri II, rukh dodaast. Nuh barobari ba takht nishastan ba poyi padar band basta, uro mahbus mekunad. Peshvoyoni harakati qarmati (botini)-ro niz ba habs megirad. «Pas Hasanu Makkodu Mansuri CHagoni va Ashasro bad-on amr, ki botini shuda budand, gardan bizadandu dar shahrho aftodandu har kiro az eshon meyoftand, mekushtand… Haft shabonruz dar Bukhorovu navohii u mekushtandu mekushtandu gorat mekardand. Va chunon shud, ki  dar Movarounnahru Huroson yake az eshon namondand».53

Soli 1958, ba munosibati jashni 1100-solagii Ustod Abuabdullohi Rudaki, majmuai «Ashori hamasroni Rudaki» ba tab rasid,54 ki namunahoi boqimondai abyoti 66 nafar shoironi asrhoi IX — H-ro dar hajmi 3291 bayt (6582 misra) faro megirad. Az shoirone, ki dar ahdi Safforiyon (873—903) va zamoni Tohiriyon (821—873) guzashtaand, ba gayr az sheri khalqii Balkhiyon va Abulyanbagi, ki  solhoi 170—187 hijri (786— 920) zinda budaast, 2 bayti Mahmudi Varroq (vaf. 221/936), 4 bayti Hanzalai Bodgisi (vaf. 219/834), 19 bayti Muhammad ibni Vasif, 5 bayti Bassomi Kurd, 3 bayti Muhammad ibni Mukhallad, 4 bayti Firuzi Mashriqi (vaf. 283/987), 10 bayti Abusaliki Gurgoni, 5 bayti Masudi Marvazi va 2 bayti Abuhafsi Sugdi iqtibos ovarda meshavad, ki parokanda boshand ham, az zavqi salim, mahorati buzurg, anvoi gunoguni sheri va sanati ganii ashori qarni IX forsu tojik darak medihand.

Hanzalai Bodgisi az shoironi sohibdevoni zamoni Tohiriyon buda   (vaf. 219/834), Nizomii    Aruzii Samarqandi du bayti uro dalel ovarda, tasiri zuri pandi onro qayd mekunad, ki odamonro ba mardi va qahramoni talqin menamoyad:

Mihtari gar ba komi sher buvad,

SHav, khatar kun, zi komi sher bijuy

YO buzurgiyu izzu nematu joh,

YO chu mardon-t margi ruyoruy!

Du bayti digari Hanzala liriki buda, isboti davoest, ki az ibtidoi paydoish yak qismi muhimmi sheri tojikiro ashori oshiqona va ginoi tashkil mekardaast:  

YOram sipand agarchi bar otash hamefikand,

Az bahi chashm, to narasad mar varo gazand,                     

Uro sipandu otash n-oyad hame ba kor

Bo ruyi hamchu otashu bo kholi chun sipand!

Bassomi Kurd ham madeha gufta, Firuzi Mashriqi  (vaf. 283/897) marsiyavu madh suruda, Masudi Marvazi masnavi navishta, tarikhro dar on az zamoni Kayumars to okhiri saltanati Sosoniyon  darj namudaast. Masudi Marvazi, gayr az masnavi, qasida ham menigoshtaast, ki in pora sher az on qabil ast:

Mukholifoni tu muron budand, mor shudand,

Barovar az sari muroni morgashta dimor!

Makun dirang az in beshu ruzgor mabar,

Ki ajdaho shavad, ar ruzgor yobad, mor!

Muhammad ibni Bais (vaf. 850) az nakhustin shoironi forsu tojik ast, ki ba tozi va forsi sher meguftaast, vale yagon bayti forsii   u boqi namondaast. Zodai Eroni garbist, ki ashori forsii uro dar Maroga mesaroidand. Dar safi shurishchiyoni Bobak merazmid. Bad ba muqobili Bobak meguzarad. Boz az zulmu javri arabho ba tang omada, khud alayhi khalifa Al-Mutavakkil qiyom mekunad. Ammo, dar nihoyati kor, shikast khurda, ba dast meaftad va ba qatl rasonda meshavad. Muhammad ibni Bais dar shujoatu jasorat virdi zabonho bud.

Muhammadi Vasif. Joyi tavalludu jarayoni zindagi va dar kujo kasbi kamol kardanash malum nest, vale, muvofiqi akhbori «Tarikhi Siston», solho dabiri khonadoni Safforiyon (873—900) buda, dar dargohi YAqub ibni Laysi Saffori khizmat mekardaast. Vay az nakhustin shoironest, ki qasidahoi forsi surudaast. Az guftori u 23 bayt to zamoni mo boqi mondaast. Abyoti boqimondai u doir ba voqeahoi tarikhii solhoi 251, 273, 296 va 293 (865, 886, 900, 909 melodi) bahs mekunand:

Ay amire, ki amironi jahon, khosavu om,

Bandavu chokaru mavloyu sageandu gulom,

Azali khatte dar lavh, ki mulke bidihad

Ba Abuyusufi YAqub ibn-ul Laysi Humom.

Ba lagom omad Zanbilu late khurd ba ling,

Latra shud lashkari Zanbilu habo gasht kunom!

Muhammad  ibni  Mukhallad sukhanvare donishmandu fozil,  az    nakhustin qasidasaroyoni forsu tojik buda, dar zamoni Safforiho zindagi ba sar burdaast. Zodgohash Siston meboshad. Az u se bayt boqist, ki dar vasfi kishvarkushoihoi YAqub ibni Lays suruda shudaast:

Juz tu nazod Havvoyu Odam nakisht,

SHernihodi ba dilu bar manisht!

Mujizi paygambari makki tuyi

Bo kunishu bo manishu bo gavisht!

Fakhr kunad Ammor ruzi buzurg,

Gu hamonam man, ki YAqub kisht!

Abusaliki Gurgoni az shoironest, ki dar ahdi Safforiho zindagi ba sar meburd. Az ashori u to imruz hamagi dah bayt omada rasidaast. Mutoliavu barrasii in dah bayt guvohi on ast, ki sheri forsu tojik to Abusalik ham bo qonuniyathoi ustuvor va sunnathoi mustahkam royij budaast. Tavsifi mashuq, madhu pand mazomini onro tashkil mekard. U dar sitoishi yor meguyad:

Dar in zamona bute nest az tu nekutar,

Na bar tu, bar shamane, az rahi-t mushfiqtar!

Dar pandu nasihat mefarmoyad:

Huni khudro gar birezi bar zamin,

Bih, ki obi ruy rezi dar kanor!

But parastidan bih az mardumparast,

Pand giru kor bandu gush dor!

Alii Tirmizi. Hamin qadarash malum ast, ki mutafakkiri sufimashrab va shoiri asri IX buda, bo shevai khalq ruboi meguftaast, vale alhol az onho suroge nest. Ba qavli SHaykh Attor, uro hakimulavliyo meguftaand. Qabri u imruz ham dar Tirmiz boqist. Az ahvolu ashori u chizi digare malum nest.

Mahmudi Varroq az shoironi zamoni Tohiriyon (821—873) buda, taqriban soli 835 vafot kardaast. Az u du bayt boqi mondaast:

Nigorino, ba naqdi jon-t nadham,

Garoni dar baho, arzon-t nadham!

Giriftastam ba jon domoni vaslat,

Niham  jon  az kafu domon-t nadham!

Abuhafsi Sugdi Abuhafs ibni Ahvas (vaf. 832) nom doshta,  ba qavle az avvalin adiboni forsu tojik budaast. Nisbati Sugdi bar on guvoh ast, ki az shahrhoi buzurgi Sugd ast. Du bayti az u boqimonda az lihozi shevai guftor shahodat medihad, ki shoyad az Mascho va yo Falgar boshad. Tavajjuh farmoed, shoir kuhu dashtro ba ham chi guna muqobil guzoshta, holi gizoli kuhii dar dasht tanhomondaro chi guna zindavu ravshan ba halqai tasvir mekashad, ki guyo nuskhai holi khudi shoir boshad:

Ohui kuhi dar dasht chi guna davado?!

U nadorad yor, be yor chi guna buvado?!

Bayti digare, ki ba nomi Abuhafs malum ast, in ast:

Busu nazaram jamol boshad bo yor,

In fatvo giriftaam az gargar.

Abuhafsro Abunasri Forobi va SHamsi Qaysi Rozi mukhtarei sozi shohrud medonand. Vay, hamchunin, kitobi lugate talif karda budaast bo nomi «Farhangi Abuhafs» va yo «Risolai Abuhafs», ki az bayn raftaast.

Abulabbosi Marvazi, ba gufti Rizoqulikhoni Hidoyat dar tazkirai «Majma-ul-fusaho», duvumin shoirest, ki ba forsi sher guftaast. Soli 809, vaqte ki khalifai arab Abdullohi Mamun (786—833) ba Marv meoyad, u dar sitoishi vay madhiya gufta budaast. Az ejodiyoti Abulabbosi Marvazi imruz chahor bayt moro dastras ast, ki in ast:

Ay rasonida ba davlat farqi khud ba Farqadayn,

Gustaronida ba fazlu jud dar olam yadayn!

Mar khilofatro tu shoista, chu mardum didaro,

Dini YAzdonro tu boista, chu rukhro har du ayn!

Kas bad-in minvol pesh az man chunin shere naguft,

Mar zaboni porsiro hast to in nav bayn!

Lek az on guftam man in midhat turo, to in lugat

Girad az madhu sanoi hazrati tu zebu zayn!

 Az shevai guftori Abulabbosi Marvazi chunin barmeoyad, ki khudi u mutakid ast, ki nakhustin dafa madhiyai forsi surudaast va umedvor ast, ki minbada zaboni forsi misli arabi baroi surudani madhiya ba kor ravad.

Abulaloi SHushtari. Dar «Lugati Furs» va «Tarjumon-ul-balogat» az u namunaho ovarda meshavad. Manuchehri niz uro dar qatori adiboni mashhuri ahdi Oli Somon nom mebarad. Inak 19 bayti u dastras ast va risolae dar ilmi aruz niz doshtaast, ki holo dastras nest. Abulalo sherro pukhta meguftaast, misli on ki  sharobro vasf kardaast:

Biyovar, on guvohi dihad zi jon, ki man

CHahor gavharam andar chahor joy mudom!

Zumurrad andar tokam, aqiq andar gujb,

Suhayl andar khum, oftobam andar jom!

Malum meshavad, ki hanuz dar ibtidoi asri IX nazmi ishqi, madh, hajv va pand dar sheri forsi mamul budaast. Nazmi qarni IX, bo vujudi in, az sababi nosuftagii zabon, kamii miqdor va avomona budani badeiyatash, ba durakhshi nazmi asri X tob nayovarda, dar partavi on ba nazarho nochiz namud. Ba hamin illat, dar davroni pasini adabiyoti tojiku fors sarmashqi ejodu tatabbui hej yak az namoyandagoni on qaror    nagirift.

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