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TARKIB, SOHT VA HOLATI MODDAHO

Odamon az zamonhoi qadim medonistand, ki moddaho az hissachahoi kuchak iborat meboshand. Hanuz 2500 qabl inro olimi yunoni Demokrit tasdiq karda bud. Dar asosi tajribaho metavon isbot kard, ki moddaho az hissachahoi kuchak iborat meboshand. Agar tavassuti dastho tubro bifishorem, pas hajmi havoe, ki tubro pur mekunad, kam meshavad.

■ Hajmi jicmkho hangomi garmu khunuk kardani onkho tagyir meyoband.

Kolbaero, ki gardani on ba ob gutonida shudaast, garm kardan mekunem. Hangomi garm kardan havo obro az kolba tang karda, hubobchahoi on shuru ba berun baromadan mekunand.

Pas malum megardad, ki hajmi havo hangomi garm kardani on vase gardidaast. Hangomi khunuk kardani kolba, az vay ob shuru ba berun baromadan mekunad. Hajmi havoi dar kolba boqimonda kam meshavad.

Tarkibi atomi Tillo
Tarkibi atomi Tillo

Az hayoti ruzmarra medonem, ki hangomi garm kardani moe, sathi on ziyod megardad. Tavri misol, agar mo zarfi sirdor va yo choynakro to bo labhoyashon pur karda, shuru ba garm kardani on namoem, pas ob ba furu rekhtan shuru menamoyad.

Hajmi jismhoi sakht niz hangomi garm kardan shuru ba ziyod shudan menamoyand. Tavri misol, saqqoi pulodin va halqai pulodinero megirem, ki az on saqqo meguzarad. Agar saqkoi pulodinro garm karda, kushishi onro az halqa guzoronidan kunem, vay az on naguzashta, darmemonad. Hangomi khunuk kardani on vay az halqa ba osony meguzarad. Zero saqqo hangomi garm kardan vase shuda, hangomi khunuk kar­dan fipgurda megardad.

SHumo metavoned tavri mustaqilona in tajribaro ba ijro rasoned. Du adad mekhro ba takhtai kuchak zada, bayni onho plastini filiziro joygir namoed.

Plastilini filiziro berun karda, onro garm sozed. Kushish bikuned, ki onro dubora bayni mekhho joygir namoed. SHumo chiro mushohida karded?

Az in metavon chunin natijagiri kard, ki moe, moddauoi sakht va gazuo az uissachauoi khurde iborat uastand, ki dar baynashon fazoe mavjud meboshad. Vakrpe uissachauo az uamdigar dur me- shavand, pas uachmi jismuo buzurg meshavand. Vale vaqte onho bo hamdigar nazdik meshavand, hajmashon khurd meshavad.

Hissachahoi kuchakero, ki moddaro tashkil medihand, mo molekula menomem. Molekulahoi moddaho hama khususiyati onhoro ifoda mekunad.

Hissachai az hama khurdtarini obro molekulai ob va hissachai az hama khurdtarini shakarro molekulai shakar tashkil medihad. Baroy mushakhkhas kardani andozai molekulaho metavon chunin muqoisaro ovard: uar uadar andozai seb az Zamin
khurd ast, ba uamon andoza molekula nisbat ba in seb khurdtar ast. Molekulauoi moddauoi gunogun az uamdigar bo andozauoi khesh far k, mekunand.

Vale hamai onho khele khurd meboshand. Asbobhoi muosiru hozirazamon- mikroskophoi barqy ba mo imkoni didan va aks bardoshtani molekulahoi az hama kalonro faroham meovarand.

Azbaski andozahoi molekulaho bisyor khurd meboshand, dar har yak ashyo tedodi ziyodi onho mavchud meboshad. Agar zarrai regro az rui mikdori molekulaho dar 1m3 havo jam biyovarem, pas kuhi buzurgi per paydo meshavad. Sarfi nazar az in ki molekulaho hissachahoi az hama khurdtarini moddaho ba shumor meravand, onho taqsim meshavand.

▲ Hissachahoe, ki az molekulaho iboratand, atom nomida meshavand.

Tavri misol, molekulai ob az se atom iborat meboshad: yak atomi kislorod va du atomi vodorod.

Atomho niz taqsim meshavand. Onho az hissachahoi boz ham khurdtar iborat meboshand, ki onhoro elementary menomand.

Dar hayoti ruzmarrai khud mo nadidaem, ki moddahoi sakht va yo moeho dar molekulaho hal, yane tajziya shuda boshand. Zero ki molekulahoi onho yake ba digar payvast meboshand. Ashyoi sakhtro shikastan va yo yozondan mush- kil ast. Olimon dar asosi tajriba isbot kardaand, ki bayni molekulaho jozibai baynihamdigari mavchud meboshand.

Pursishho

  1. Dar asosi kadom tajriba metavon isbot kard, ki modda az hissachahoi khurd iborat meboshand?
  1. Arap mo obro dar choynak garm bikunem, vay az on meshorad. CHaro?
  2. Molekula chist? Molekulaho chy tavr harakat mekunand?
  3. Hissachahoe, ki az molekulaho iboratand, chy nomida meshavand?
  4. Kadom hissachahoi elementariro SHumo medoned?
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