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TAHSILI ILMHOI ZAMONAI RUDAKI

Az ashori boqimondai Rudaki, navishtahoi ahli kitob va shahodati makhazhoi gunogun oshkor megardad, ki u yake az shakhsiyathoi az ulumi rasmi va gayrirasmii zamoni khud khele ogoh buda, dar bisyor rishtahoi onho dasti tavonoe doshtaast. Qabl az hama, dar ashori dastrasi Rudaki va malumoti makhazhoi adabivu tarikhi gufta meshavad, ki Rudaki az kudaki sohibi zehni giro va fahmi raso buda, ba qavli Muhammadi Avfi, «chunon zaki va tezfahm bud, ki dar hashtsolagi ba tamomat Quron hifz kardu qiroat biyomukht». 92

Quronro amiq donistani Rudaki az tavajchuhi u dar rivoyot roje ba hazrati Odam, Nuhi nabi, obi azob, kishtii Nuh, Muso, Imron, Horut, chohi Horut, Luqmon, Dovud, Sulaymon, YAqub, YUsuf, Ruhalqudus, Jabrail, shabi laylatulqadr, shabi meroj, ruzi qiyomatu amsoli inho va qissavu rivoyathoi marbut ba onho huvaydo megardad. In tavajjuhi Rudaki burhoni on ast, ki az tafsiri Quron va rivoyoti mardumi niz ba khubi ogoh buda, dar hadisu shariatu tariqat, jarayonhoi mafkuravi, az qabili irfonu tasavvuf, talimoti shuubiya, ikhvonussafo, qarmatiya, rindi ba maqomi sazovore molik buda, khud ibroz medorad:

Maro zi mansabi tahqiqi anbiyost nasib,

CHi ob juyam az juyi khushki yunoni?!

Baroi parvarishi jism jon chi ranja kunam,

Ki hayf boshad Ruhalqudus ba sagboni!

Ba husni savt chu bulbul muqayyadi nazmam,

Ba jurmi husn chu YUsuf asiru zindoni!

Donishi amiqi Rudaki az sarguzashtu siyari Paygambar, manoqibi hazrati Ali ibni Abetolib (Ay shohi nabisirat, imon ba tu mahkam, — Ay miri Alihikmat, olam ba tu dargol!), harakati fotimiyon (K-andar jahon ba kas magarav juz ba fotimi), sarguzashti sohiboni mazohibi sunnat va jamoat: Imomi Azam Abuhanifa, SHofei va faqehu muhaddisi sunniyon Sufyon (V-ar tu faqehivu suvi shar garoyi, — SHofei inakt-u Buhanifavu Sufyon!), farmudahoi Quron (Hujjati yakto Hudovu soyai uyast, — Toati u karda vojib oyati Furqon), mumayyizoti zaboni arabi, sarfu nahvu lugati on ashori Ustodro az jihati mazmunu muhtaviyot baso gani gardonidaast. Az ahodisi nabavi ba darajai alo mutalle budani Rudakiro az aglabi ashorash fahmidan mumkin ast, ki dar bayte meguyad:

Ba ruzi neki kason, guft, gam makhur zinhor,

Baso kaso, ki ba ruzi tu orzumand ast.

 

         In bayt bo hadisi zerini Paygambari akram hammazmun ast, ki farmuda: «Unzur ilo man huva dunikum va lo tunzir ilo man huva favqakum» — «Buzurgii kasoni az khudat furutarro nigar va ba ruzgori odamoni az khudat bolotar nigoh makun».

YO az hadisi «Ad-dunyo ka hulm-un-noim» —«In dunyo ba khobi khobidae monand ast» ilhom giriftani Rudaki dar inshoi bayt ayonu ravshan ast:

In jahon pok khobkirdor ast,

On shinosad, ki dil-sh bedor ast!

Bar zammi oshkor budani qarobati abyoti iqtibosgardida bo hadishoi Paygambari akram (s), Samoni rivoyate mekunad, ki az Abdulloh ibni Muhammad ibni Aslami qozii Samarqand shunidaast, ki Rudaki az Abuabdulloh ibni Abehamzai Samarqandi, ki az muhaddisoni tavonoi zamoni khud bud, hadis faro girifta budaast. «Rudaki, pesh az on ki ba Bukhoro— poytakhti Somoniyon biravad, dar Samarqand zistaast va paydost, ki dar javoni baroi kasbi donish ba Samarqand raftavu dar on jo hadisro az Ismoil ibni Muhammad ibni Aslami qozii Samarqand faro giriftaast».93

Sohibi ovozi khush, savti dilkash, dar navokhtani chang chiradast va dar ilmi musiqi mohiru ustod budani Rudakiro hanuz Nizomii Aruzii Samarqandi, Muhammadi Avfi, Abdurrahmoni Jomi va tazkiranavisonu tarikhnigoroni badi niz takid namudaand, ki dar in mavzu boz sukhan khohem guft.

Nuktai digare, ki shoyoni takid ast, on meboshad, ki Rudakii javonro ba dargohi Nasri I, ki poytakhtash dar Samarqand bud, davat mekunand. In davatro bo khushi mepazirad va bo qalbi sofu andeshai pok onro qobili qabul qaror medihad. Guyo, bayti zayl dar hamin mavzu gufta shudaast:

Man bad-on omadam ba khidmati tu,

Ki baroyad rutab zi konozam.

Said Nafisi menavisad, ki shakhsi Rudakiro ba darbor jalbkarda boyad Abulfazli Balami boshad. Abdulgani Mirzoev ba khulosae meoyad, ki munosibati dustonai Rudakivu Abulfazli Balami va yake az murabbiyoni asosii shoir gardidani in mardi donishmand shoyad bad az in voqea shuru shuda boshad.94

SHerro dar bisyor kitobhoi adabiyotshinosi bo kalimai «shuur» vobasta medonand va shoirro chun donandai tarikh, adabiyot, etiqodot, muqaddasot, urfu odat, jahonbini, jahonfahmi, donishu binish va kasi ogoh az botinu pindori mardum meshinosand. SHoir ravandi jomearo solho va hatto qarnho peshtar az hamzamononu muosironi khud pay mebarad. Tasviri inson, fikru omol va talqini akhloqi pisandida va targibi odamu odamgari raviyai asosii adabiyoti badei meboshad. Binobar hamin, alloma Muhammad Iqboli Lohuri (1877—1938) gufta bud:

SHerro maqsad agar odamgarist,

SHoiri ham vorisi paygambarist!

Adabiyot donish ast, donishe, ki bo hunari voloi ejodkor va uslubi khosi dilangez bayon gardida, ba inson marifat mebakhshad. Adiboni bisyordonro mutabahhir va andeshaparvarro mutafakkir menomand, ki nakhustin shoiri ilmdon dar adabiyoti forsu tojik, biduni shak, Ustod Rudakist.

Uro barhaq boyad Hakim nomid. Muallifoni mutaakhkhir uro Hakim laqab dodaand.95 Ustod Rudaki hikmatu falsafa, ulumi adabi, tarikhu donishhoi gunoguni jugrofi, asotir, ilmi advoru musiqi, dorusozi va tabobatro naku medonista va dar mavride haqdorona farmudaast:

Hakim on kas, ki hikmat nek donad,

Sukhan mahkam ba hukmi khesh ronad.

Lugati arabi, forsi, sugdi va avastoiro96 nek donistani Rudaki az abyoti boqimondai u huvaydost. Umuman, agar kase khud az in zabonho bokhabar boshad, khohad donist, ki Rudaki to chi andoza ba on zabonho oshno budaast. Nomhoi «Avasto», «Zand» (Hamchu muammost fakhru himmati u sharh, — Hamchu Avastost fazlu sirati u Zand), Moni, purnaqshu nigor budani kitobi muqaddasi u Arjang (On sahni chaman, ki az dami day, — Gufti, dami gurg yo palang ast, — Aknun zi bahori monavitab — Purnaqshu nigor hamchu Jang ast), Kisro, yane Husravi Parvizi Anushervon, bo nomi «Pandnoma» uro dar andarzu hikmat kitobe budan («Surati u bud vahynoma ba Kisro, — CHunki ba oyin-sh «Pandnoma» biyogand), az nasli Kaykovus ba vujud omadani Kisro va ba nomi Dursiti az u dukhtare ba kamol rasidan (Dukhti Kisro, zi nasli Kaykovus,— Dursiti nom, nagz chun tovus), Isfandiyor, Som, Daston, Rustam, Kovai ohangar, Oli Sosonro dar guftori khud zikr namudani Ustod Rudaki to chi andoza ba tarikhi Eronzamin va asotiru afsonahoi mardumi  musallat  budani  uro  nishon  medihad. Razmanda  va  jangovar

budani Isfandiyorro Rudaki khos tayid menamoyad. Ittilooti Rudaki az adyoni olam dar fakhr namudani musulmonon ba Makkavu Kaba, alaviyon, yane ismoiliyon va shiaho ba hazrati Ali, karamallohu vajhahu, sukhani episkopro ovezai gush kardani nasroniho (Makki ba Kaba fakhr kunad, misriyon ba Nil,— Tarso ba usqufu alavi ba iftikhori jad), etibori barahmanho dar keshi butparastoni hindi, ba asnomi gunogun ibodat namudani shamanho va amsoli inho vozeh megardad. Asomii Suqrotu Aflotun barin donoyoni YUnoni Qadim hamchun muballigoni dini ilohi dar abyoti Rudaki ba nazar merasand. Tarikhro donistani Rudaki ba hamin mahdud nameshavad. Vay tarikhi Oli Soson va khilofat, sarguzashti Jariru Hasson, ishqi fojiafarjomi Laylivu Majnun, bakhshandagivu sakhovati Hotami Toyi va bisyor sanadu hujjathoi tarikhiro khub tavjeh medihad.

Barobari tarikh, Ustod Rudaki az ilmi jugrofiya khele ogah budaast: mavzehovu kishvarhoi Eron, Movarounnahr, Badakhshon, Sijiston, Hind, CHin, Totor, Huroson, Nimruz, Hutan, Ummon, YAman, YUnon, SHarvon, shahrhoi Bukhoro, Nishopur, Ray, Sarakhs, Sori, Soriyon, Farkhor, ki dar Eronu Movarounnahru Huroson joygirand, hamchunin shahrhoi kishvarhoi durdast, az qabili Bagdod, Taroz, CHandon (shahre dar CHin), kuhhoi voqeivu afsonavi —Qof, Siyom, Sikhron (dar Najaf), Jadi (Ararati armaniho, ki imruz dar Turkiya joyguzin ast)-ro bo khisoisu vijagihoyashon zikr mekunad. Ba unvoni misol shahri Tanja, ki aslan nomi on Tanjir ast, dar qorai Afriqo, dar nazdikii gulugohi Jabaluttoriq, voqe gardidaast. Rudaki mavjudiyati onro chunin yod mekunad:

Anduhi dahsolaro ba Tanja ramonad,

SHodii navro zi Ray biyoradu Ummon!

Rudi Nil, daryoi Jayhun, registoni Omuro niz chun vositahoi badei ba kor burdani Rudaki niz roje ba nerumand budani u dar ilmi jugrofiya dalel meboshad.

Turfa on ast, ki barobari tarikhu jugrofiya va ulumi dinu arabiyat, Ustod Rudaki az asrori ilmi pizishki va tabobat ham ba khubi khabardor budaast, ki dar joe meguyad:

Susi parvarda ba may bigdokhta,

Nek darmone zanonro sokhta!

Lugatshinos Amon Nurov «sus»-ro chunin sharh medihad: «Sus —I. Murod az charbui susmor ast, ki onro zanon ba jihati kulfate mekhurand va bar badan memoland. 2. Nomi giyohest, ki dar dorusozi ba kor mebarand. Boz, susmor jonvarest, ki pih va charbui onro zanon baroi farbeh nashudan khurand va dar badan moland, nazdi shofeimazhabon gushti on halol ast:

CHunon bor barovard ba kheshtan,

 Ki man guyam: —Hurdast susmor». 97 

Du bayti digari Rudaki (CHu gulshakar dihim, dardi dil shavad taskin, — CHu turshruy shavi, vorahoni az safro  va  CHunki molida ba u gustokh shud,— Dar durusti omadu darvokh shud) baroi ilmi pizishkiro neku donistani shoiri hakimro ba isbot rasondan basanda ast.

Ustod Rudaki az nujum, handasa, kishovarzi, dehqoni, ilmi kalom, falsafai zindagi, mardumshinosi, aruz niz komilan ogoh bud. U durust meguyad:

Bifnud tanam bar diramu obu zamin,

Dil bar khiradu ilmu ba donish bifunud.

Donishi sipehrshinosi, tarkibi koinot, nujum va harakati sayyoraho va digar jirmhoi osmoniro donistani Ustod Rudaki misli oftob rushan ast. U dar in bora hatto tahti unvoni «Davroni Oftob» masnavii judogona navishta, sunnati surudani dostonhoi ilmiro dar adabiyoti forsu tojik ba hukmi anana darovarda bud.

Rudaki bo hamin donishi balandu istedodi favquloddai sukhanofarini hanuz dar ovoni javoni dar shahri Samarqand ovoza paydo karda bud, ki hanuz na zan doshtu na farzandu na tashvishi ruzgor:

Iyol na, zanu farzand na, maunat na,

Az in hama tanam osuda budu oson bud.

Dar hamon ruzho zebdihandai mahfilhoi sheru bazmhoi ayshu nush buda, dar manzili sarvatmandon ashyovu bozyofthoi khudro amonat meguzoshtaast. Az in ba khulosae metavon omad, ki on vaqtho Rudaki zanu farzandu gami ruzgor nadoshta boshad ham, sohibi sarvate budaast, ki ba in mani dar qasidai «SHikoyat az piri» khabar medihad:

Kujo ba geti budast nomvar dehqon,

Maro ba khonai u sim budu hamlon bud.

Gumon burdan mumkin ast, ki badi hamin Rudaki sohibi zanu bo nomi Abdulloh pisare megardad, ki ba in kuniyai u «Abuabdulloh» dalel ast va in matlabro A. Tohirjonov sakht jonibdor ast.98

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