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TADQIQI ILMII DAVLATHOI OSIYOI MIYONA

CHunon ki gufta shud, hukumatdoroni podshohi az natijahoi umumii muzokiroti namoyandagihoi diplomatii khud dar Bukhoro, Heva va Huqand qone nagardida budand. Kushishhoi istifoda burdani robitahoi iqtisodi baroi az jihati siyosi barqaror kardani nufuzi tomi Peterburg dar Osiyoi Miyona bo sababhoi gunogun barore nakard. Vale mo nametavonem dar baho dodan ba munosibathoi siyosii imperiyai Rossiya bo davlathoi Osiyoi Miyona az chunin mavqei mahdud va makhsus nazdik shavem. hatto agarchi safari diplomatho na hamesha boisi rasidan ba maqsadhoi peshguzoshtai onho megardid, lekin odatan ba afzoishi besh az peshi mubodilai molho dar bayni davlathoi nomburda tasire mekard.

Muhimtar az hama in ast, ki musofirati safiron, namoyandagiho, tojiron va sayyohoni judogonai rus ba Osiyoi Miyona az digar jihat ahamiyati khele kalon dosht. Aksari kasone, ki ba in tarafho safar mekardand, odamoni fozil va donishmand budand va bazei onho zabonhoi sharqro medonistand[1]. Dar bayni onho mutakhassisoni darajai avvali geografiya va geologiya, geodeziya va astronomiya, tabiatshinoson, sharqshinoson va zabonshinosoni purtajriba ham budand.

Dar tahqiqi natijahoi sayohat va tahlili mavodu ittilooti gunogune, ki tojironi Rossiya va Osiyoi Miyona meovardand, guli sarisabadi ilmu fanni vatani, az on jumla sharqshinoson va jugrofidononi marufi asri H1H-i rus ishtirok menamudand.

Inak, mujizae ba amal omad: dar zarfi kamtar az 50 soli asri HIH Osiyoi Miyona az sarzamini noshinos (incognita) ba kishvare tabdil yoft, ki ilm dar borai on bisyor malumoti daqiq ba dast ovard.

Ba qavli chugrofidoni mashhuri rus I.V.Mushketov, ekspeditsiyahoi nimai avvali asri HIH dar tadqiqi jugrofii Osiyoi Miyona ahamiyati kalonero molik meboshand: «…Onho materialhoi komilan ilmi medihand, ki hojat ba tafsir nest; ilova bar madrakhoi kamu besh daqiqi naqshabardori, khizmati asosii in tadqiqot iborat az on ast, ki onho moro bo khususiyathoi tabiivu tarikhii havzai Turkiston shinos menamoyad»[2].

Dar vaqti in safaru sayohatho roje ba khalqhoi Osiyoi Miyona, tarikh va madaniyati onho niz madrakhoi farovon va gunogun (agarchi qismi ziyodi onho on qadar murattab nabudand) jamovari karda shudand. Mumkin ast guft, ki tahqiqi etnografii mardumoni Osiyoi Miyona dar nimai avvali asri HIH shuru gardida bud. Az madrakhoi dar nashriyahoi mukhtalif va kammashhur parokanda va yo dar juzvdonhoi arkhiv nigoh doshtashuda dar borai tarzi zindagi, madaniyati moddi va baze jihathoi madaniyati manavii khalqhoi Osiyoi Miyona: tojikon, uzbekon, turkmanho, qirgizho, qazoqho va qaraqalpoqho metavon tasavvur paydo namud. Afsus, ki qismi muhimi in madrakho dar tadqiqoti etnografii muosir khele kam yo hatto tamoman istifoda nashudaand.

olimon

Omuzishi zaboni khalqhoi Osiyoi Miyona bo ehtiyojoti amali aloqamand bud. Dar ayni zamon ba tadqiqi ilmii in zabonho niz ibtido guzoshta shud. Dar qismati zaboni tojiki chunin khidmatro yake az sharqshinosoni namoyoni rus V.V.Grigoryev ado kardaast.

Dar hisoboti sayyohon yodgorihoi judogonai sanati memorii Osiyoi Miyona bisyor zikr shuda va yo mukhtasaran tasvir yofta, lavhai baze az onho sabt gardidaand, inchunin tavsifi binohoi iqomati ovarda meshavad. Az in qabil navishtajoti kutoh metavon malumoti purarzish baroi tarikhi sanati memorii Osiyoi Miyona ba dast ovard.

Qarib har yak sayyoh vazu tartibi idorii davlathoi khoniro kamu besh batafsil bayon karda, tavsifi in va yo on jihati hayoti iqtisodii onhoro niz ovardaast. Asari N.V.Hanikov «Tavsifi davlati khonii Bukhoro» (1843) az behtarin talifotest, ki dar in mavzu ba vujud omadaand. Vaqte ki N.V.Hanikov ba Osiyoi Miyona safar kard, sinni u hanuz ba 22 narasida bud. U badi khatmi litseyi Sarskoselsk az tariqi khudomuzi sharqshinos gardid. Istedodi fitri, kunjkovi va mushohidakori ba javoni donishdust imkon dodand, asare talif namoyad, ki bo khususiyathoi barozandai khud – tasviri hamajoniba va amiqi amorati Bukhoro – kasro to kunun ba vajd meorad.

Dar kitobi N.V.Hanikov va asarhoi digar muallifon doir ba tarikhi mahalho, shahrho va davlathoi judogonai Osiyoi Miyona madrakhoi muhim zikr yoftaand. Dar ayni zamon, sayyohon az in sarzamin dastnavisi asarhoi gunoguni tarikhi va adabii ba zabonhoi arabi, tojiki va uzbeki talifyoftaro niz bo khud meburdand, ki badtar chande az onho nashr gardid. Masalan, dastnavisi «Tarikhi Muqimkhoni», ki saforati rus soli 1821  az Bukhoro burda bud, intikhoban (matni asli, tarjumai faronsavi) bo sharhi O.I.Senkovskiy ba tab rasonida shud. Ba qavli V.V.Bartold, in asar dar nashri yake az «saromadoni sharqshinosii rus» professor Senkovskiy baroi evropoiyon muddati daroze hamchun yagona manbai tahqiqi amorati Bukhoro khizmat namud[3]. Dar soli 1834 akademik H.D.Fren baroi kumaki sayyohoni rus fehristi asarhoi muallifoni sharqro, «ki ba justujui dastnavisi asli va yo nuskhahoi on mashgul shudan lozim meomad», intishor dod. In fehrist, ki chand bor nashr gardid, dar jamovarii dastnavishoi sharqi roli muhim bozid. Donishmandi javon N.V.Hanikov niz az Bukhoro dastnavishoi ziyodero paydo karda, ba Rossiya burd. Soli 1858 dar hayati namoyandagii diplomatii N.P.Ignatyev sharqshinosi mashhuri rus P.I.Lerkh ba Heva va Bukhoro omada, majmui tamomi dastnavishoro jam namud. Dar yak vaqt sikkahoi gunoguni zarbi Osiyoi Miyona niz burda meshudand.

Tadqiqi tarikh va madaniyati Osiyoi Miyona yake az muhimtarin raviyahoi sharqshinosii rus gardid. Namoyandai marufi in raviya akademik H.D.Fren madrakhoi purarzishi sikkashinosiro tahqiq va nashr namud, matni turkii asari Abulgozi «SHajarai turkon va mugulon»-ro ba tab rasonid. I.N.Berezin «SHayboninoma» va N.I.Ilminskiy «Boburnoma»-ro chop kardand. V.V.Grigoryev, V.V.Velyaminov-Zernov, YA.V.Hanikov bisyor manbahoi purbahoi rusi va mahalliro roje ba tarikhi Osiyoi Miyona bo sharhu tafsiri khud intishor namudand. V.V.Velyaminov-Zernov, V.V.Grigorev, V.G.Tizengauzen va digaron muddati ziyode ba tahqiqi sikkahoi Osiyoi Miyona mashgul shudand. Tavassuti asarhoi in olimon nakhustin bor tarhi davrahoi judogonai tarikhi asrimiyonagi va navi Osiyoi Miyona dar peshi nazar jilvagar gardid. N.YA.Bichurin (Iakinf) dar omuzishi tarikhi bostoni Osiyoi Miyona sahmi bebahoe guzosht. Hullasi kalom, dar nimai avval va miyonahoi asri HIH yak zumra donishmandoni rus dar sohai tahqiqi tarikhi Osiyoi Miyona korhoi pursamare anjom dodand[4]. Tojikon, uzbekon, qirgizho, turkmanho hamesha in olimoni zabardasti rusro, ki na faqat dar guzoshtani asosi tadqiqi ilmii Osiyoi Miyona, balki dar ustuvor namudani dustii khalqhoi Osiyoi Miyona va khalqi rus iqdomoti shoistae kardaand, bo hissi ehtirom va siposguzori yod mekunand.

* * *

Davrae, ki mo mavridi tadqiq qaror dodaem, yake az sakhttarin davrahoi tarikhi khalqi tojik ba shumor meravad. Dar hamin davra bayni davlathoi mukhtalif taqsim shudani khalqi tojik anjom meyobad. Bo tasisi davlati Afgoniston qismi ziyodi tojikon, ki aslan dar khoki Afgonistoni kununi iqomat doshtand, ba tavri suni az tojikoni sokini Osiyoi Miyona judo karda shudand [5]. Aksariyati tojikoni Osiyoi Miyona dar shahrhoi gunoguni amorati Bukhoro va davlati khonii Huqand, dar vodii Fargona, vohai Bukhoro va g., dar mulkhoi nimmustaqili kuhistonii sarzamini Tojikistoni hozira (Qarotegin, Darvoz, Vakhon, SHugnon va g.), miqdori kami onho dar shahrhoi khoniyai Heva va davlathoi khonii qazoq  (Avliyoato, CHimkent va g.), dar Turkiston – dar davlati khojagoni Qoshgar (Qoshgar, Hutan va g.) sukunat doshtand. Dar shimoli hinduston va Hurosoni ba Eron guzashta niz bisyor mahalhoi tojiknishin mavjud budand.

hamin tariqa, dar miyonahoi asri HIH viloyathoe, ki tojikon va digar khalqhoi Osiyoi Miyona maskun budand, ba har mamlakat va davlathoi khoni parokanda gardidand.

Ba sababi sar zadani buhroni iqtisodi va siyosi dar Osiyoi Miyona sharoiti ijtimoi boz ham badtar shud.[6] Dar miyona va choryaki sevumi asri HVIII buhron ba nuqtai balandi khud rasid. harchand baze tadbirhoi markaziyatdihi va yak andoza behtar kardani vazi obyori, ki dar ibtido va nimai avvali asri HIH dar se davlat – amorati Bukhoro, davlathoi khonii Huqand va Heva ba amal omad, qadre zuhuroti shadidi in buhronro furu nishonda boshad ham, onro tamoman az bayn burda nametavonist.

Nufuzi nihoyat ziyodi dar bayni ommai zabun va gumroh paydokardai ruhoniyoni islom, khususan shaykhoni darveshi ba zavol yoftan va pusidani nizomi feodali musoidat mekard. CHunon ki I.S.Braginskiy haqqoni guftaast: «…vazi favquloddai sakhti khojagi va madani va holi tabohi ommai zahmatkash dar miyonai asri HIH na faqat zuhuri az qar zavolyobii muddati asrho dar Osiyoi Miyona davomdoshta meboshad, balki dar ayni zamon zuhuri ba khud khosi ziddiyathoi bayni quvvahoi istehsolkunandai bo vujudi har guna dushvoriho peshrafta va munosibathoi istehsolii ishkelzanandai davrai tanazzuli feodalizm ast, ki ba kharobshavii quvvahoi istehsolkunanda ovarda merasonid»[7].

Asri HVIII dar Osiyoi Miyona davrai dar natijai buhroni sakhti ijtimoi va khojagi aqib raftani quvvahoi istehsolkunanda meboshad. Dar asri HIH ba junbujush daromadani tamomi sohahoi iqtisodiyot mushohida meshavad, ki dar in bobat robitahoi iqtisodii Osiyoi Miyonavu Rossiya roli muhim bozidaand. Darajai balandi taraqqiyoti kasbu hunar, alalkhusus dar shahrho, inchunin ravnaqi tijorat nishon medihad, ki dar sistemai formatsiyai feodalii Osiyoi Miyonai asri HIH istehsoli mol va gardishi pul mavqei kalonero ishgol menamud [8]. Dar ayni zamon qismi asosii aholii davlathoi Osiyoi Miyona, makhsusan aholii kuchi va muqimii dehot hamono dar sharoiti khojagii sof naturali va yo nimnaturali zindagi mekard. Tamomi sistemai istehsolot va munosibathoi ijtimoi asosan feodali bud. Baze padidahoi munosibati burjuazi (chunin tamoyulot ba nazar merasid) dar in sharoit yagon qadar ham inkishof yofta nametavonist. Dar bolo roje ba komyobihoi sohai istehsolot va tijorat sukhan ronda shud. Ammo bino ba guftahoi F.Engels, ki komilan ba Osiyoi Miyona ham tatbiqshavanda ast: «hamai in muvaffaqiyathoi istehsolotu muomilot, dar voqe, az rui mafhumi imruza kharakteri khele mahdud doshtand. Istehsolot dar hamon shakli karakhti sirf ustokhonai hunarmandi boqi monda, binobarin, khudash ham khususiyati feodaliashro hanuz nigoh medosht…» muvaffaqiyathoi tijorat niz mahdud budand[9]. Masalan, dar Osiyoi Miyona tamoyuli paydoishi bozorhoi viloyati ba zuhur meoyad, vale in ham ba kulli surat nameyobad.

V.I.Lenin khotirnishon karda bud: «Faqat dar davrai navi tarikhi rus (takhminan az asri 17) hamai inguna viloyatho, qalamravho va knyajestvoho haqiqatan ba surati voqei dar yak vohid payvasta shudand… Sababi on in bud, ki mubodila dar bayni viloyatho ruz ba ruz quvvat megirift, muomilai moli ham ohista-ohista meafzud, bozorhoi khurd-khurdi mahalli dar yak bozori umumii Rossiya ba ham meomadand. Azbaski rohbaron va sohiboni in protsess kapitalistoni savdogar budand, ejodi in aloqahoi milli tanho ejodi aloqahoi burjuazi bud, na chizi digar»[10].

Dar miyonahoi asri HIH in protsess dar Osiyoi Miyona az tashkili bozorhoi mahalli va qisman viloyati durtar naraft. Dar chunin sharoite, ki khojagii naturali bartari dosht va parokandagii iqtisodiyu siyosi hukmfarmoi mekard, ba vujud omadani bozori umumi dar Osiyoi Miyona az imkon berun bud; davlathoi khoni mavjudiyati khudro hamchun davlati feodali nigoh medoshtand. Vaziyati davlathoi khonii Osiyoi Miyonaro dar nimai avvali asri HIH metavon bo guftahoi F.Engels tavsif namud: «Vale dar hama jo, ham dar shahrho va ham dar dehot, miqdori chunin unsuroni aholi, ki pesh az hama barham dodani janghoi bemanii paydarpay, bas kardani nizou nifoqi bayni feodalon va janghoi muttasili dokhili, ki hatto dar mavridhoi ba mamlakat vorid shudani dushmani ajnabi ham qat namegardid, khotima yoftani in holati dar zarfi tamomi davrai asri miyona hamesha davom kardai kharobiovarihoi doimi va komilan bemaqsadro talab menamudand, ziyodtar meshud»[11].

5. MADANIYATI MODDI VA MANAVI

Nooromihoi zamona va janghoi feodali, zulmu sitami berahmona va kharobihoi mamlakat taraqqiyoti madaniyatro bozmedoshtand. Albatta, dahoi ofarinandagii khalqhoi Osiyoi Miyona poyon nameyoft, vale on dar davrae, ki jamiyat ba vaziyati tanazzuli iqtisodi va to haddi okhir fishor ovardanu inkor kardani shakhsiyati inson aftoda, tamomi janbahoi zindagiro taassubi dini faro girifta bud, komilan ba zuhur omada ham nametavonist.

Binokori va memori

Darajai taraqqiyoti sanati memorii Osiyoi Miyona alalkhusus dar bobati sokhtmoni binohoi boshukuh dar davrai mavridi tadqiq nazar ba asri guzashta khele poin raft. «Dar nimai asri HVIII binokorihoi azimi Bukhoro az harakat bozmond, guyo ki mavjudiyati khudro qat karda boshad: dar shahri valangor binoe sokhta nameshud. hatto dar lahzahoe, ki az okhirhoi  asr  kori  sokhtmon dubora ba roh daromad, taraqqiyoti on hamono dar saviyai nisbatan past jarayon meyoft»[12]. Baze ofaridahoi memorii barjasta, az qabili binoi madrasai khalifa Niyozqul, ki beshtar bo nomi CHormanor mashhur ast va silsilai imorati khalifa Hudoydod, bo vujudi kamkharjii sokhtmon va soddagii sabki memori, az on ki sokht va namudi onho bo manzarai tabiati mahalli voqegashtai khud muvofiqati komil paydo kardaast, diqqati har binandaro ba khud jalb menamoyand.

Dar Samarqand yakchand binohoi kalon sokhta va yo sokhtmoni nimkoramondai imorathoi kuhna anjom doda shudand. Masalan, dar miyona va nimai duvumi asri HIH dar tahkursii kuhna binoi masjidi hazrati Hizr sokhta, sipas borho tamir va takmil karda shud (in bino namudi hozirai khudro dar natijai aznavsozii soli 1915 paydo kardaast). Binohoe, ki az okhiri asri HVIII to miyonahoi asri HIH dar Heva va baze digar shahrhoi khonii Heva bo vusati tamom sokhta shudaand, az jihati memoriyu tarikhi gunogunrang va jolibtarand. Dar in jo qasrho, korvonsaroyho, darvozahoi shahr, madrasavu masjidho, maqbara va manoraho ba vujud omada budand. CHunonchi, qabulgohi soli 1855 dar rui havlii Kuhnaark (Heva) sokhtashuda ayvone dorad, ki bo zarofati sutunhoyash az tamomi ayvonhoi Osiyoi Miyona zebotar meboshad. Qasri duoshyonai Toshhavli (1832–1841) yaksadu shastu se khona, se havlii kalon va panj havlii khurdro darbar megirad. In imorati khele kalon va murakkab bo yak mahorati favqulodda tartib va tanzim yoftaast.

Dar khonii Huqand niz binokori vusati ziyode paydo karda bud. Dar shahrhoi gunoguni in mamlakat bisyor imorathoi muhtasham: qasrho, korvonsaroyho, hammomho, qalavu manoraho, inchunin masjidu madrasa va maqbaraho sokhta shudaand.

Soli 1841 yake az sayyohoni rus navishta bud: «Qasri khoni hozira binoi duoshyonai khishti va khele zeboest, ki dar markazi shahr voqe gardida, atrofash bo boghovu imorathoi ba on taalluqdoshta va devorhoi balandi gili ihota gardidaast». Dar nimai duvumi asri HIH qasri navi «ba tavri khud khushnamud»  (tabiri A.P.Fedchenko)[13]  sokhta  meshavad, ki  korhoi  asosii sokhtmoni on dar solhoi 1870-1871 anjom yoftaast. Tarhi in qasr misli arkhitektonikai rui on jolib nest. Rui imorat bo koshinhoi gunogunrang zinat yofta, dar oroishi on kandakorii gaji istifoda shudaast. Bo vujudi oroishoti ziyode imorati qasr shakli munazzam va muhtasham nadorad. Dar in jo ustodoni safolsozi Andijon, CHust, Konibodom, Namangon, Uroteppa, Rishton khub mahorat nishon dodaand. Maqbarai Modarikhon va Dakhmai SHohon (Huqand) taqlidkorona sokhta shudaand, ruykashi in binoho az had ziyod rangorang buda, dar onho tanosub rioya nashudaast. Masjidi Honaqoh dar Margelon va masjidi CHinorliki 1 dar Huqand bo ayvonhoi purnaqshunigori khud khele nazarrabo meboshand. Maqbarai Hojamini Qabrii Namangon (nimai duvumi asri HVIII) dar sanati memorii asrhoi HVIII–H1H-i na faqat Huqand, balki tamomi Osiyoi Miyona maqomi khosae dorad. Vay, sarfi nazar az baze jihathoi iltiqoti, asosan ananai memorii klassikii davrai asri miyonai Fargonaro davom medihad. SHaklhoi daqiqi memori va oroishoti mujallal in obidaro az tamomi binokorihoi onvaqta farq mekunonad.

Dar hamin davra dar Hujand, Uroteppa, hisor, Panjakent va digar shahrho niz imorathoi ziyod sokhta shudand. Masalan, masjidi CHorbogi Hujand bo ayvoni baland va naqshunigori zeboi saqfi daromadgohi khud az hamin qabil yodgorihoi memori ba shumor meravad. Vale dar bayni beshtar az dusad masjid va bistu panj madrasai Hujand faqat chandtoi onho az jihati memori mavridi tavajjuh meboshand. Az yodgorihoi memorii Uroteppa binoi madrasai Rustambek, ki mutaassifona to zamoni mo boqi namondaast, qobili qayd ast. Namoi koshinkorii on bo surathoi dar peshtoqi imorat kashidashudai hayvonoti asp yo palangmonandi ba muqobili yakdigar harakatkunanda zebi makhsuse paydo karda bud. Binoi madrasa duoshyona buda, 49 hujra dosht, dar du gushai rui on du manor mavjud bud. Az sokhtmonhoi kaloni onvaqtai Uroteppa madrasai Namozgoh, ayvoni tillokorii poygahi qarorgohi hokim dar boloi Mugteppa, hammom va korvonsaroyro, ki az khishti pukhta bino yofta budand, metavon zikr kard.

Dar hamin davra imorathoi Registoni hisor, Madrasai Nav, madrasai Mirolim-dodkhohi Panjakent sokhta shudaand. Tadqiqi hamai in yodgorihoi memori ba chunin khulosae meorad, ki dar sokhtmonhoi boshukuhi onvaqta saviyai tekhniki va memoriyu badei khele past gardida budaast.

Ammo dar binokorihoi ommavi manzara tamoman digar ast. Dar in jo na qati anana va na tanazzul mushohida nameshavad. Baraks, mahz dar in davra navhoi mahallii manzilhoi Osiyoi Miyona komilan tashakkul meyobad. Zimnan dar tarh, oroish va masohat du navi bino–manzili odamoni davlatmand va manzili odamoni benavo az ham tafovuti jiddi paydo mekunand. CHor tarafi manzilgoh bo devorhoi baland ihota karda meshud. Ba taqozoi iqlim dar har manzilgoh sahni havli ahamiyati kalone dosht, zero sokinoni on aksari ruzhoi solro dar zeri soyai darakhton va girdi havzi rui havli meguzarondand. havli az du qismat iborat bud: havlii darun va havlii berun. Dar havlii darun khonahoi zist, saiskhona va g. joy megiriftand. Goho havlii makhsusi khojagi va qitai bog ham judo karda meshud. hamchunin darvozakhona bo dari kandakorishuda niz ba qismi tarkibii manzilgoh dokhil megardid. Aksaran dar peshi khonaho ayvon mesokhtand. Binoho na faqat yakoshyona, balki duoshyona va goho seoshyona ham budand.

Dar binokorihoi dehot havli va qitai bog bo devorhoi balandi gili ihota gardida, rabot va yo qurgon aksar vaqt zevarbandi karda meshud. Behtarin namunahoi chunin manzilho dar Samarqand boqi mondaand [14]. Honavu ayvonho chunon sokhta meshudand, ki kasro dar tobiston az garmo va dar zimiston az sarmo muhofizat mekardand. Honai zist gayr az dari asosi daricha va tobadon ham dosht, ki baroi ravshanoi va toza kardani havoi khona khizmat mekard. Dar daruni khona baroi khurokpazi otashdonu muri va baroi garm shudan dar fasli zimiston sandali mavjud bud.

Baroi oroishi qismati dokhilii sokhtmon tamomi navhoi hunari amalii mardum, az qabili kandakorii chub, gajkori, naqshu nigor va g. istifoda burda meshud, ki on bo jihozi khona hamohangii tom paydo mekard. Ammo in hama ba manzili odamoni doro mutaalliq bud. Masalan, shakhsi davlatmandi Hujand Kamol Jalilov va haydar nom boi Uroteppa hamin guna havli doshtand. Mardikorone, ki baroi onho khizmat mekardand, dar kulbahoi haqir, bazan dar zaminkanu tahkhonaho mezistand. Dar surate ki on hama binohoi muhtasham va on hama osori hunari amali, ki dar bolo zikr gardid, bo ranji dasti onho va barodaroni hamqismatashon ba vujud omadaand. Dar shere, ki ba yak binokori guldasti Fargona bakhshida shudaast, gufta meshavad, ki u ham tarhandoz, ham memor, ham najjor, ham naqqosh bud. Etnografho va mutakhassisoni tarikhi memori, alalkhusus A.K.Pisarchik, V.L.Voronina, L.I.Rempel va P.SH.Zohidov maktabi memorii Horazm, Bukhoro va Fargonaro bo tamomi navhoi mahalliash, inchunin manzilhoi az onho tamoman farqkunandai tojikoni kuhistonro mavridi tadqiqi hamajoniba va khele daqiq qaror dodaand [15].

Zargaron va misgaron niz osori bisyor nafisi hunari ofaridaand. Asarhoi shoistai tahsini kandakoronu hakkokon, bofandagonu duzandagon, kulolon va soiri hunarmandoni zabardast az on bashorat medihand, ki sanat va hunari khalq dar in davra ham mavjudiyati khudro davom doda, komyobihoi muhimro noil gardidaast. Tafriqai molivu ijtimoi, chunon ki dar bobi manzil mushohida gardid, ba madaniyati moddi niz naqshi khele ravshani khudro guzoshtaast.

hayoti ilmi va adabi

Dar sharoite, ki mamlakat az jihati iqtisodi khele aqib monda, nufuz va etibori ruhoniyoni irtijoii islom behad purquvvat megardid, dar borai taraqqiyoti bomuvaffaqiyati hayoti ilmi joi harf zadan ham nabud. Dar in davra na faqat yagon qadar asarhoi muhim ba vujud naomadand, balki omukhtani dastovardhoi ilmii zamonhoi guzashta niz qarib tamoman ba darajai nesti rasid.

Hususan zamoni hukmronii amir SHohmurod va vorisoni u dar in bobat tiratarin davrahost. Dar in vaqt faqat omukhtani ilmi fiqh, tafsiri «kitobhoi muqaddas» va sharhi kitobhoi darsii dinii asri miyona khele rivoj yoft. Ba in sabab muddati tahsili madrasa nihoyat daroz shuda, boisi az donishhoi zamon mahrum mondani hatto boistedodtarin farzandoni khalq gardid.

Omukhtani adabiyoti badei, ilmi bayon, khattoti, riyoziyot, hayat dar prog­rammai madrasaho aslan ba nazar girifta nameshud. Hostgoron metavonistand bo in sohaho ba tariqi khudomuzi mashgul shavand.

Zaboni tojiki dar in davra hamono ahamiyati avvaliyai khudro dar dastgohi davlati nigoh doshta, monandi sobiq ham dar rishtai adabiyot va ham dar korhoi idoravi mavqei asosiro ishgol mekard. Dar maktabho talimu tadris bo in zabon ba amal meomad.[16]. Vale dar madrasaho qarib tamomi darsho ba zaboni arabi guzashta, zaboni tojiki faqat baroi sharh va tarjumai baze darsho khidmat menamud.

Mo sarchashmahoi khattii oid ba adabiyoti asri HUSH-ro dar dast nadorem. Muvofiqi devonhoi judogonai to zamoni mo rasidai shoironi on davr, adabiyoti Movarounnahr dar ahdi zikrshuda ba tanazzuli sakht ru nihoda bud. Dar okhiri asri HVIII – ibtidoi asri HIH alalkhusus, dar Huqand hayoti adabi dubora ba jushu khurush medaroyad. SHoironi zullisonayn (amir Umarkhon, Maknuna, Gulkhani va digaron) ba vujud meoyand, ki asarhoyashonro ba zabonhoi tojiki va uzbeki insho mekardand. Ohanghoi ijtimoi dar sherhoi onvaqta khele zaif gardida, tasiri tasavvufi gayrifaol quvvat megirad. Dar miyonai asri HVIII jarayoni tozae ba zuhur meoyad, ki dar tarikhi adabiyoti tojik bo nomi bedilizm mashhur ast. Namoyandagoni in jarayon dar Osiyoi Miyona besh az hama ba tasavvufi Bedil taqlid namuda, ba maromi umumii falsafi va ijtimoii u vuqufi komil paydo namekardand.

SHoir va faylasuf Mirzo Abdulqodiri Bedil (1644–1721) yake az okhirin namoyandagoni barjastai adabiyoti tojikzaboni asrimiyonagii hinduston ba shumor meravad. U dar sarzamini hind ba dunyo omada va umr ba sar burdaast. Bedil dar asarhoi khud bar asosi nazariyai vahdati vujud baze fikrhoi bidatomezro, ki bar khilofi dini islom budand, ifoda karda va bar ziddi nifoq va adovati mazhabii bayni hinduyon va musulmonon sar bardoshtaast. U aqidahoi khudro bazan oshkoro va goho dar zeri tabirhoi tasavvufi bayon namudaast. Asarhoi Bedil bo sabki makhsus navishta shudaand. Goyahoi in shoir va mutafakkiri buzurg nazar ba digar joyho beshtar dar Osiyoi Miyona, dar bayni tojikon va uzbekon tarafdoroni khudro paydo namud. Lekin, mutaassifona, qismi ziyodi payravoni Bedil asosan uslubi murakkabi badeii uro dar shakl taqlid karda, ba mazmunhoi falsafi, siyosi va ijtimoii merosi adabii vay ahamiyat nadodaand. SHoyad ba sababi aqib mondani hayoti madanii Bukhoro va dar in mahal khele quvvat giriftani tasiri taassubi dini boshad, ki aksaran jihathoi tasavvufii sherhoi Bedil diqqati payravoni uro ba khud kashidaand. In holatro ham dar bayni shoironi tojikzaboni darbori Umarkhon (dar Huqand) va ham dar ejodiyoti digar shoirone, ki dar Bukhoro, Samarqand, Hujand va soiri shahrho nashunamo yoftaand, metavon mushohida kard [17].

Bo vujudi in, jarayoni bedilizm gayr az muqallidoni kuhnaparast namoyandagoni peshqadami khudro niz sohib bud. Dar bayni payravoni Bedil odamone ham budand, ki badho, dar asri HIH va ibtidoi asri HH ejodiyoti khudro to andozae ba hayoti ijtimoii khalq nazdiktar namuda, goyahoi nisbat ba on zamon mutaraqqiro tablig mekardand. Naqibkhoni Tugral, Asirii Hujandi va Javharii Istaravshani az zumrai chunin shoiron mahsub meyoftand.

Umuman, raviyai demokrati ba nazmi in davra niz roh paydo menamud. CHunonchi, Mirzo Muhammadsodiqi Munshi, ki dar ejodiyoti u ohanghoi ozodfikri va tanqidi zulmu istibdodi hukmronon ehsos meshavad, namoyandai hamin raviya meboshad. Tamoyuli tanqidi sokhti mavjudaro dar ejodiyoti baze shoironi digari Bukhoroi az qabili Irsii hisori, Hijlati Bukhoroi, Rahimi Samarqandi va gayra niz metavon mushohida namud. Dar doirai adabii Huqand misli Gulkhani, Mujrim, Koshif, Madan, hoziq va Makhmur shoirone budand, ki bo maromi ejodiashon az digar muosironi khud tafovut doshtand. SHoira Dilshod, ki monandi bisyor adiboni on zamon asarhoyashro ba du zabon – tojiki va uzbeki ofaridaast, nisbat ba jabru sitam va bedodgarihoi hokimoni feodali va mulozimoni onho hissi nafrat va etiroz bayon menamoyad.

Dar in davra asarhoi oid ba tarikh asosan shakli voqeanigoriro ba khud girifta budand. Lekin dar har surat yak idda sarchashmahoi tarikhi ham ba vujud omadand, ki dar masalai omukhtani hayoti asrhoi HVIII–HIH arzishi ziyode dorand. YAke az in guna sarchashmaho asari Muhammadvafoi Karminagi «Tuhfai khoni» yo khud «Tarikhi Rahimkhoni» ast. In kitob voqeahoi dar bayni solhoi 1721–1767 ruydodaro dar bar megirad. Digar az asarhoi muhimi in davra kitobi Muhammad YAqub «Gulshanu-l-muluk» meboshad, ki dar solhoi sivumi asri HIH navishta shuda, zamoni hukmronii mangithoro to ahdi amir Nasrullo tavsif medihad. Tarikhi khonhoi Huqand dar «Muntakhabu-t-tavorikh» nom asari Muhammad hakimkhon, ki voqeahoi az zamoni hukmronii Norbuta (taqriban s. 1770) to ayyomi saltanati Muhammadalikhonro naql menamoyad, sharhu bayon yoftaast. Asari Mullo Attor «Jahonnamo», ki soli 1810 talif yofta bud, asosan ba munosibati bayni amorati Bukhoro va davlati khonii Huqand bakhshida shudaast. Ilova bar in, doir ba tarikhi davlati khonii Huqand asarhoi digar, az qabili «Tarikhi SHohrukhi»-i Mullo Niyoz Muhammad va «Tarikhi muhojiron»-i Dilshod niz talif yoftaand. Doir ba tarikhi amorati Bukhoro gayr az asari Ahmad Makhdumi Donish «Tarikhchai Bukhoro» hamchunin tarikhi Mullo hamuli (okhiri asri HVIII nimai avvali asri HIH) qobili qayd meboshad.

[1] Behtarin sharhi ijmolii sayohat va ekspeditsiyahoi rusho ba Osiyoi Miyona dar solhoi 1715–1886 talifoti zerin ast: Jukovskiy S.V., 1915; Maslova O.V., 1955, 1956, 1962, 1971.

[2] Mushketov I.V., 1915, s. 126. Baroi tafsili muvaffariyathoi narshabardorii Osiyoi Miyona –nig.: Fedchina V.N., 1967, e. 78–103.

[3] Bartold V.V., 1977, s. 430.

[4] {anuz asari mukammale, ki sahmi dar tahriri Osiyoi Miyona guzoshtai ilmi rusro dar nimai avval va miyonahoi asri HIH bo juziyotash nishon medoda boshad, ba vujud naomadaast: Bayoni mukhtasarai nisbatan boetibor – Bartold V.V., 1925; Krachkovskiy I.YU., 1958.

[5] Mo dar bolo roje ba kushishhoi amironi Afuoniston baroi istilo namudani zaminhoi sohili chapi daryoi Amu, ki peshtar ba davlathoi Osiyoi Miyona taallur doshtand, sukhan ronda budem. Amaliyoti jiddii ishuolgarii feodaloni afuon dar solhoi 50-umi asri HIH, pas az on ki mulkhoi viloyati Balkh ba sifati muzofoti Turkistoni Afuon ba hayati davlati Afuoniston hamroh karda shudand, shuru gardid. Bo vujudi murovimati daleronai tojikon va uzbekon hukumati Afuoniston az on sabab ba in istilo muvaffar shud, ki dar in jo parokandagii feodali hukmfarmo bud, hokimoni mahalli bo ham khusumat varzida, jangu parkhosh mekardand, amorati Bukhoro, ki in mulkho peshtar tobei on budand, khud dar natijai nizohoi feodali zaif gardida, ba in mulkho kumaki jiddii harbi rasonida nametavonist.

[6] Braginskiy I.S., Rajabov S.A., Romodin V.A., 1953, s. 23–26.

[7] Braginskiy I.S., 1955, s. 434.

[8] In bar khilofi aridai baze muallifon (masalan, nig.: Nematov N.N., 1959, s. 71–73) ba kalontarin shahrhoi Osiyoi Miyona, misli Bukhoro niz komilan taallur dorad.

[9] Marks K. i Engels F. Soch., t. 21, s. 407.

[10] Lenin V.I. Asarho, j. 1, s. 163–164.

[11] Marks K. i Engels F. Soch., t. 21, s. 409.

[12] Pugachenkova G.A., Rempel L.I., 1965, s. 376.

[13] Fedchenko A. P., 1875, s. 44.

[14] Pisarchik A. K., 1975, s. 140.

[15] Dar asarhoi jambastkunandai Pugachenkova G.A., Rempel L.I., 1958– 1965; Rempel L.I., 1961, Sukhareva O.A., 1958; 1962; 1966; inchunin dar talifoti digar etnog­rafho madrakhoi khele muhim va jolibi dirrat ovarda shudaand. Dar in bobat digar asarhoi tadrirotii makhsus niz mavjudand, az jumla: Denike B.P., 1928, Lavrov V.A., 1964 Rempel L.I., 1936; 1937; 1960; 1969; Pisarchik A.K., 1937; 1954; 1956; 1970; Andreev M.S., Pisarchik A.K., 1958, Polupanov S., 1937, Kislyakov N.A., 1939; Uulomov YA.U., 1941, Bachinskiy N.M., 1947; Veymarn V.V., 1948, Voronina V. L., 1949; 1951 a; 1951 b; 1953; 1956; 1959 a; Bretaniskiy L.S., 1950; Abdurasulov R.R., 1960; Notkin I.I., 1961; Zohidov P.SH., 1965; 1969; Mukhtorov A., 1965; Ruziev M., 1967 va u. Mo imkon nadorem dar sari natijahoi in tadrirotho radre boshad ham, mufassaltar tavarruf namoem.

[16] Dar maktabhoi tojikii amorati Bukhoro khondani asarhoi shoiri buzurgi uzbek Navoi rasm gardida bud, ki dar bobati ba zaboni hamdigar oshnoi paydo kardani du khalri barodar – tojikonu uzbekon ahamiyati kalone dosht.

[17] Ayni S., 1954; Ayni H.S., 1956; Bedil, 1955.

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