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“SHurishi sipohiyon” va tagyiri idorai mustamlikavii Hinduston

Solhoi 1857 – 1859 dar Hinduston ba muqobili mustamlikadoroni anglis shurishi kalone ba amal omad, ki on bo nomi “SHurishi sipohiyon” mashhur ast. Harchand dar in shurish asosan askaroni anglisii baromadashon az Hinduston shirkat varzidand, vale on dar bayni khalqi in mustamlikai Britaniya khamovozii kalon paydo namud. Anglisho tavassuti askaroni hindustoni ba muqobili khalqi in mamlakat muboriza meburdand va inchunin onhoro dar zabt namudani mustamlikahoi nav istifoda mekardand. Ba mamuriyati mustamlikadorii anglis muyassar gardid, ki bo mushkilii ziyod shurishi sipohiyonro pakhsh kunad. Siyosati peshtarai mustamlikadorii anglis dar Hinduston badi in shurish der davom karda nametavonist, zero on huqukhoi khalqhoi Hindustonro hamatarafa poymol menamud.

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SHurishi khalqii solhoi 1857 – 1859 anglishoro majbur kard, ki ba sistemam mustamlikadorii khud baze tagyirot dokhil namoyand. 2 avgusti soli 1858 parlamenti Angliya dar borai idorai Hinduston qonuni makhsus qabul kard, ki muvofiqi on, idorai in davlat az shirkata Ost-Indiya ba ikhtiyori shohi Angliya guzasht. Molikiyati shirkat az hukumati Angliya shud. Sohiboni sahmiyahoi shirkati Ost-Indiya az hisobi andozdihandagoni hindi jubron karda shudand. Oid ba Hinduston vazorati alohida tashkil doda shud, ki dar nazdi on bo vakolathoi maslihati az jumlai mansabdoroni mustamlikavi SHuroi Hinduston tasis yoft. General-gubernatori anglisi unvoni noibi shohi Angliyaro girift.

Tajribai talkhi shurishi khalqiro ba nazar girifta, solhoi 1860-1861 anglisho dar Hinduston artishi mustamlikaviro az nav sokhtand. Dar on shumorai hayati chuzu tomhoi anglisiro nisbat ba hayati shakhsii juzu tomhoi sipohiyon ziyodtar kardand. Dar kori az hisobi khalqhoi mahalli tashkil kardani dastahoi alohidai artish onho prinsipi bo hamdigar muqobil guzoshtani guruhhoi etniki, kastaho va dinu mazhabro istifoda burdand. Dar barobari in bo maqsadi dar bayni khalqi mahalli takyagoh paydo namudan imkoniyat faroham ovarda shud, ki ashrofzodagoni mahalli dar vazifahoi afsarhoi artishi mustamlikavi khizmat kunand.

Anglisho az siyosati radkunii tabaqahoi boloii feodalii Hinduston dast kashida, ba onho huquqhoi muayyan dodand. Masalan, knyazho khuquq paydo namudand, ki meroskhuri khudro peshaki elon kunand. On azoi tabaqai boloie, ki hangomi shurishi sipohiyon anglishoro dastgiri karda budand, az tarafi mustamlikadoron zaminhoi ziyod tuhfa giriftand. Tavre ki mebinem, ittifoqi feodalhoi hindi bo rejimi mustamlikavi dar khiyonat ba manfiathoi millii Hinduston asos yofta bud. Nazorat az boloi faoliyati knyazihoi tobe tavassuti “departamenti asssi”-i nazdi noibi shoh va namoyandagoni dar poytakhthoi knyazihobudai u ba amal barovarda meshud. Ba in amaldoron juzu tomhoi artishi anglisiyu hindi takyagohi boetimod budand.

Intikhobi rohi bastani ittifoq bo knyazho va zamindoroni feodali qismi tarkibii vase va mustahkam kardani bazai ijtimoii rejimi mustamlikavi bud. Bo hamin maqsad soli 1861 dar nazdi noibi shoh va gubernatorhoi muzofotho shurohoi qonunguzori salohiyati maslihatdoshta tashkil karda shudand. Hayati onho az namoyandagoni tabaqahoi doroi Hindustoni Britaniyai Kabir iborat bud. Musgamdikadoron sistemai dodgohi Hindustonro niz az nav sokhta, onro ba sistemai dodgohi anglisi yak qadar nazdik kunondand.

Tagyirot dar idorai mustamlikavii mamlakat ham ba mustahkam kardani dastgohi davdatii idorai Hinduston va ham baroi tashkil namudani takyagohi mustahkami ijtimoii rejimi mustamlikavi ravona karda shuda bud. Dar nimai duyumi asri XIX tashakkuli dastgohi davdatii idorai Hinduston asosan ba okhir rasid.

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