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Shurishi Mahmudi Torobi

Az solhoi 30-yumi asri KhIII dar bayni aholii vohahoi ziroati va peshavaroni shahr junbishi ziddi zolimoni ajnabi va mahalli shuru gardid. In junbish makhsusan dar Bukhoro purquvvat shud va dar soli 1238 shurishe dar in jo ba amal omad, ki bo nomi «shurishi Mahmudi Torobi» mashhur ast.[1]

Bukhororo asosan namoyandagoni ayon va ashrofi feodalii mahalli (amiron va sadrho), ki dar zulm kardan ba khalq az khonhoi mugul aqib namemondand, idora mekardand. Binobar in, hej joi taajjub nest, ki avvalin dushmani barkhurdai shurishiyon hukmrononi mahallii Bukhoro budand.

Rohbari shurish «Mahmud» nom yake az peshavaroni elakbofi dehai Torob bud. Vay dar kuchahoi Torob va dehahoi atrofi on nutqhoi gazabnok erod karda, ommaro ba muborizai ziddi zulmi istilogaron va tarafdoroni onho davat namud. hukmrononi Bukhoro dar sadadi dastgir kardani u aftodand. Pas az on ki kushishi furu nishondani shurish natijae nabakhshid, onho khostand, ki Mahmudro bo fireb az Torob ba Bukhoro burda, dar on jo ba qatl rasonand va, ba in tariqa, shurishro be rahbar kunand. Lekin Mahmudi Torobi qasdi dushmanro peshaki fahmida, khatari tahdidkunandaro bartaraf namud. U ba Bukhoro tanho narafta, bisyore az payravonashro bo khud girift.

Tarafdoroni purshumori Mahmud dar yake az teppahoi nazdikii shahri Bukhoro jam shudand va Mahmud dar huzuri iddai ziyodi aholii zahmatkash nutq erod namud va mardumro ba muborizai musallahona davat kard. In nutqi Mahmudi Torobi khele muvaffaqiyat paydo kard. hamai aholii mahalhoi atrof omada ba u hamroh shudand. Vaqte ki Mahmud quvvai buzurge jam namud, az ruhoniyon, sadrho va digar namoyandagoni tabaqai hokim talab namud, ki uro khalifa khonand. Namoyandagoni sinfi hokim ba vaziyati tang aftodand: azbaski khalq tamoman ba tarafi shurishiyon guzashta bud, onho ba juz qabul kardani talabi Mahmud digar chorae nadoshtand. Mahmud qasri peshvoi qiyomi khalqi — Malik Sanjarro, ki dar soli 1206 sokhta shuda bud, iqomatgohi khud muqarrar karda, ba ijroi naqshahoyash iqdom namud. Sadrho va soiri namoyandagoni tabaqai hokim az shahr ronda shudand.

Muarrikh Juvayni, ki shurishi Mahmudi Torobiro az mavqei sinfii khud bo nazari manfi tasvir namudaast, dar borai tadbiroti nisbat ba sinfhoi hokim pesh giriftai Mahmud chunin menavisad: «Vay aksariyati odamoni najib va muhtaramro tahqir namud va qismi digari in guruh gurekhta, khudro az u khalos kardand».

Dar ayni zamon Juvayni majbur shudaast etirof namoyad, ki u (Mahmudi Torobi) ba mardumi avom va darbadaroni bekhonumon khayrkhohi mekard… Odamonro ba khonahoi tavongaron mefiristod, ki az on jo khayma va qolin ovarda urdugoh sozand.

Az in sukhanoni Juvayni malum meshavad, ki Mahmud baroi marhilai minbadai muboriza ba tarzi jiddi tayyori medidaast. U ba khubi medonist, ki «buzurgoni» Bukhoro az muqovimat dast namekashand va onho baroi bargardonidani hokimiyati azdastraftai khud, albatta, kushish khohand kard.

Sadrho va digar namoyandagoni tabaqai hokim dar Karmina qaror girifta, bo hamrohii quvvahoi musallahi mugulho niz ba jang omoda megardidand.

Dar nazdikii shahri Bukhoro dar bayni shurishiyon va askaroni mugul muhoribai sakhte ba amal omad. Quvvai shurishiyon khele khub tashkil shuda bud. Onho bo shujoat va mardonagi mejangidand. Mahmudi Torobi shakhsan hamesha dar miyoni korzor bud. Aholii dehahoi atrof bo kaland va tabar musallah shuda, ba kumaki shurishiyon omadand. In khele galabai shurishiyonro teztar namud. Qushuni mugulho va feodaloni mahalli shikast khurda, aqib nishastand. Shurishiyon onhoro to Karmina taqib namuda, aksarashonro nobud kardand. Chunon ki Juvayni tasdiq mekunad, dar in muhoriba 10 hazor kas kushta shud.

Lekin jarayoni muboriza ba zudi tagyir yofta, shurish ba shikast duchor gardid. Peshvo va tashkilkunandai on — Mahmudi Torobi dar nazdikii Karmina kushta shud. Digar az rohbaroni boistedodi shurishiyon, dusti Mahmud – Shamsiddin Mahbubi niz halok gardid. Shurishiyone, ki az sardor mahrum monda va az jihati yaroq kambudi doshtand, chand ruz pas az in voqea komilan maglub gardidand. Aholii Bukhoro va sokinoni atrofi on ba tarzi berahmonae qatlu gorat shudand.

Juvayni dar voqeanomai khud bo har vasila kushish kardaast, ki simoi Mahmudi Torobiro bar khilofi haqiqat nishon dihad. U Mahmudro hamchun yak mardi mutaassibi nimdevona tasvir namuda, meguyad, ki az pasi vay faqat «mardumi avom va darbadar» meraftand. In sukhanoni dushmani sinfii shurishi khalq bori digar ba isbot merasonand, ki junbishi Mahmudi Torobi haqiqatan doroi khususiyathoi khalqi budaast.

Shurishi Mahmudi Torobi na faqat ba muqobili gosiboni mugul va zulmi onho, balki bar ziddi ruhoniyon, tojiron va feodaloni mahalli, ki istilogaronro pushtiboni mekardand, ravona gardida bud. Barzgaron va peshavaron ba in sabab az pasi Mahmud raftand, ki u ba muqobili zulmu jabri nomahdudi tavongaron sar bardoshta, taqsim namudani molu mulki onhoro dar bayni faqiron va benavoyon talab mekard.

Mahmudi Torobi dar asl, bar khilofi Juvayni, ki «odami mutaassibi nimdevona» tasvir mekunad, yak mardi oqili khele shujo bud. U dar rohi manfiati khalq az hej dushvori ru namegardond va nameharosid. Az in jost, ki Mahmudi Torobi dar tarikhi khalqi tojik va digar khalqhoi Osiyoi Miyona maqomi barjastaero ishgol namudaast.

[1] Bartold V.V., 1963 6, s. 545-547; Yakubovskiy A. Yu., 1936, s. 101-135.

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