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SHurishhoi khalqi dar Amorati Bukhoro

Kalontarin junbishi khalqi dar ibtidoi soli 1810 dar Bukhoro rukh doda bud. Az rui malumoti shohidoni voqea zimistoni on sol chunon sard shud, ki to se moh yakh ba miqdori yak kuloch boqi mond. Gandum va javro kullan sarmo zad va narkhi galla nihoyat baland shud. Ilova bar in chunon savoim (chorvo) dar on solho khalok shud, ki hej namond. Narkhi gushtu ravgan niz baland shud. Qarib nisfi mardumi Bukhoro ba har jonib raftand. Gurusnagi va qahti ba miyon omad. Gayr az in dar muzofoti poytakht az 1 mohi aprel to 16 mohi may chunon tufoni sakht vazid, ki yakchand qishloq zeri peg mondand. Sokinoni dehaho dar khatar aftoda majburan ba dehahoi digar kuchidand. In falokat qahti va gurusnagiro duchand gardond. Bozorho kholi monda dukonho basta shudand. Muromurii odam ziyod shud. Duzdi avj girift. Dastahoi duzdon khalqro gorat mekardand va mekushtand. Bukhoro va joyhoi digar tamoman kharob gardid. Darbori amir baroi sabuktar gardonidani vaziyati nihoyat sakhti aholi yagon chorae nadid. Hamai in qahru gazabi khalqro duchand namuda sababi shurish gardid.

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Sokinoni Bukhoro dar maydoni markazii shahr – Registon, dar nazdi qasri amir jam omadand. Amir az qahru gazabi khalq tarsida poytakhtro tark namud. U baroi past namudani gazabi khalq va pakhsh namudani shurish amr namud, ki hamai sokinoni Bukhoro dar muddati se ruz berun az shahr baromada, ba mazori hazrati Bahovaddini Naqshband oyand va namoz khonand.

Honahoi mardumi shahr kholi mondand. Amaldoroni amir khonahoi besohibmondaro koftukov karda, chizu chorai shahriyonro ba yagmo burdand. Onho gallai ehtiyotii baze kasonro ba mardumi gurusna taqsim nakarda, ba narkhi qimat onro furukhtand. Aksariyati mardum puli mekharidagi nadoshtand.

Nihoyat ba amir muyassar meshavad, ki bo quvvai yaroq shurishro pakhsh kunad va dar poytakhti khud vazi nisbatan mutadil barqaror namoyad. Gurusnagi va qahti digar nohiyahoi az poytakht durro niz faro girift. Dar in bora shohidi hodisa Mullo Jumaquli Urguti, mutakhallis ba Humuli, zimistoni soli 1810, ba nohiyai Panjakent, dehai YOri omada, mushohidaashro ba tavri zayl ba rishtai nazm kashidaast:

SHab hama shab chashmi aspam bahri yak jav meparid.

Hostam bar didaash kohe niham, paydo nashud.

SHuru oshubhoi khalqi dar amorati Bukhoro solhoi 1819­1820 niz ba vuqu omada budand.

Junbishi kaloni khalqi soli 1821 dar qismati miyonai vodii Zarafshon, bayni Samarqandu Bukhoro (dar Miyonkol) ba amal omad. Dar in jo toifai nimkuchii uzbek-khitoyqipchoqho zindagi mekardand. Sol az sol ziyodshavii andozho, ba khizmati harbi safarbar kardani miqdori ziyodi mardoni qabilaho – hamai in yakjoya sababi bevositai shurish gasht. Soli 1821 hukumat dubora ba sarbozi odam giriftanro cap kard. In amaliyot khitoyqipchoqhoro majbur sokht, ki ba shurishi oshkoro barkhezand. Qaraqalpoqhoi sokinoni in mahal niz ba shurishchiyon hamroh shudand. Tamomi toifai nohiyahoi bayni Samarqandu Kattaqurgon ba zeri livoi shurishgaron daromadand. SHurishchiyon mamuroni amirro ronda, Kattaqurgon, CHalak, YAngiqurgon va joyhoi digarro zabt namudand. Kambagaloni in joyho ba safi shurishgaron dokhil shudand. Ayonu ashrof baroi kumak ba amir ru ovardand. Amir Haydar borho kushish namud, ki qalai khitoyqipchoqho CHalakro ba dast darovarda, shurishro pakhsh kunad. Vale kushishhoi u chandin sol be oqibat mondand. Hitoyqipchoqho khostand ba Bukhoro zarba zanand, vale ba in muvaffaq nashudand. SHurishchiyon kushish kardand, ki dehqononi nohiyahoi gunogunro ba tarafi khud kashand. In ham nashud.

Dar hamin vaziyat soli 1825 amir Haydar muhimtarin nuqtahoi muqovimati shurishchiyonro ishgol namud. Dar pakhsh kardani shurishi khitoyqipchoqho ba amir josusoni anglis, ki on vaqt dar Bukhoro budand va yaroqi otashfishoni baroi aholii mahalli nomalumro ba kor burdand, yori rasondand.

Soli 1826 shurishi mardumi Samarqand rukh dod, ki on ham ba nokomi anjomid.

Dar solhoi 1840-1842 munosibat bayni amorati Bukhoro va davlati khonii Huqand khele tezu tund gardid. Amir Nasrullo lashkar kashida to qalai Mahram dokhili hududi Huqand gasht. Poytakhti khoni zeri khavf bud. Muhammadalikhon baroi nigoh doshtani davlatu savlati khud bo amir ba sozish omad. Muvofiqi on Hujand zeri itoati amorati Bukhoro guzasht. Amir meboist khiroji mulki yaksolai Huqandro sohib shavad.

Bad az du soli in voqea dar Huqand shurish ba amal omad. Sardori shurishchiyon Hoja Qalandari misgar bud. Hazoron kambagaloni shurishgar bo sardorii in mardi shujo poytakhti mamlakatro ishgol namudand. Onho manzilhoi amaldoroni khonro ba khok yakson kardand. Amaldoroni nizomi va gayrinizomi ba gushaho pinhon shudand. Sipas shurishchiyon darbori khonro ihota namudand. Doirahoi hukmron faqat bo makru fireb va dushvorihoi ziyode tavonistand, ki in shurishro furu nishonand.

Barodari khoni Huqand Sulton Mahmudkhon az tarafi amir hokimi Hujand tain shuda bud. Badi ba Bukhoro bargashtani amir Nasrullo ba miyonravii modarash Nodira firefta gashta, bo barodarash Muhammadali zaboi yak kard. Hujand az tasarrufi Bukhoro baromada az nav ba Huqand tobe gasht.

SHurishi khalqi dar Hujand va khoinii Sulton Mahmudkhon nisbat ba amiri Bukhoro sabab shud, ki Nasrullo soli 1842 bori digar lashkar kashida poytakhti khonigari – Huqandro ishgol namoyad. Pas az ishgoli khonigari u tamomi ahli khonavodai khonro ba qatl rasonid. Huqand tobei Bukhoro gasht.

Mansabdoroni amiri Bukhoro dar Huqand mardumro majbur namudand, ki natanho hamai andozhoi dar amorati Bukhoro muqarrargardidaro suporand, balki bar zammi in talab namud, ki az chor yak hissai hosilro ba khazinai davlat bidihand. Mardumi Huqand az in khudsariho ba dod omada budand. Onho bo qabilai qipchoq zabon yak karda, ba sari hokimiyat SHeralikhonro ovardand. Dar natijai shurishi khalqi hokimiyati amiri Bukhoro barham khurd. Sarbozoni Bukhoro bo amaldoronash qatl gardidand. Hokimi az tarafi amir tainshuda rohi gurezro pesh girift.

Muborizai sinfi dar nohiyahoi judogonai kuhistoni Pomiri Garbi ham bo shiddati tamom davom mekard. Dar ibtidoi solhoi 60 dehqononi SHugnon, Rushon va Vakhon shurish bardoshtand, ki ba on SHaykhzodai Rushoni sardori namud. SHurishgaron nishemangohi Miri Rushon – Qalai Vomarro ba dast darovardand. Sipas onho ba sui qarorgohhoi miri SHugnon Qalai Barpanja harakat karda, askarhoi onro torumor namudand. Tamomi doroii hokimon dar bayni dehqonon taqsim karda shud. In shurish, faqat pas az on ki hukmroni kulli Badakhshon ba Pomiri Garbi quvvai ziyodi harbi firistod, shikast khurd.

CHunonki dida meshavad, oshubhoi aholi ham dar shahru ham dar dehot ba amal meomadand. In junbishho ba tavri parokanda va gayrimutashakkil cap mezadand va davom mekardand. Hamai shurishho khususiyati mahalli doshtand, tamomi khoki davlati khoniro faro namegiriftand. Maqsadhoi asosii shurishgaron barham dodani suistemol va noinsofihoi az had ziyodi namoyandagoni hokimiyati davlati, az sari kor dur kardani hokimoni judogona, behtar kardani ahvoli moddi va amsoli inho budand.

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