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SHurishhoi gulomon bo sardorii N. Terner va J. Braun

Dar solhoi 30-yumi asri XIX masalai gulomdori dar hayoti jamiyatii IMA yake az masalahoi jiddie gardid, ki halli onro rafti taraqqiyoti in mamlakat taqozo mekard.

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Gulomon dar IMA borho shurish bardoshtaand. YAke az shurishi kalontarini gulomon dar soli 1831 bo sardorii gulom Nata Terner dar iyolati Virchiniya ba amal omadaast. Gulomoni shurishbardoshta bo dosu tabar musallah shuda, ba plantatorho hamla mekardand. Hukumatdoron bar ziddi ki shurishgaron sipohiyon firistodand. Dar natijai jangi nobarobar bo sarbozoni hukumati shurishgaron shikast khurdand. Hukumatdoroni IMA rohbari shurishchiyon N. Terner va boz 17 nafar shptirokchiyoni digari faoli shurishro ba qatl rasondand.

Az solhoi 30-yum cap karda harakat baroi ozod kardani gulomon dar IMA khele purzur shud. In harakat bo nomi “abolitsionizm” (“ozodkuni”) mashhur shud. Sobiq gulom F. Duglas, ki ozodii khudro kharida bud va U. Garrison arboboni mashhuri in harakat budand. Onho tamomi umr hayoti khudro baroi ozod kardani gulomon bakhshidaand. Garrison soli 1832 hatto “Jamiyati navi Angiya baroi muboriza bar ziddi gulomdori”-ro tashkil kard va inchunin majallai “Libreyter”-ro (“Ozodkunanda”) chop mekard. On solho hazoron nafar muborizon monda nashuda kor meburdand, to ki dar IMA gulomdori barham doda shavad. Vale dar in mamlakat muqobiloki barhamdihii gulomdori niz kam nabudand. Gulomon digar oromu khotirjam namenishastand. Onho ham ba muboriza barkhostand. Soli 1859 bo sardorii Jon Braun shurishi kaloni digari gulomon ba amal omad.

Jon Braun soli 1800 dar oilai fermere, ki dar jangi istiqloliyatkhohi halok gardida bud, tavallud shudaast. U chorvodor bud. Hanuz dar ovoni kudaki bo chashmoni khud dida bud, ki gulomdor chi tavr gulombachaero to murdanash zada bud.

Jon Braun, vaqte ki ba voya rasid, ba harakati abolitsionistho dokhil gardid. Bo hamrohii pisaronash dar jangi mulkii dar Kanzas baamalomada ishtirok kardaast. Jon Braun borho zangihoi gurezaro ba SHimol guselonida, bo hamin roh onhoro az gulomi ozod kardaast.

Jon Braun dastai nachandon kalonero iborat az 32 nafar tashkil kard. Dar hayati on se pisarash ham bud. 17 oktyabri soli 1859 in dasta dar shahrchai Harpers-Ferrii iyolati Virchiniya ba anbori kaloni siloh hujum karda, onro be khunrezi ishgol namud. Jon Braun bovari dosht, ki shurishro mardum dastgiri khohad kard. Vale khayoli u rost nabaromad. Dere naguzashta anborro lashkari hukumati muhosira kard. Harchand dastai Braun alayhi nerui davlati muqobiliyati sakht nishon dod, oqibat shikast khurd. Qarib hamai shurishchiyon halok gardidand. Brauni zakhmdori dar zanbar khunoludkhobidaro dodgoh ba qatl (tariqi ba dor ovekhtan) hukm kard. J. Braun dar khatchai pesh az margash navishta bud: ”Man, Jon Braun, aknun purra bovari khosil kardam, ki tanho khun qodir ast jinoyati buzurgi in mamlakati purgunohro shuyad. Ba khayolam khudro behuda tasallo medodam, ki guyo in korro be khunrezii ziyodati ham ba jo ovardan mumkin ast”.

SHurishi Jon Braun mardumro ba shurishi navi ziddi gulomdoron tela medod. Az qatli Jon Braun millionho amerikoiho, bakhusus gulomonu hinduho va abolitsionistho gamgin shuda, ashki motam rekhtand.

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