Home / Gunogun / SHoli – iroati mazruii qadima

SHoli – iroati mazruii qadima

SHoli ziroati khele qadima buda, mansubi oilai khushadorho ast. Vay ba nami va garmi ehtiyoji nihoyat kalon dorad. Hamagi 19 namudi sholi malum ast, ki qismi ziyodashon rastanihoi khudruy meboshand. Aksari onho dar mintaqahoi tropiki pahn shudaand.

SHolii mazrui rastanii yaksola ast. Poyai (khaspoyai) boriki rost dorad. Az 50 to 120 sm qad mekashad. Bargi sholi neshtarshakl buda, gulhoi dujinsaash dar khushaguli jorubak joygirand.

SHoli rastanii khudgardoludshavanda ast. Donash az berun bo jildi durusht pushida shudaast va 2-5 foizi onro janin va 17- 22 foizi vaznashro jild yo parda tashkil medihad. Dar tarkibi donash (az rui vazni khushkash) 75 foiz ohar, 7 foiz safeda va taqriban 0,5 foiz ravgan dorad.

SHoli rastanii garmiparvar buda, tukhmash dar harorati +11°S nesh zada, dar harorati +20 to 35°S garmi nagz nashunamo mekunad. Inchunin, sholi ba ob talaboti khele kalon dorad, khususan, dar davrai khushabandiash. Binobar on, onro hamesha dar palhoi obdor mekorand. CHi tavre ki mutakhassisoni sohai kishovarzi qayd mekunand, baroi nashunamoi khubi sholi namnokii havo boyad 70— 80 foiz boshad. Hususan, sholi dar gilkhokkhoi sohil (ba kanorhoi daryo nazdik), ki namiro khub nigoh medorand va az moddahoi organiki boy hastand, nagz nashunamo mekunad. SHibarzamin, regkhok va shurakhok baroi kishti sholi muvofiq nestand.

Solhoi okhir navhoi khushkitobovari sholi ba vujud ovarda shudaand, ki dar talu teppahoi kamob ba tavri lalmi koshta mesha- vand.

SHoli ziroati doroi ahamiyati kaloni gizoi meboshad. Dar Hinduston sholiro ziroati “baqobakhshandai nasli insoniyat” menomand. Zero dar bisyor mamlakathoi qitai Osiyo sholi yake az ziroathoi asosii gizoi ba hisob meravad. Taqriban yak milliard nafar aholii rui Zamii birinjro hamchun masolehi asosii khuroki istifoda mebarand.

Maydonhoi asosii kishti sholi beshtar dar Hinduston, Birma, Hitoy, YAponiya, Koriyo va digar mamlakathoi Osiyoi Janubi va SHarqi joygirand.

SHoli yake az ziroathoi qadimtarini sarzamini tojikon niz ba hisob rafta, onro hanuz 2 — 3 hazor sol pesh az milod dar qatori digar ziroathoi foidanok parvarish mekardand.

Az sholi birinj megirand va az on taomhoi gunoguni laziz mepazand. Hususan, dar bayni mardumi Osiyoi Miyona birinji zudhazmshavandai devzira khele mamul ast.

Dar miqyosi jahon navhoi ziyod va gunoguni sholi ba vujud ovarda shudaand, ki vobasta ba sharoithoi gunoguni mahal kishtukor karda meshavand. Dar Tojikiston beshtar navhoi UzRos-7-13, UzROS-59, VROS-3716, Uzbeki-5, Kros-358, navhoi mahallii ar- pasholi va kirmiziro parvarish mekunand.

Masohati sholizori jumhuri sol az sol meafzoyad. Hosilnokii har gektar sholizor ba hisobi miyona 32—34 sentnerro tashkil medihad. Vale dar baze khojagihoi peshqadam to 60 — 70 sentneri hosil meruyonand.

Nohiyahoi asosii sholikorii jumhuriamon nohiyahoi Panjakent, Nov, Bobojon Gafurov, Isfara, Farkhor, Kolkhozobod va aksari nohiyahoi vodii zarkhezi Hisor ba hisob meravand. Dar mintaqahoi kuhii jumhuriamon sholi kisht karda nameshavad.

Vobasta ba sharoiti iqlimii har yak nohiya, sholiro az avvalhoi mohi aprel to nimai duyumi mohi may kisht mekunand. Meyori tukhmi sholiro vobasta ba navi sholi mutakhassison 160—170 kg (ba- roi sholii maydadon) va 180-200 kg (baroi sholii kalondon) ba har gektar zamin muqarrar kardaand.

Zamini baroi kishti sholi intikhobkardashudaro tiramoh shud- gor mekunand, dar fasli bahor boshad, pesh az kisht onro ba chuqu- rii 18-20 sm narm karda, mola mekashand. Badi zaminro narm kardanu hamvor namudan, pal mebardorand. To paydo shudani maysaho palro ba chuqurii 8—10 sm va minbad ba chuqurii 12—15 sm bo ob pur mekunand. Va in sathi obro to pukhta rasidani sholy nigoh medorand. Dar davrai nashunamoi sholi ba har yak gektar sholizor 100-150 kg nurihoi fosfordor, 120-150 kg nurihoi nit- rogendor va 60—100 kg nurihoi kaliydor meandozand.

Birinjro na tanho baroi gizo, inchunin dar sanoat ba tavri vase istifoda mebarand. Masalan, az birinji maydai on ohar istehsol mekunand. Jushobi oharro dar tib baroi tabobati kasalihoi medayu ruda, khudi oharro boshad, baroi tayyor kardani upo (pudra) istifoda mebarand. Az pakholi sholi boshad, navhoi beh- tarini kogaz, sabad, band, kallapushi khasin va gayra tayyor meku- nand.

  1. Sokhti guli sholi chi guna ast?
  2. Dar tarkibi tukhmi sholi kadom moddaho mavjudand?
  3. Navhoi beshtar mamuli sholiro nombar kuned.
  4. SHoliro beshtar dar kadom mamlakathoi jahon parvarish mekunand?
  5. SHoli dar hayoti inson chi ahamiyat dorad?
  6. Baroi koshtani sholi kadom chorabinihoro guzarondan lozim ast?
Загрузка...

Dar boramon

Инчунин кобед

Kitobi Rudaki

Maqomi voloi sher, hunari ofarandagi va khizmathoi buzurgi adabii Ustod Rudakiro bisyor shoironi qarnhoi jahorum …