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Sokht va faoliyati hayotii bakteriyaho

Avvalho bakteriya va zanburughoro ba olami nabotot dokhil karda budand. Vale khususiyathoi farqkunandai in guruhi organizmho (sokht, shakl va jabhahoi faoliyati hayotiashon)-ro ba nazar girifta, aknun onhoro hamchun olami mustaqili organizmhoi zinda meomuzand.

Sokhti hujayrai bakteriya
Sokhti hujayrai bakteriya

Bakteriyaho organizmhoi khurdi mikroskopii yakhujayragi meboshand. Dar bakteriyaho resha, poya, barg va digar uzvho dida nameshavand. Onhoro faqat dar zeri mikroskop didan imkonpazir ast. Vobasta ba shakli hujayraashon bakteriyaho zohiran gunogunand.

Onho girdshakl yo kuramonand (kokkho), chubakmonand (masa- lan, bakteriyai chubakshakli khasbeda), vergulmonand (vibrion) va spiralmonand meshavand. Aksari bakteriyaho dar makhdul yo muhiti gizogi zanjirvor yo guruh-guruh payvast shuda, dar sathi boloi on (yane muhiti gizoi) anbuhi pardamonandi bakteriyahoi in yo on namudro ba vujud meovarand

Hujayrai bakteriyaho az berun bo jildi purquvvat ihota gardidaast, ki ba tufayli on onho sokhti doimiashonro nigoh medorand. Bakteriyaho az rui tarkibi khimiyavi va sokhti jildi hujayraashon az hujayrahoi paydoishashon rastanigi va hayvonoti ba kulli farq mekunand. Dar huchayrai bakteriyaho yadroi haqiqi dida nameshavad. Moddahoi baroi yadro khos dar sitoplazmai hujayrai bakteriya ba tavri pahnu pareshon joygirand.

Dar bisyor bakteriyaho qamchinak dida meshavad va bakteriyaho tavassuti on harakat mekunand. Qamchinakho khele borik buda, dar sathi hujayrai bakteriya ba tavri gunogun joygirand. Qamchinakho yaktogi yo ba shakli bandcha (ki az mikdori ziyodi qamchinak iborat ast) dar qismi nugii tanai bakteriya joy giriftaand. Bazan mikdori ziyodi qamchinakho tamomi sathi hujayrai bakteriyaro faro giriftaast. Dar aksari bakteriyaho miqdori qamchinakho doimi nestand. Mikdori kamchinakho vobasta ba sharoiti zist va muhiti gizoi metavonad tagyir yobad. Dar baze holatho hujayrai bakteriya metavonad qamchinakashro partoyad yo onro az sari nav paydo kunad.

Afzoishi bakteriyaho bo rohi ba du taqsim shudani har yak hujayra meguzarad. Dar natijai taqsimshavi az yak hujayra du hujayrai nav (dukhtari)-i bakteriya hosil meshavad. Dar sharoi- ti baroi afzoish musoid taqsim- shavii hujayrai bakteriyaho badi har nim soat ba amal meoyad. Dar natijai chunin afzoishi bosurat nasli bavujudomadai yak bakteriya dar muddati 5 shabonaruz metavonad tamomi uqyonusu bahrhoro pur kunad. Lekin dar tabiat in hodisa ba amal nameoyad. Zero bakteriyaho az khushkshavi, narasidani moddahoi gizoi, harorati baland (65-85°S garmi), az tasiri nuri oftob va digar moddahoi tamizkunanda (dezinfeksioni) zud nobud meshavand.

Guruhi muayyani bakteriyaho (bakteriyahoi chubakshakl, baze bakteriyahoi kurashakl) khususiyati hosil kardani sporaro dorand. Dar sharoiti baroi bakteriya nomuvofiq (nabudani moddai gizoy, nami, yakuyakbora tagyiryobii harorat) sitoplazmai hujayra fushurda shuda, az jild dur gashta, ba darun lunda mezanad. Sipas vay az hujayra berun nashuda, jildi navi mustahkamro dar khud paydo mekunad. CHunin lundai girdshakli paydoshudaro spora menomand. CHunin tarzi sporahosilshaviro usuli afzoish donistan nashoyad. Dar ii holat sporahosilkuni khususiyati muhofizati doshta, vay yak nav mutobiqati hujayrai bakteriya nisbat ba sharoiti nomusoidi muhiti zist meboshad. Hamin ki sharoiti musoid faroham omad, hujayrai bakteriya az spora ozod shuda, faoliyati hayotiashro ido- ma medihad.

Vazu faoliyati hayotii bakteriyaho baso gunogun ast. Agar ak- sari onho be oksigeni havo zindagi va afzoish karda’natavonand, baraks guruhi digari bakteriyahoe vomekhurand, ki ba oksigeni havo ehtiyoj nadorand.

Az rui shaklu tabiati gizogiri bakteriyaho ba guruhi organizmhoi avtotrofi va geterotrofi judo meshavand (“avto”-khudam, “trof”- gizo; “getero”-harkhela guftan ast). Bakteriyahoi avtotrofi dar tabiat kam vomekhurand. Onho chunin bakteriyahoe meboshand, ki khudashon moddahoi organikii baroi gizogiriashon darkoriro az moddahoi gayriorganiki dar ravandi fotosintezi bakteriyavi hosil mekunand. Ba onho organizmkhoi sabzu kabudtob yo sianobak- teriyaho misol shuda metavonand. Dar zamonhoi qadimi dur ba tufayli faoliyati hayotii in organizmho saravval oksigen dar havoi rui Zamin paydo va ziyod shud.

Bakteriyahoi geterotrofi dar navbati khud ba guruhi saprofitho (az kalimai yunoni “sapro”-pusida), ki az moddahoi tayyori orga- nikii organizmhoi murdai nabotot, hayvonot, mikroorganizmho va yo az mahsuloti ikhrojkardai onho gizo megirand va guruhi bakte- riyahoi paraziti (yo tufaylikhur), ki az moddahoi organikii mav- judoti zinda gizo megirand, judo meshavand.

Bakteriyahoi ba tavri paraziti zindagikunanda dar tabiat va- se pahn shudaand. CHunin bakteriyahoi parazitie mavjudand, ki dar badani (jismi) namudi digari bakteriyai parazit tufaylikhuri :me– kunand. Inchunin, bisyor bakteriyahoi paraziti organizmhoi kasa– liangezand. Onho sababgori bisyor kasalihoi gunoguni nabotOt. hayvonot va odamon meshavand.

  1. Hujayrai bakteriya chi guna sokht dorad?
  2. Az rui shaklashon bakteriyaho chi khel meshavand?
  3. Bakteriyaho chy tavr afzoish mekunand?
  4. Spora chi tavr hosil meshavad va on dar hayoti bakteriya chi ahamiyat dorad?
  5. Az rui gizogiri bakteriyahoro ba kadom guruhho judo mekunand?
  6. Bakteriyahoi saprofiti az bakteriyahoi paraziti bo chi farq mekunand?
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