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Sokht va afzoishi chilband

CHilband yo chilbugum giyohi bisyorsola buda, chun sarakhsshaklon rastanihoi khele qadima ba khisob meravand. Onho takriban 32 namudro tashkil doda, dar bisyor mamlakathoi jahon, ba juz Avstraliya va Zelandiyai Nav, meruyand. Dar Tojikiston du namudi on chilbandi sahroi va shokhronda mesabzad. Balandii poyai chilbaclindho az 80 to 100 sm buda, gafsiashon ba 2-5 millimetr merasad. Lekin darozii poyai namoyandagoni tropikii onho to 10-13 metr meshavad.

Poya va navdahoi chilband az bandhoDar misoli chilbandi sahroi ba sokht va tarzi hayotguzaronii- chilbandho shinos meshavem. CHilbandi sahroi dar aksari nohiyahoi Tojikiston, ba juz Pomiri SHarqi, nashunamo mekunad. Vay dar joyhoi sernam, margzorho, kanori juybor, sohili daryo va yo ham- chun alafi begona dar kishtzorho vomekhurad.

CHilbandi sahroi reshapoyai shokhrondai ba bandho (bugumho) taksimshuda dorad. Az bugumhoi reshapoya reshahoi ilovagi va hatto bazan lundaho paydo meshavand, ki dar on lundaho ohar (krakhmal) zakhira shudaast. Reshapoya to chuqurii 150 sm resha meronad . Az reshapoya du nav poya mesabzad. YAkeash poyai shokhnarondai sporaovar (poyai samaraovar) va digarash poyai nashvii shokhronda (besamar).

Poyai sporaovari chilband, ki onro inchunin poyai bahori ham menomand (zero dar avvali bahor numu mekunad), rangi surkhtob, bur yo zardtob doshta, serob meboshad. In poya vazifai spora- paydokuniro ijro mekunad va badi rekhtani sporaho zud khushk meshavad. Poyai nashvii shokhronda khlorofill doshta, rangash sabz ast. Dar on ravan- di fotosintez meguzarad va in poyai nashvi to okhiri tiramoh nashunamo mekunad.

Poya va navdahoi chilband az bandho yo bugumho iboratand. Az in sabab onho nomi chilbandro girifta- and. Dar har yak bandi poya va navdai chilband az 6 to 12 bargchahoi pulakchamonand mavjudand.

Dar nimai fasli bakhor sporahoi pukhtarasida az khushai spora- dor berun rekhta, tavassuti shamol pahn meshavand. Sporaho ba sha- roiti musoid aftoda, ba sabzish shuru mekunand. Az sporai sabzidaistoda, ba monandi sarakhsho, saravval pahnaki mayda inki- shof meyobad. Pahnak, ki navniholi chilband ba hisob meravad, bo rizoidhoi khud ba khok chaspida, mustaqilona mesabzad. Dar navniholi chilband uzvi jinsii mardona — anteridiya bo nutfa va arkhe- goniya (uzvi jinsii zanona) bo hujayratukhm tashakkul meyoband. Barobari pukhta rasidani nutfaho, anteridiya kushoda shuda, nutfaho az on berun meshavand. Nutfaho dar ob shino karda (dar vaqti boron, shabnami pagohiruzi) ba arkhegoniya omada merasand. YAke az nutfaho ba arkhegoniya vorid gardida, hujayratukhmi onro bordor mekunad. Az khujayratukhmi bordorshuda zigota (janin) inkishof me- yobad. Saravval, janin az navnihol gizo girifta, badi paydo shudani reshai purquvvat ba khok chuqurtar dokhil shuda, ba hayoti mustaqilona shuru mekunad va ba chilbandi barkamol tabdil meyobad.

CHilband giyohi dorugii khele qadima ast. Dar tibbi YUnoni Qadim onro baroi tabobati kasalihoi pust istifoda meburdand. Mardumi tojik boshad, chilbandro az qadimulayyom baroi tabobati isholi khunin, zakhmi meda, khunpartoi, iltihobi shush va gayraho istifoda mebarad.

Abuali ibni Sino bo giyohi chilband bemoronro az zakhmu jaro- hat, obkhuri, khunravi, isholi khunin tabobat mekard.

  1. CHilband chi guna sokht dorad?
  2. Dar chilbandi sahroi chand khel poya paydo meshavad?
  3. Bargi chilband az bargi sarakhs chi farq dorad?
  4. CHilband chi tavr afzoish mekunad?
  5. CHilbandro baroi tabobati kadom kasaliho istifoda mebarand?
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