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Sokhti tukhmi rastanihoi dupalla va yakpalla

SHinosoiro bo hayoti rastani az omuzishi sokhti tukhm (don) va sabzishi on ogoz mekunem.Mebinem, ki doni lubiyo kalon buda, agar yak tarafi donash barjasta boshad, tarafi digari on furukhamida meboshad.

Rui don bo pusti suftai jilodor ihota gardidaast. Pust tukhmro az khushkshavi va digar osebho muhofizat mekunad. Pusti tukhmi lubiyo safed, qahvarangi banur, khol-khol yo digar khel meshavad. Dar tarafi furukhamidai doni lubiyo chok yo darz (yane izi dumchai tukhm) namudor ast, ki tavassuti on tukhm ba mevaparda (gilofak) payvast shudaast.

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Agar az doni lubiyoi peshaki dar ob tarkardashuda pustashro judo kunem, dar zeri pust janin namoyon meshavad. Janin az du tukhmpalla, reshacha, poyacha va mugjacha iborat ast. Dar tukhmpallai kalon va gafsshuda moddahoi gizoi zakhira meshavand.

Reshacha, poyacha va mugjacha dar bayni du tukhmpalla joygirand. Andozai onho chunon khurd ast, ki onhoro faqat bo purbin didan mumkin ast. Sokhti doni nakhud, mushung va tukhmi digar lubiyogiho niz chunin ast. Ammo dar baze digar rastaniho, turbkohak va jag- jag (jajak) moddahoi gizoi na tanho dar tukhmpalla, balki dar digar juzhoi janin-reshacha va poyacha yo poyontar az tukhmpalla niz zakhira meshavand .

Rastanihoi guldorero, ki janini onho doroi du tukhmpallaand, rastanihoi dupalla menomand. Masalan, zardolu, shaftolu, seb, sabzi, bodom, kadu, oftobparast (vartoj), chinorak (chakamug), bulut va khoshkhosh (kuknor) az jumlai onhoand.

Sokhti tukhmi ziroati galladona (gandum, jav, javdor, juvorimak- ka va gayraho) digar khel ast. Tukhmi gandumro, ki don yo mevai khushk mehisoband, dida mebaroem. Doni darozruyai gandumro mevapardai zardi tillorang pushidaast. Mevaparda bo pusti don chunon jafs eabzidaast, ki onhoro az ham judo kardan nomumkin ast .

Agar doni gandumro ba darozi burem, mebinem, ki qismi ziyodi °n az endospermi ordmonande iborat ast, ki hujayrahoyash mod- Dakhoi gizoii zakhiravi dorand.

Janini doni gandum khele khurd buda, onro faqat bo yorii purbin didan mumkin ast. Vay ham ba monandi janini lubiyo reshacha,

poyacha va mugjacha dorad. Ammo tukhmpallaash yakto ast. Vay ba pah- naki tunuk monand buda, ba endosperm jafs joy giriftaast va dar on moddahoi gizoi zakhira nameshavand 20 . Dar vaqti sabzishi don moddahoi gizoi az hujayrahoi endosperm tavassuti tukhmpalla ba janin meguzarand. Rastanihoero, ki janini onho yak tukhmpalla dorad, rastanihoi yakpalla menomand.

Dar tukhmi digar rastanihoi yakpalla ham, masalan, piyoz, zufi oby va guli livondar (landish) endosperm hast. Ammo endospermi onho misli endospermi gandum va galladonagihoi digar dar yak tarafi on joygir pabuda, balki janinro purra faro giriftaast 2:1 .

Hamin tavr, tukhm pust va janin dorad. Janini rastanihoi du- palla doroi du tukhmpalla buda, moddahoi gizoi odatan dar khudi janin (dar tukhmpallaash) zakhira meshavand. Janini rastanihoi yakpalla faqat yak tukhmpalla dorad, moddahoi gizoi odatan dar endospermi tukhm (don) joygirand.

  1. Sokhti doni lubiyo chi guna ast?
  2. Moddahoi gizoi dar kujoi doni lubiyo, turbkohak va chinorak zakhira shudaand?
  3. Kadom rastanihoro rastanihoi dupalla menomand?
  4. Sokhti doni gandum chi tavr ast?
  5. Janini rastanihoi yakpalla chi khel sokht dorad?
  6. Tukhmi lubiyo ba tukhmi gandum az chi jihat monand ast?
  7. Rastanihoi yakpalla va dupallai ba SHumo malumro nombar kuned.

 

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